Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Names of the Rivers and the Mountains

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Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Tej Ram Sharma

Concept Publishing Company Delhi, 1978

The full text of this chapter has been converted into Wiki format by Laxman Burdak

Names of the Rivers and the Mountains

The Rivers

1. Ganga (गंगा) (No. 1, L. 31, No. 13, L. 16) :

In Inscription No. 1 Samudragupta's fame has been compared with the pale yellow water of the river Ganga, which travelling by many paths, purifies the three worlds, flowing quickly on being liberated from confinement in the thickets of the matted hair of (the) god Pashuupati. 1 In the Mandasor inscription of Yasodharman and Vishnuvardhana 2 it is stated that when the river Ganga was about to descend from heaven to earth, in order to break the force of its fall, god Siva (Pashupati) received it in the matted hair (जट) coiled above his forehead and projecting like a horn; its waters wandered there for a thousand years, before they eventually reached the earth.

In Inscription No. 13, we get a reference to Ganga in the context of Skandagupta's fight with the Hunas, the noise of which was heard like the roaring of (the river) Ganga, making itself noticed in their ears. 3

A. C. Woolner 4 remarked that the name Ganga does not seem to have a convincing derivation on the Aryan side. But we do find the word in the Unadi affixes. The affix Gan comes after the root Gam 'to go' and the word Ganga is formed. 5

The earliest mention of Ganga is in the Rgveda. 6 The name also occurs in the Satapatha Brahmana 7 and the Taittiriya Aranyaka. 8 We find it also in Patanjali's Mahabhasya, 9 and in Kalidasa's Raghuvamsa. 10 It is mentioned many times in the Puranas 11 in which a good deal of religious importance is attached to it. 12

The Ganga emerges first in the Gangotri in the district of

294 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Garhwal and proceeds in different courses from Hardwar to Bulandshahar and from Allahabad to Rajmahal from where it enters Bengal. 13

2. Hachata Ganga (हचात गंगा)(No. 52, L. 31) :

We find the mention of Hachata Ganga in inscription No. 52, but it is difficult to identify it. It may, however, be remarked here that the word Ganga is to be taken in the sense of a river. 14

3. Jambunadi (जम्बूनदी) (No. 37, L. 17) :

Sen considers it to be the name of a river. 15 It has been described as the name of one of the seven arms of the heavenly Ganga. 16 We also know of a Jambunadi as a vithi in the Gaya Visaya mentioned in the Nalanda plate of Dharmapaladeva. 17

4. Kalindi (कालिन्दी) (No. 18 L. 3) :

According to the inscription in the reign of Budhagupta, his feudatory, Maharaja Surasmicandra was governing the country lying between the river Kalindi and Narmada. 18 Kalindi is the same as the river Yamuna. 19 The Yamuna has got its source from the Kalindadesa, a mountainous country situated in the Bandarapuccha range or the Himalaya and hence the river is called Kalindl. 20 In the Puranas we get the earlier mention of Kalindi by both the names, Kalindi as well as Yamuna. 21 The Kalindi is also mentioned in the Sisupalavadha of Maga. 22

5. Narmada (नर्मदा) (No. 18, L. 3) :

The above-mentioned inscription describes reign of Maharaja Surasmichandra, a feudatory of Budhagupta, as governing over the area between the rivers Kalindi and Narmada. 23 This is one of the earliest inscriptional references to the river Narmada. 24 It is mentioned as Narmados by Ptolemy. 25 No express reference to the Narmada can be traced in the Vedic literature. But the knowledge of the river is implied in the reference to a chief Revottaras mentioned in the Satapatha Brahmana. 26 We find from the Amarakosa 27 that Reva is another name of the river Narmada. It is likely that the name of the chief was derived from his association with the river. 28 The Raghuvamsa speaks of Mahishmati as the capital of Anupa on the bank of the Reva (i. e. Narmada). 29 It has been mentioned several times in the Mahabharata and the

Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 295

Puranas. 30 The Visnupurana says that by chanting a mantra addressed to the Narmada, one does not have any fear from serpents. 31 The river rises in the Amarakantaka mountain and falls into the Gulf of Cambay. The junction of the Narmada with the sea is a sacred place of pilgrimage. 32 According to the Puranas it flows from a Rksvat (a part of the Vindhyan range) though some of them refer to it arising directly from the Vindhya itself. 33

It is stated in the Kurma and Matsya Puranas that a man who commits suicide at any tirtha on the Narmada or on the Amarakantaka does not return to this world. 34 Several rivers such as Kapila, Visalya, Erandi, Iksunadi and Kaveri 35 are mentioned as falling into the Narmada.

