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Sanghamitra (संघमित्रा) (born:281 BCE-death:258 BCE ?) was the eldest daughter of Emperor Ashoka Maurya from his first wife, Devi of Vidisha in Madhya Pradesh. Together with Mahinda, her brother, she entered an order of Buddhist monks. The two siblings later went to Sri Lanka to spread the teachings of Buddha at the request of King Devanampiya Tissa (250 BC – 210 BC) who was a contemporary of Ashoka (304 BC – 232 BC).

Variants of name

Important events in her life

  • Marriage with Maharani Devi of Vidisha - 286 BCE
  • Ashoka's Reign - 272/273 BCE to his Nirvana / Death (232 BCE)
  • Rajyabhisheka - 270 BCE
  • Building Chaityas - 266/263 BCE
  • Dharmayatra - 263-250 BCE
  • Buddhist Proselytism - 250 to his Death / Nirvana
  • Edicts - 243/242 BCE
  • Rani Tishyaraksha becomes Pattarani - 236 BCE
  • Prince Kunal becomes Upraja - 233 bc
  • Ashoka's Death / Nirvana - 232 BCE

Journey to Lanka

At first she landed in 'Mathagal'. The village Mathagal is situated 16 km away from Jaffna town, in the north of Sri Lanka, along the shores of the Indian Ocean. Buddhist Emperor Samrat Ashoka sent her to Sri Lanka together with several other nuns to start the nun-lineage of Bhikkhunis (a fully ordained female Buddhist monastic) at the request of King Tissa to ordain queen Anulā and other women of Tissa's court at Anuradhapura who desired to be ordained as nuns after Mahindra converted them to [1][2][3]

After Sanghamittā’s contribution to the propagation of Buddhism in Sri Lanka and her establishing the Bikhhunī Sangha or Meheini Sasna (Order of Nuns) there, her name became synonymous with "Buddhist Female Monastic Order of Theravāda Buddhism" that was established not only in Sri Lanka but also in Burma, China and Thailand, in particular. The day the most revered tree, the Bodhi tree, a sapling of which was brought by her to Sri Lanka and planted in Anuradhapura, and which still survives, is also celebrated every year on the Full Moon day of December as "Uduvapa Poya" or "Uposatha Poya" and "Sanghamittā Day" by Theravāda Buddhists in Sri Lanka.[4]

In Mahavansa

Mahavansa/Chapter 5 tells ....At that time Mahinda, the king's son, was twenty years old, and the king's daughter Samghamitta was then eighteen years old. On the very same day did he receive the pabbajja and also the upasampada-ordination, and for her the pabbajja ordination and the placing under a teacher took place on the same day.

Mahavansa/Chapter 5 tells ....The prince's master was the thera named after Moggali; the pabbajja-ordination was conferred on him by the thera Mahädeva, but Mahantika pronounced the ceremonial words,' and even in the very place where he (received) the upasampada-ordination this great man reached the state of an arahant together with the special kinds of knowledge.

Mahavansa/Chapter 5 tells ....The directress of Samghamitta was the renowned Dhamma and her teacher was Ayupala; in time she became free from the asavas. Those two lights of the doctrine, who brought great blessing to the island of Lanka, received the pabbajja in the sixth year of king Dhammäsoka. The great Mahinda, the converter of the island (of Lanka), learned the three pitakas with his master in three years. This bhikkhuni, even like the new moon, and the bhikkhu Mahinda, like the sun, illumined always the sky, the doctrine of the Sambuddha.

Mahavansa/Chapter 13 tells....When the prince Asoka, while ruling over the realm of Avanti, that his father had bestowed on him, halted in the town of Vedisa, before he came to Ujjeni, and met there a lovely maiden named Devi, the daughter of a merchant, he made her his wife; and she was (afterwards) with child by him and bore in Ujjeni a beautiful boy, Mahinda, and when two years had passed (she bore) a daughter, Samghamitta. At that time she lived in the city of Vedisa.

Mahavansa/Chapter 20 tells ...Devanampiyatissa, king of Lañkä, rich in merit and insight, caused to be carried out, even in his first year, as a friend to virtue, and his whole life through he heaped up works of merit. Our island flourished under the lordship of this king; forty years did he hold sway as king. After his death, his younger brother since there was no son, the prince known by the name Uttiya held sway piously as king. Ten years did king Uttiya reign.

Mahavansa/Chapter 20 tells ...Mahinda passed away into nirvana at Cetiya-mountain in the eighth year of king Uttiya on the eighth day of the bright half of the month Assayuja. When king Uttiya heard this he went thither andhad paid homage to the thera and arranged Mahinda's last journey and funeral rites.

