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Pliny (23–79 AD) or Pliny the Elder or Gaius Plinius Secundus was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian. Pliny the Younger was his nephew.

Natural History

He wrote an encyclopedic work, Naturalis Historia ('Natural History'), which became a model for all other encyclopedias.

The work is divided into 37 books, organised into ten volumes.


  • In Books III to VI, Pliny moves to the Earth itself.

In Book III he covers the geography of Spain and Italy;

Book IV covers Europe including Britain;

Book V looks at Africa and Asia,

Book VI looks eastwards to the Black Sea, India and the Far East.


Book VII discusses the human race, covering anthropology and ethnography, aspects of human physiology and assorted matters such as the greatness of Julius Caesar, outstanding people such as Hippocrates and Asclepiades, happiness and fortune.

Jat clans mentioned by Pliny the elder

Jat History

Ram Swarup Joon[1] writes that Pliny has written that during a conflict between KhanKesh, a province in Turkey, and Babylonia, they sent for the Sindhu Jats from Sindh. These soldiers wore cotton uniforms and were experts in naval warfare. On return from Turkey they settled down in Syria. They belonged to Hasti dynasty. Asiagh Jats ruled Alexandria in Egypt. Their title was Asii.

External links


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