6. Padma (पद्मा) (No. 16, L. 5) :

The inscription No. 16 refers to a brahmana named Devavisnu, who belonged to the community of Caturvedins of Padma of the town of Indrapura. 36 The Ganga is also known as Padma or Padda. 37 The community of the brahmanas mentioned in the inscription might have lived by the side of the river. D. C. Sircar takes Padma to be the name of a locality in the town of Indrapura. 38 The inscription (No. 16) also tells us that Skandagupta's feudatory visayapati Sarvanaga was govern- ing Antarvedi or the country lying between the Ganga and the Yamuna. 39

7. Palasini40 (पलाशिनी) (NO. 14, L. 16) :

This river Palasini issues from the mountain Raivataka. On account of the flood it had swollen. The poet, in describing the scene says that the river had gone to join the sea. Palasini is described as emanating from the mountain Urjayat (i. e. the same as Raivataka). 41 We find another Palasini, (mod. Parās), a tributary of the Koel in Chotanagpur. 42 It seems that the river was decorated with numerous Palasa (flower) trees that grew on its banks. The flowers falling in the river must have given it the name of Palasini. 43

8. Sikata44 (सिकता) (No. 14, L. 16) :

The river Sikata takes its source from the mountain Raivataka. It is the same as Suvarna-sikata mentioned in the Junagarh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman. 45 This Sikata or Suvarnasi- kata is to be identified with modern Sonarekha. 46 The name

296 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Suvannareha (Suvarnarekha) is also met with in Vividhatir- thakalpa. 47 Thus the first part of the river's name has remained unchanged for about two thousand years. The second part has been replaced by a new one. The exact derivative as suggested by Chatterji will be a form like Sonasita or Sonasi. 48 The river was named Suvarnasikata because its sand contains particles of gold.49

9. Sindhu (सिन्धु) (No. 20, L. 2) :

The river is mentioned in connexion with the description of the victories of king Chandra who is said to have conquered the Vahlikas after having crossed the seven mouths of the (river) Sindhu 50 in warfare. Sindhu in the Rgveda 51 and the Athar- vaveda 52 often means simply a 'stream'. The Rgveda (VIII. 24.27) refers to 'Sapta Sindhavah' or 'the seven rivers'. 53 But it is also 54 used in the more exact sense of the 'stream' par excellence or 'The Indus'. We get a reference to Sindhu as a river in the Amara-kosa. 55 The territories adjoining it were famous for horses 56 and salt. 57

The term Sindhu was corrupted to Hindu in the old Persian inscriptions of Darius I (516-485 B. C.), and to Indus by the Ionian (=Panini's Yavana) Greeks. 58 The word 'India' is derived from the river Sindhu or the Indus. 59 Taking its rise from the snows of Western Kailasa in Tibet, the Sindhu first flows north-west of Kashmir and South of little Pamir, and then takes a southward course along which lay some of the important cities of north India. Emerging from the Darad high-lands, the river (Daradi Sindhuh) enters the Gandhara country until it receives its most important western tributary the Kabul river at Ohind, a few miles north of Attock. 60

The river Sindhu is mentioned in the Puranas along with the Ganga, Sarasvati, Satluj, Chinab and Yamuna. 61

Vogel suggests that the expression 'Sindhor sapta mukhani' may indicate the 'sapta sindhavah' of the Rgveda, i.e. the river Indus and its tributaries. The term mukha would then be not taken in the sense of 'the mouth of a river', but as meaning a river-head. 62 But the translation of the expression as done by Fleet (i. e. the seven mouths of the river Indus) is generally accepted. 63 The seven mouths of the river Indus thus represent the points of its confluence with its tributaries

Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 297

and not the tributaries individually as suggested by Vogel.