Mahavansa/Chapter 20 tells ...The theri Samghamitta passed away into nirvana, being fifty-nine years old, in the ninth year of this same king Uttiya, while she dwelt in the peaceful Hatthalhaka-convent. And for her also, as for the thera, the king commanded supreme honours of burial a week through, and the whole of Lanka was adorned as for the thera Mahinda.


Sanghamitra is known for the proselytisation activity among women that she pursued as her lifetime goal in Sri Lanka, along with her brother, Mahendra (called Mahinda in Sri Lanka) at the initiation of her father, Emperor Ashoka of the Maurya dynasty who ruled in India in the 3rd century BC. Ashoka, after adopting Buddhism, took to spreading tenets of Buddhism in nine other countries of the region. His contemporary in Sri Lanka, King Devanampiya Tissa, in close alliance with Ashoka, saw the arrival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka. [5][6]

However, before deputing missions abroad in the region around India, Ashoka, in consultation with Venerable Moggaliputta Tissa convened a meeting of the Third Buddhist Council in which 1,000 Arahants participated. The purpose of this council meeting was not only to purge the Sangha of undesirable elements but also to take a view on the proselytisation of Buddhism in view of the strong challenge faced from the Brahmins of Hindu religion. Moggaliputta presided over the Council meeting where it was decided to send nine delegations to different regions to spread Buddhism.

King Ashoka then sent out missionaries in nine different directions. The delegation that was sent south to Sri Lanka, at the request of Tissa, was led by Ashoka's son Mahendra. Before taking the long journey, Mahendra sought blessings of his mother. The delegation (considered a diplomatic mission) comprised six other Arhats, namely Ittiya, Uttiya, Sambala, Bhaddasala, young Samanera (nephew of Mahendra) and a Bhanduka (also a cousin of Mahendra). All members of the mission belonged to the royal family, indicating the importance Ashoka attached to spreading Buddhism in Sri Lanka.[7]

This was also considered an opportune moment to spread Buddhism in Sri Lanka since Buddha himself had created awareness of his philosophy and precepts of Buddhism among the royalty and the common people during his three visits to Sri Lanka undertaken in the eight years following his enlightenment. Buddha, during his lifetime, had also created a social structure for the practice of Dhammavinaya or Dhamma (in Sanskrit: Dharma), which comprised the Sangha – order of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkunis (nuns) to preserve his teachings for posterity.[4] However, it was only King Tissa, realising the poor status of the religion in his country, desired fresh efforts by a delegation from India.

Mahendra arrived with his delegation at Anuradhapura where King Tissa, accompanied by his sister-in-law (brother's wife) Princess Anula with her entourage of 500 women, met him at the Mahamegha Garden. The Mahendra mission was very successful in introducing Buddhism to Sri Lanka. He established the Bhikkhu Order for men. However, thousands of women, starting with Anula, who had converted to Buddhism along with the King Tissa, wished to be ordained into the Bhikkuni Order. Thera Mahindra expressed his inability to do so since this ordination had to be performed by a priestess or a Theri Arahat. He therefore advised the King to write to Emperor Ashoka and seek the services of his younger sister Theri Sangamitta, who was "profoundly learned", to be deputed to Sri Lanka for the purpose. He also desired that a sapling of the right branch of the Bodhi-Tree (where the Tathagata got his enlightenment) from Bodh Gaya should also be brought by her to Sri Lanka. King Tissa then chose his Minister Prince Arittha (his nephew) for the purpose since the minister had volunteered to go to India on the condition that on his return he would also be ordained into the Bhikkhu Sasana by Thera Mahindra. This was agreed.[8]

Early life

Sangamitta's parents were the Emperor Ashoka and his first wife, Devi, who was a Buddhist. Her birth in 285 BC, as popularly known in published texts was as the second child of Ashoka and younger sister of brother Mahindra. She was born in Ujjeini (present day Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh in India). Her mother did not join Ashoka when he was crowned and her two children had embraced Buddhism. She was married at the age of 14 to Agribrahmi, a nephew of Emperor Ashoka, who was also an Arhant. She had a son, Saamanera Sumana who also later became an Arhant and went along with his uncle Mahindra to Sri Lanka to preach Buddhism. Her teacher was Ayupala. She was ordained at the age of 18 into Theravada Buddhism Order by their preceptor Dhammapala. Her brother was also ordained at the same time. With her dedicated perseverance to Dhamma she became an Arhant Theri and resided in Pataliputra (now known as Patna).[9][10]

Middle life

Mahindra’s mission in Sri Lanka was very successful. Among his new converts was Princess Anula, King Tissa’s sister-in-law who became Sotapanna and requested ordination. King Tissa wrote to Emperor Ashoka to depute Sangamitta for the purpose. Mahindra also wrote to his father to depute his sister Sanghamitta to Sri Lanka as requested by King Tissa.

