|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)|
Parathalisa (परथालिस) has been mentioned as capital of Kalinga (Orissa) by Pliny (23–79 AD). It has also been mentioned by Megasthenes as the royal city of the Calingae (Kalinga). Its identity is not yet known.
The Calingae were widely diffused over a large area according to Pliny (who borrowed (or quoted) his account of India in Book VI.21–23 from Megasthenes)and consisted of the Calingae proper, the Gangarides-Calingae and the Macco-Calingae. This may have been a reference to the Trikalinga ("Three Kalingas") that appeared in the Puranas The area of diffusion is thought to roughly coincide with the Northern Circars (now spanning the states of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa). Their chief cities were Dandagula (Dandaguda) and Parthalis (Protalis).
- 3. Ganges - The Mandei (Manda), and the Malli (Malli), the Gangarides (Ghangas), the Calingae (Kalinga), the Prasii (Magadha), the Modogalingae - The tribes called Calingae (Kalinga) are nearest the sea, and higher up are the Mandei (Manda), and the Malli in whose, country is Mount Mallus, the boundary of all that district being the Ganges. ...The royal city of the Calingae (Kalinga) is called Parthalis. Over their king 60,000 foot-soldiers, 1,000 horsemen, 700 elephants keep watch and ward in "procinct of war. There is a very large island in the Ganges which is inhabited by a single tribe Modogalingae.
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...परथालिस (AS, p.530): प्राचीन रोम के इतिहास लेखक प्लिनी (प्रथम सती ई.) के अनुसार परथालिस नामक नगर कलिंग (उड़ीसा) की राजधानी था. इसका अभिज्ञान अनिश्चित है. (दे. कलिंग)
- McCrindle, John Watson (1901), Ancient India as Described in Classical Literature, Archibald Constable, pp. 112–114
- Pliny, Bostock & Riley (tr.) (1855), p. 44 note 50.
- Alexander Cunningham had made this observation.
- Caldwell, Robert (1913), A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Or South-Indian Family of Languages, Asian Educational Services, p. 29
- Pliny, Hist. Nat. VI, 21–22 (Pliny, Bostock & Riley (tr.) 1855, pp. 42–43 and note 43, 44 and note 50)
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.530