10. Sudarsana ( सुदर्शन) (No. 14, L. 15 : L. 17) :

It is the name of a lake situated at some distance from Girinagara as mentioned in the Junagarh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman I (A.D. 150). 64 The lake was originally constructed by the Vaisya Pusyagupta, the provincial governor of the Maurya king Chandragupta. Later on during the reign of Asoka it was adorned with conduits, by the Yavana governor Tusaspha. 65 The same lake was destroyed by the excessive floods in the Suvarnasikata, Palasini and other streams arising from the mountain Urjayat. 66 By a breach, four hundred and twenty cubits long, just as much broad, (and) seventy-five cubits deep, all the water flowed out, so that, the lake, almost like a sandy desert became extremely ugly to look at. 67 The lake was immediately beautified with repairs by king Rudradaman. 68

Inscription No. 14 informs us that during the reign of Gupta king Skandagupta in the year 136 (G. E.), due to heavy continuous rains the Sudarsana lake burst out on all sides 69 and had the appearance of a sea. Eventually, contrary to the literal meaning of its name the Sudarsana became ugly to look at. 70 The lake was repaired in the year 137 (G. E.) 71 (=A.D.456) by Cakrapalita, who was appointed governor of Giri-nagara by his father Parnadatta, who was Skandagupta's viceroy in Surastra. 72

11 . Vata-nadi (वाटा-नदी) (No. 43, L. 22) :

We get a reference to the Vata-nadi in an inscription at Kalaikuri, Sultanpur near Naogaon, Rajshahi district, East Pakistan now Bangladesh. It was flowing to the east of a village named Dhanyapatalika.

The Vata nadi appears to be the modern Bara-nai, Singra lying about 10 miles to the north-east of its junction with the Atrai. 73 It flews west to east through the southern part of the Rajshahi district 74

12. Vilasini75 (विलासिनी) (No. 14, L. 16):

The river comes out from the mountain Raivataka. Fleet takes Sikatavilasini as an adjective of the Palasini76 but the three, Sikata, Vilasini and Palasim seem to be separate rivers as we find the use of the plural number in the case which

298 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

denotes the mention of more than two rivers. Hence Vilasini is the third river in the context : the other two being Pilasini and Sikata (Suvarnasikata).

The Mountains

1. Kailasa (कैलाश) (No. 17, L. 6 : L. 13):

In L. 6 of the inscription the poet while giving an account of the city of Dasapura describes its buildings as lofty like the mountain Kailasa itself. 77 L. 13 describes the mountain Kailasa as one of the breasts of the earth (the other being Sumeru) which was being reigned over by the Gupta king Kumaragupta. 78

Kailasa mountain is situated about 25 miles to the north of Mana-sarovara beyond Gangri and to the east of the Niti Pass. 79 The Mahabharata 80 includes the Kumaun and Garhwal mountains in the Kailasa range. The mountain also known as Hemakuta, Samkaragiri and is to be identified with the Astapada mountain of the Jainas. 81 It surpasses in beauty the big Gurla or any other of the Indian Himalaya. 82 Traditionally it is supposed to be the habitat of Siva and Parvati. 83

2. Raivataka (रैवतक) (No. 14, L. 16) (the same as Urajayat see Urjayat) :

Raivataka is also mentioned in the Adi-Parvan of the Mahabharata, 84 the Vividhatirthakalpa, 85 the Brhatsamhita, 86 the Dohad Stone Inscription of Mahamuda, 87 and the Jaunpur Inscription of Isanavarman. 88 Its modern name Girnar was a switch over to it from the city name Girinagara, i. e., 'a city on or at the foot of a hill'. 89 Raivataka derives its name from king Revata, the father of Revati, (the wife of Baladeva, Krishna's elder brother). 90 Revata is supposed to have come there from Dwaraka and lived on the hill. There is still a tank called Revati-kunda near Damodarakunda in the gorge of the hill. 91 The Gujarati Sanskrit poet Magha in the Sisupalavadha devotes the whole of Canto IV (verses 1-68) to the description of the Raivataka mountain. In Canto VI (verses 1-79) the poet describes the occurrence of six seasons one by one at the mountain Raivataka.