Following this invitation from the King and also the request made by his son Mahindra, Ashoka sent Sanghamitta with a retinue of 10 other learned bhikkunis (priestesses) to accompany her and to give ordination to the Sri Lanka's princess Anula and other women. Ashoka was initially distraught at the prospect of sending his daughter away but Sangamitta herself persisted that she would like to go to Sri Lanka. She appealed to her father stating:

"Great King! the injunction of my brother is imperative and the females who are to be ordained in Lanka are many; on that account it is absolutely essential that I should go there.[11]

The purpose was also to establish the Bhikkuni Order to spread Buddhism in that country with the devoted participation and assistance of women. Ashoka finally agreed to send her. She travelled to Sri Lanka by sea carrying a sapling of Bodhi-Tree in a golden vase. She landed at Jambukola in the North.[8] King Tissa himself received Sangamitta and the sapling of the Bodhi-Tree with deep veneration. They were then ceremonially escorted by the king and his people to Anuradhapura. They entered at the northern gate of Anuradhapura along a road sprinkled with white sand. The Bodhi sapling was planted with great fanfare in the Mahāmeghavana Grove in Aunradhapura. It is still seen at the same location.[12]

In Dipavamsa chronicle, the number of nuns who accompanied Sangamitta has been mentioned differently – three figures have been quoted but the figure of 11 including Sangamitta is inferred as the plausible number. The names of the young nuns who accompanied here on the ship were: Uttara, Hema, Pasadpala, Aggimitta, Dasika, Pheggu, Pabbata, Matta, Malla, and Dhammadasiya.[9] In addition, the delegation headed by the Sri Lankan Ambassador Prince Athitha, which returned to Sri Lanka, comprised the Chief priestess Sangamitta and ten other priesteses, eight people of royal lineage of Magadha (Bogut, Sumitta, Sangot, Devgot, Damgot, Hirugot, Sisigot and Jutindhara), eight members of nobility (families of ministers), eight Brahmins, eight Vaishyas (traders), herdsmen, Hyaenna, Sparrow-hawk, Nagas, Yakkas, craftsmen, weavers, potters and many members of other castes.[13][14]

A legend mentioned related to the journey of Sangamitta to Sri Lanka is that Nagas encircled the Bodhi tree. Sangamitta drove them away by assuming the form of Garuda (half-man half-bird form).[15] Sanghamitta was 32 years of age when she took this journey. Her son Samanera was already in Sri Lanka as he had joined his uncle Mahindra's mission to spread Buddhism. Sangamitta performed the formal Pabbajja ordination of Princess Anula. Anula was the first Sri Lankan woman to be ordained as a bhikkuni; concurrently her companions numbering more than 1000 who were also observing Dasa Sil were bestowed with Pabbajja ordination. This formally created the "first ecclesiastical life of the Bhikkuni Sasana in Sri Lanka". The ordination covered not only the royalty but also common people of various strata of the society. She pursued every effort to enhance the status of woman, with sustained devotion, dedication and diligence.[16]

Sangamitta, on arrival at Anuradhapura, was put up initially at the ‘Upasika Viharaya’ along with the bhikkunis who had accompanied her. An additional 12 buildings (ashramas) were built to accommodate the bhikkunis. Subsequently, the King also built a separate house for Sangamitta known as 'Hathalakha-Vihara' acceding to the request of the nuns to reside in a secluded place where they could exclusively concentrate on devotional religious pursuits.[17]

Dipavamsa, a chronicle written in 400 BC, records that after the Bhikkuni Sangha was established, there was widespread following in the country among women of all ages and from all levels of society. The women who ordained were highly learned in the scriptures and they readily taught their knowledge of the Vinaya or rules of discipline to others.[18]

Bodhi tree and celebrations

Revered Bodhi tree brought by Sangamitta and planted at Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka -Oldest surviving Bodhi Tree Sangamittā carried the right south branch of the Bodhi-Tree (selected by Ashoka from the Maha Bodhi-Tree in Gaya) on a ship to Anurādhapura, during the 12th year of Ashoka's reign. The sapling was planted by Devānāmpiya Tissa in the Mahāmeghavana in Anurdhapura. It seems that "the Buddha, on his death bed, had resolved five things, one being that the branch which should be taken to Ceylon should detach itself". The journey route followed by Sangamitta who carried the tree branch was from Gayā to Pātaliputta and then to Tāmalittī in Bengal. Here, it was placed in a golden vase in the ship and transported to Jambukola across the sea. The entourage reached Anurādhapura, staying en route at Tivakka.[19][20]

The planting of the Bodhi Tree was a grand ceremony performed by the king himself with assistance from the nobles of Kājaragāma, Candanagāma and Tivakka, in the presence of Sangamitta and her brother Mahindra. The tree took eight roots, yielded fruits and seeds. As fresh eight saplings emerged, they were moved and planted at Jambukola (present Colombogaon in north Sri Lanka), in the village of Tivakka, at Thūpārāmā, at Issaramanārāma, in the court of the Pathamacetiya, in Cetiyagiri, in Kājaragāma and in Candanagāma.[21][22][23]

The Bodhi-Tree at Anuradhapura was well tended by successive royal family members of Sri Lanka over the centuries, so much so that a village near Anurādhapura was also earmarked to provide for maintenance of the tree.[24][25]

A recent comment by Historian H. G. Wells on this oldest historical tree in the world, which is well maintained states:

In Ceylon there grows to this day a tree, the oldest historical tree in the world, which we know certainly to have been planted as a cutting from the Bodhi-Tree in the year 245 BC. From that time to this it has been carefully tended and watered.[26]


Sangamitta died at the age of 79 in the ninth year of the reign of King Uttiya at her residence in Hatthaloka Upasikaramaya Anuradhapura. Uttiya performed her last rites. The occasion was also marked with observances in her honour throughout Sri Lanka, for one week.[27] She was cremated to the east of the Thūpārāma near the Cittasālā, in front of the Bodhi-Tree. The location for the cremation had been selected by the Therī herself before her death. A stupa was erected by Uttiya over her ashes.[28][29]


  1. Buddhism.Sanghamittā Therī
  2. "Mahindagamanaya was more than a diplomatic mission". Daily Mirror.
  3. Harishchanndar, Walisinha (1998). The sacred city of Anuradhapura. Asian Educational Services. pp. 29–36. ISBN 81-206-0216-1
  4. "How to be Real Buddhist through Observance?". What Buddha Said Net.
  5. "Mahindagamanaya was more than a diplomatic mission". Daily Mirror.
  6. Harishchanndar, Walisinha (1998). The sacred city of Anuradhapura. Asian Educational Services. pp. 29–36. ISBN 81-206-0216-1.
  7. "Mahindagamanaya was more than a diplomatic mission". Daily Mirror.
  8. Harishchanndar, Walisinha (1998). The sacred city of Anuradhapura. Asian Educational Services. pp. 29–36. ISBN 81-206-0216-1.
  9. "Sangamitta Teri". What Buddha Said Net.
  10. Malalasekera, G.P. (2003). Dictionary of Pali Proper Names: Pali-English. Asian Educational Services. p. 990. ISBN 81-206-1823-8.
  11. Harishchanndar, Walisinha (1998). The sacred city of Anuradhapura. Asian Educational Services. pp. 29–36. ISBN 81-206-0216-1.
  12. Harishchanndar, Walisinha (1998). The sacred city of Anuradhapura. Asian Educational Services. pp. 29–36. ISBN 81-206-0216-1.
  13. Sarkar, Jayanta; G. C. Ghosh (2004). Anthropological Survey. Sterling Publishers Pvt.Ltd. pp. 72–73. ISBN 81-207-2562-X
  14. Obeyesekere, Donald (1999). Outlines of Ceylon history. Asian Educational Services. pp. 17–18. ISBN 81-206-1363-5
  15. Malalasekera, G.P. (2003). Dictionary of Pali Proper Names: Pali-English. Asian Educational Services. p. 990. ISBN 81-206-1823-8.
  16. "Full Moon Poya Day of Unduvap". Sri Lanka Guardian.
  17. Obeyesekere, Donald (1999). Outlines of Ceylon history. Asian Educational Services. pp. 17–18. ISBN 81-206-1363-5.
  18. Lorna DeWaraja. "Buddhist Women in India and Pre-Colonial Sri Lanka". Buddhism Today.
  19. "Bodhirukka". What Buddha Said Net.
  20. "Chapter XVII: The Arrival Of The Relics".
  21. Obeyesekere, Donald (1999). Outlines of Ceylon history. Asian Educational Services. pp. 17–18. ISBN 81-206-1363-5.
  22. "Bodhirukka". What Buddha Said Net.
  23. "Chapter XVII: The Arrival Of The Relics". Lakdiva Org.
  24. "Bodhirukka". What Buddha Said Net.
  25. "Chapter XVII: The Arrival Of The Relics". Lakdiva Org
  26. "Theerrii Sanghamiitttta and The Bodhii—tree" (pdf). California: A Gift of Dhamma:Maung Paw. pp. 1–8
  27. "Sangamitta Teri". What Buddha Said Net.
  28. "Sangamitta Teri". What Buddha Said Net.
  29. "Full Moon Poya Day of Unduvap". Sri Lanka Guardian. 2008-12-12.