3. Sumeru (सुमेरु) (No. 17, L. 13, No. 32, L. 15) : In No. 17 the mountain Sumeru is described as one of the breasts of the earth (the other being Kailasa) and the Gupta

Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 299

king Kumaragupta is mentioned as the lord of the earth. In No. 32 it has been named as Amarabhudhara. Its other names are Meru, Karnikacala, Ratnasanu, Svargiri, Svargigiri and Kancanagiri. 92

Sumeru is identified with Rudra Himalaya in Garhwal, where the river Ganga has its source, it is near Badarikasrama. 93 According to the Matsya Purana 94 the Sumeru Parvata is bounded on the north by Uttara-Kuru, on the South by Bharatavarsa, on the west by Ketumala and on the east by Bhadrasvavarsa. 95 It is also mentioned in the Padmapurana. 96 and the Kalikapurana. 97 According to the Kalikapurana Siva saw the summit of it. We also learn from this text that the Jambu river flows from this mountain. 98 We also find the mention of the Meru in the Sisupalavadha of Magha. It was on account of the eminence of Sumeru among the mountains that for praising kings they were described as 'Meru' among kings. 99 This metaphor may have been applied after the contention of the Puranas that the earth is supposed to be like lotus, with four Mahadvipas as its four petals and mount Meru as its pericarp. 100

4. Urjayat (ऊर्जयत) (No. 14, L. 16) :

The poet here draws a picture : the lake Sudarsana looked like the sea 101 and the rivers Palasini, (Suvarnasikata), etc., had joined it has if the mountain Urjayat had stretched his hand with flowers (growing on the banks of the trees and thus falling in the rivers) for sending his daughters to their worthy husband. 102 Since the rivers emerged out from the mountain Raivataka, it may be called their father as described in verse 28, but to avoid repetition the poet uses in verse 29 a synonym of its name viz., the Urjayat and while making it the symbol of father represents the sea as the husband of the rivers. 103 Thus the mountains Urjayat and the Raivataka are one and the same. We also get support for our suggestion from the fact that whereas the Junagarh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman describes the emergence of the rivers Palasini, Suvarnsikata etc., from the mountain Urjayat 104 in Inscription No. 14 the name of Raivataka is used in the same context. 105 Fleet 106 and Sircar 107 are wrong in describing Raivataka as a hill different from Urjayat or Girnar -situated opposite to it. The

300 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Vividhatirthakalpa also uses the names Raivataka and the Ujjayant (Urjayat) as synonyms for Girinara which was sanctified by Srinemi and is situated in Surastra (South Kathiawad). 108 In another inscription at Girnar (about 15th century) verses 5-8 refer to the mountain Girnar by both the names Ujjayanata and Raivata. 109 The Abhidhanachintamani of Hemacandra also mentions Ujjayanta and Raivataka as synonyms. 110 The Kap copper-plate of Ketadi Sadasiva-Nayaka also refers to Ujjantagiri (Urjayat). 111 The mountain Urjayat is identified with Girnar hill near Junagarh. 112 The literal meaning of Urjayat is strong, powerful, eminent. 113

5. Visnupada (विष्णुपद) (No. 20, L. 6) :

We know from the inscription that a lofty standard of the divine Visnu was set up on the hill called Visnupada. 114 Literally meaning 'the hill marked with footprints of Visnu', Visnupada hill has been identified with that part of the Delhi Ridge on which the column stands. 115 But there is no mountain in Delhi and the inscription appears to have been brought there from the mount Visnupada. 116 On the evidence from the Epics, this Visnupada hill is not far from Kurukshetra and the Beas. 117


1. L.L. 30-31, V.9 :

प्रदान-भुज-विक्क्रम-प्रशम-शास्त्रवाक्योदयैरुपर्य्युपरि-सञ्चयोच्छ्रित-मनेक-मागर्गं यश: । पुनाति भुवन-त्रयं पशुपतेर्ज्जटान्तर्गुह-निरोध-परोमोक्ष-शीघ्रमिव पाण्डु गाङ्ग (पय:)।।

2. (Dx)p. 152, LL. 1-3, p. 16, f.n. 3.

3. No. 13, L. 16, V. 8. The text of the words in between is damaged : हूणैर्य्यस्य समागतस्य समरे दोर्म्यां धरा कम्पिता भीमावर्त्करस्य....लक्ष्यत इव श्रोत्रेषु गाङ्गध्वनि:

4. 'Prakrit and Non-Aryan Strata in the Vocabulary of Sanskrit' vidg Kz. p. 71.

5. S.C. Basu, Og. 123 गंगम्यद्यो:१।१२३ Thus Ganga, 'The river Ganges (is formed)'.

6. X. 75. 5, VI. 45, 31.

7. XIII, 5, 4, 11.

8. ii, 20.

9. Kielhorn, 1,1,9, p. 436 : 1.4.2, p. 670.

10. रघुवंश IV. 73 : VII. 36 : VI. 48 ; VIII, 95 ; XIII. 57 ; XIV, 3.

11. Sircar, Oz. pp. 38-39.

12. Ibid., pp. 179-83 : Kane, (Zx) 1 Vol. IV, pp. 585-96.

Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 301

13. Law, Yx. p. 78.

14.JJ. VI, p. 60, f.n. 2 :word gang 'for rivulet' is still current in East Bengal. Cf. Sen, The (Kz)1 p. 95.

15. Ibid., p. 108.

16.Fz. p. 412, col. 3.

17.Pandey, Eg. p. 129; GJ. Vol. XXIII, pp. 290-92.

18.No. 18, LL. 2-3.

19.(Dx) 1 , p. 89 : Dey, NX. p. 85.

20.N.L. Dey, NX. p. 85- see Kalinda-desa.

21.Sircar, Oz. p. 39 note I, p. 40.

22. SisupalavadhalV. 26.

23. No. 18LL. 2-3.

24.Kane, (Zx) 1 , Vol. IV, p. 705.

25.Ibid., p. 705.

26. XII. 9.3.1.

27. अमरकोष: १/१०/३२ रेवा तु नर्मदा सोमोद्भवा मेकलकन्यका

28. Kane, (Zx) 1 , p. 703

29. रघुवंश VI. 43.

30. Kane, (Zx) 1 , Vol. IV, p. 703.

31. IV. 3. 12-13 : नर्मदायै नम: प्रातर्नर्मदायै नमो निशि । नमोस्तु नर्मदे तुभ्यं त्राहि मां विषसर्पत: ।।

"Salutation to Narmada in the morning : salutation to Narmada at night : Narmada ? salutation to you, save me from poisonous serpents.

32. Dey, NX. p. 1 38, p. 4, see Amarakantaka.

33. Sircar, Oz. pp. 49, 56 : Dey, NX. pp. 168-69.

34. Kane, (Zx) 1 Vol. IV, p. 705. " 35. Ibid.

36. No. 16, L. 5 : चेन्द्रापुरक-पद्मा-चातुर्व्विद्य-सामान्यब्राह्मणदेवविष्णु:....। See Indrapura in the place-names

37. Chatterji, Hg. Vol, I, p. 67.

38. Sircar, Hz. p. 319, f.n.9.

39. (Dx) 1 , pp. 69-70 : LL. 3-4.

40. See the Appendix -No. V.

41. Sircar, Hz. p. 176.

42. Law, Yx. pp. 245, 293.

43. (Dx) 1 . p. 46.

44. See the Appendix No. V.

45. Sircar, Hz. p. 176.

46. Ibid., p. 313, f.n.l : Diskalkar, Iz. Vol. I, Pt. II, p.8.

47. Vividhatlrthakalpa p. 10 : तं जहा-उग्गसेणगढ़ं ति वा, खंगारागढ़ं ति वा । जुण्ण-डुग्गं ति वा । उत्तरदिशाए विसालथम्भसाला-सोहियो दसदसार मंडवो गिरिदुवारे य पंचमो हरी दामोअरो सुवण्णरेहा-नईपारे वट्टह ।

48. Sankalia, Pz. p. 51 : also see f.n.l.

49. Ibid., p. 51, f.n. 2. : MiratI. Ahmadi, Supplement, 205, takes

302 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

note of this river. It says "Gold is deposited in its bed, but there is not enough to make its working profitable".

50. No. 20, L. 2 : तीर्त्वा सप्तमुखानि येन समरे सिन्धोर्ज्जिता वाह्लिका,

51. i, 97, 8 : 125, 5 : ii, 11, 9: 253-5 : iii, 53, 9 etc.

52. iii, 13.1 : iv.24, 2 : x.4.15 : xiii, 3.50 etc.

53. Law, Yx. p. 8

54. Rgveda 1, 122, 6 : 126.1 : iv, 54.6 : 55.3 : v.53.9 : vii, 95, 1 : viii, 12,3 : 25,14 : 20, 25 : 26, 18 : x.64,9 : Atharvaveda xii, 1,3 : xiv, 1,43, etc. Vg. Pt. II, p. 450.

55. अमरकोष p. 100 : 1.10.35 : p. 458 : 3.3 101.

56. Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, VI. 2.15.

57. अमरकोष p,321 : 2.9. 42.

58. Agrawala, Jy. p. 51.

59. Dey, NX. p. 186 : Law, Yx. p. 8.

60. Agrawala, Jy. p. 44 : D.C. Gangoly, 'Yadavaprakasa, on the Ancient Geography of India', vide JJ. XIX, p. 217.

61. Sircar, Oz. pp. 39-40.

62. XJ. No. 22, p. 44 : Diskalkar, Iz. Vol. I, Pt. II, p. 23.

63. (Dx) 1 , p. 141 : Sircar, Oz. p. 184.

64. Sircar, Hz. p. 176 : L.I. इदं तड़ाकं सुदर्शनं गिरिनगराद् ...। Also see f.n. 2 : Girinagara was the name of the ancient city now represented by Junagarh (in South Kathiawad). The Sudarsana lake was formed in the valley round the foot of the Girnar hills by an embankment across the gorge.

65. Ibid., p. 177 LL. 8-9

मौर्यस्य राज्ञ चंद्रगुप्तस्य राष्ट्रियेना वैश्येण पुष्यगुप्तेन कारितं
अशोकस्य मौर्यस्य कृते यवनराजेन तुषास्फेनधिष्ठाया प्रणालीभिरलंकृतम्

66. Ibid., pp. 176-77, LL. 5-8

67. Ibid.

68. Ibid., pp. 179-80 : LL. 15-18

69. सुदर्शनं येन विभेद चात्वरात् from चत्वर and not suddenly अत्वरात् Cf. Sircar, Hz. p. 312 f.n. 5, which is grammatically incorrect.

70. No. 14, LL. 15-17

The account of breach given in this inscription tallies with that of the Junagarh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman I : Hz. pp. 176-77, LL. 5-8.

71. No. 4, LL. 19-21.

72. Ibid., LL. 8-12.

73. Sircar, Hz. p. 354.

74. Sircar. J J. XIX, p. 20.

75. See the Appendix No. V.

76. (Dx) 1 , p. 64.

77. No. 17 L.6 : कैलाश-तुङ्ग-शिखर-प्रतिमान चान्यान्याभान्ति दीर्घवलभीनि सवेदिकानि ।

Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 303

78. Ibid.,L. 13:

चतुस्समुद्रान्तविलोलमेखलां, सुमेरुकैलाशबृहतपयोधराम् ।
वनान्तवान्तसफ़ुटपुष्पहासिनीं, कुमारगुप्ते पृथिवीं प्रशासति ।।

79. LJ. 1838, p. 314.

80. Vanaparva, Ch. 144. 156.

81. Law, Yx., p. 88 : Dey, NX. p. 83.

82. Dey. NX. p. 82 : LT. 1848, p. 158.

83. Law, Yx. p. 88. The Kalikapurana (Vangabasi edn.)Ch. 14.31

84. Dey, NX. p. 165 : Pandey, Wx. p. 96, f.n.5.

85. Vividhatirthakalpa, p. 7, verse I.

86. बृहत्संहिता XIV, V. 19.

87. GJ. XXIV, P.V. Jan. 1938, p. 216.

88. (Dx) 1 . p. 230, L. 7.

89. Sankalia, Pz. pp. 50-51: Fleet, (Dx) 1 p. 57.

90. Diskalkar, Iz. Vol. I. Pt II, p. 55 : Sankalia, Pz. p. 51.

91. Diskalkar. Iz. p. 55.

92. Abhidhanacintamani, p. 234, VS. 1031-32.

93. Mahabharata, Santi-Parvan, chs. 335, 336 : Dey, NX. p. 196.

94. Ch. 113.

95. Dey, NX. pp. 196-97 ; Jx. p. 87.

96. Uttarakanda, verses 35-38.

97. Ch. 13.23, Ch. 19.92.

98. Ch. 17.10, Law, Yx. p. 129.

99. GJ. XV, p. 346, V. 19.

100. M.R. Singh, MX. pp. 2-5.

101. No. 14, L. 18 :अम्भोनिधितुल्यदर्शनं सुदर्शनं ....। Cf. Sircar, Hz. p. 176, Junagarh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman I, L. 5 :पर्जन्येन एकार्णवभूतायामिव पृथिव्यां कृतायां....

102. No. 14, LL. 16-17, verses 28-29.

इमाश्च या रैवतकाद्विनिर्गता [:] पलाशिनीयं सिकताविलासिनी ।
समुद्रकान्ता: चिरबन्धनोषिता: पुन: पतिं शास्त्र-यथोचितं ययु:।।28।।
अवेक्ष्य वर्षागमजं महोदभ्रमं महोदधेरुर्जयता प्रियेप्सुना ।
अनेक-तीरान्तज-पुष्प-शोभितो नदीमयहस्त इव प्रसरित: ।।29।।

103. Ibid., LL. 16-17, VS. 28-29.

104. Sircar, Hz. p. 176, LL. 5-6.

गिरेरूर्जयत: सुवर्णसिकता पलाशिनी-प्रभृतिनां नदीनां....।

105. Cf. No. 14, L. 16 :

इमाश्च या रैवतकाद्विनिर्गता [:] पलाशिनीयं सिकताविलासिनी ।

106. (Dx) 1 . p. 64, f.n. 1.

107. Sircar, Hz. p. 313, f.n.I.

108. Vividhatlrthakalpa, p. 7 :

304 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

नामभि: श्रीरैवतकोज्जयन्ताद्यै: प्रथा (या) मितम् ।
श्रीनेमिपावितं स्तौमि गिरिनारं गिरीश्वरम् ।।1।।
स्थाने देश: सुराष्ट्राख्यां बिभर्त्ति भुवनेष्वसौ ।
यद्भुमिकामिनीभाले गिरिरेष विशेषक: ।।1।।

109. D.B. Diskalkar, Inscriptions of Kathiawad, pp. 116 ff.

110. Abhidhanacintamani, V. 1031 :उज्जयन्तो रैवतक:।

111. Law, Yx. p. 300 : GJ. XXIV, Pt. V, January, 1938.

112. Law, Yx. p. 300 : Cunningham, Sz. p. 325.

113. Fz. p. 221, Col. 3.

114. No. 20, L. 6 :प्रान्शुर्विष्णुपदे गिरौभगवतो विष्णोर्ध्वज: स्थापित:।

115. Diskalkar, Iz. Vol. I, Pt. II, p. 24 : Fleet, (Dx) 1 , p.' 140.

116. M.R. Singh, MX. p. 126.

117. U.N. Roy, Lz. pp. 21-27, : Sircar, Hz. p. 285, f.n.4, Cf. Mahabharata, III, 73, 8ff : also 103 ff.

गत्वा हि श्रद्धया युक्त: कुरुक्षेत्रं कुरुद्वह: । ...ततो
गच्छेत् धर्म विष्णो: स्थान मुत्तमम् etc.

Ibid. III. 138, 8 :

ऎतद्विणुपदं नाम दृश्यते तीर्थमुत्तम् ।
एषा नदी विपाशा च नदी परमपावनी ।।

Ramayana, II. 68, 18-19:

ययुर्मध्येन वह्लिकान् (वाहीकान्) सुदामानञ्च पर्वतम् ।
विष्णो: पदं प्रेषमाणा विपाशा चापि शाल्मलीम् ।।