Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book VI
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Being A Translation of the Sanskrit Work
By Jogesh Chunder Dutt
1887London: Trubner & Co.
[p.141]: The first act of this new king Yashaskara was to order his door-keepers to send away the Brahmanas who had selected him king, as he did not like to he disobeyed by any one. To the Brahmanas themselves, who were frightened by the door-keepers, the king said, clasping together his hands,
- "you have bestowed the kingdom on me and you should, be respected as gods ; remain proud of your action in having bestowed a kingdom, but come not to me unless on business."
This act of the king made the Brahmanas think him to be unapproachable ; and they forgot the familiarity which existed when he dwelt with them.
King Yashaskara enforced the old laws and practices long out of use in the kingdom ; and the country became devoid of thieves, so that the doors of the houses of merchants were kept open during tho night, and travellers were undisturbed in the streets. Under the king's supervision the servants of the State who used to steal so largely, lost their posts and had merely to superintend agriculture. The agricultural people had never occasion during this reign to come to court ; nor Brahmanas reading the Vedas, to take up arms. Brahmanas who chanted the Sama Veda did not drink wine, nor did they, who per- formed tapa have wife or child, or keep animals or corn. The astronomer, the physician, the courtier, the priest,
[p.142]: the minister, the spiritual guide, the ambassador, the judge and the writer were all learned men in this reign. One day a Brahmana who used to perform the rites of Prāyopavoshana came to the king and said that he was an inhabitant of Kashmira, that he had been rich before, but through misfortune had been reduced to poverty. His debts had increased and he was harassed by his creditors, so that he had sold his house to a rich merchant and paid up his debts by selling every thing and had gone not to travel in different countries. But considering, said he " that my wife should be supported, I retained possession of a well with a staircase ( part of the house) that she may live by letting the place on hire to those who in summer may like to keep hotels and flowers there. After wandering for twenty years in different places, and having acquired some little wealth I have again returned to my country. I found my wife deprived of her beauty, and getting her livelihood by serving as a female servant to some one. I asked her why she had undertaken service, since I had left her the means of livelihood. She replied, that when I was gone tho merchant had driven her out of the well and staircase by beating her with a stick. 'What other moans is left to me,' she said and I stopped, and I was sunk in grief and anger on hearing the account .But the judges are in every step deciding in favor of the defendant. I do not understand justice. I have not sold that place And am determined to have it or die. I who, tun a poor man,
[p.143]: shall die at your door ; and if you fear sin, judge rightly. The king then sat on his seat of justice, and called in all the judges and began to investigate the matter. The judges said that they had several times adjudged the Brahmana's case, but that he had lost his suit, that he ought to be punished, and that he did not admit the justice of the decision because of his cunningness. The king saw the sale-deed, and found that the well with the staircase had been sold along with the house. But the king thought that the plaintiff was in the right. After thinking for a moment, he began to amuse the courtiers with his conversation ; and in the midst of the talk, he from time to time took jewels from several persons as if to examine them ; and in the same way he took a ring from the defendant to look at it. Asking them all to wait for a moment, he on pretense of washing his feet, withdrew from the room, and sent one of his servants with the ring and proper instructions to the house of that very merchant. The king's servant went to the account-keeper of the trader and asked him for the accounts from the year in which the sale of the house was effected. The account-keeper thought that the merchant might have some necessity for the accounts, gave them over to him, taking from him the ring. Among the items of expenditure, the king saw that a sum of a thousand dinaras had been paid to the court writer, and knowing that the fee of writing document was small, wondered as to why the merchant should have paid so
[p.144]: large a sum. He at last came to the conclusion that र had there been changed to स*. The king showed the accounts to the courtiers, and caused the court writer to be brought ; and having assured him of his safety, he proved the fraud to the court. The courtiers admired , the king, and the king gave to the plaintiff, the house and wealth of the merchant whom he exiled out of his country.
Once upon a time when he had said his evening prayer, and was going to take his meal, a door-keeper, afraid to report thus untimely said that a Brahmana had now brought a complaint ; that he had told the Brahmana that the court time was over, and he should lay his complaint the next day, but that the Brahmana threatened to kill himself unless he was granted an audience that day. Without taking his meal, the king ordered him to be brought in. The poor Brahmana when questioned, said that after travelling in various countries, and acquiring one hundred gold Rupakas he had returned to Kashmira his native land, as he had heard that it was then well governed. "Owing to your administration" he said " there is no thief in the way and last night being weary of travel I stopped at Lavanotsa and slept be-
* In the sale-deed of house it originally stood thus "सोपानकूपरहित" i.e. the house was sold "without the staircase and the well." but changed र into स which is not at all a difficult performance it became "सोपानकूपसहित" i.e. " together with staircase and the well."
[p.145]: neath a road-side tree in a garden apprehending nothing. When I rose in the morning, my bundle containing my little property fell into a well which I had not seen before. Bereft of wealth and sunk in grief I was throwing myself into the well, but the people prevented me. One brave and determined man asked me as to what I could offer him if he could get out the money. 'That money is yours, and whatever you wish, you can give me out of it', I said in despair. He descended and brought it up, and gave me two pieces, and took ninety-eight himself. The case now depended on the verbal contract made and the people blamed me for making the contract ; the laws being strict on the point. Your laws are bad and so I shall die at your door." The king enquired as to the make and the name of the man, but he replied that be could only describe his face. The king then said that he would do what the Brahmana desired, the next morning, and dined with him that evening. When the merchants of Lavanotsa sent for by the king arrived, one of them was pointed out by the complainant as the offending person. When questioned, that man corroborated what the Brahmana had said before, but pointed to the existing law and the agreement made. The Brahmana had engaged himself by his promise, and the people waited to see the result of the case. The king then sat on the seat of justice and ordered ninety-eight pieces to be given to the Brahmana and two to the other person. He explained that instead of saying, " give what you will," the
[p.146]: Brahmana said " whatever you wish, you may give," Now this avaricious person wished for ninety-eight pieces but gave the Brahmana only two pieces, which he did not wish for. Thus the king adjudged cases.
Though in this manner he taught justice to others, he became an object of ridicule on account of his conduct, like a physician who prescribes good diet to others, but himself takes bad food. Though the king was pure, yet he did not desert those who during the last reign had taken of food polluted by Domba. He exacted money through four policemen who again helped one another. This truthful king killed some foot soldiers though they laid down their arms before the shrine of Shriraneshvara. He was so glad on the death of his older brother that many wise men who were near him thought that he had caused his brother's death by magic. He made a courtesan Lalla, supreme over all his chaste wives and subjected himself to her control. Goodness finds no entrance into the heart of women. It seems as if for that reason Vidhata has made their breasts finely round out side. Knowing that they feel equal affection towards the good and the bad, Vidhata has made them externally beautiful. This Lalla though favored by the king, used to receive even one chandala constable to her embrace. Yet there must have been some quality in that constable that she being a queen should condescend so far in his favor. Possibly she might have been born a chandala, or possibly he was a lucky man. No one knew how they
[p.147]: first fell in love. One officer named Hādi only knew of their love, having seen them booking on each other with it peculiar glance. The king at last found out through his spies that the rumour of their love was founded on truth and in penitence, he wore skin of a deer (Krishnasara) and did penance. Those near him entertained suspicions, because through the excess of his affection he did not kill her in anger. The king became contaminated with sin by being near to those servants who had eaten (in the previous reign) out of the Domba's plates.
The king thought that it was owing to some virtue committed in his previous birth that he had obtained the kingdom in the present, although not born in the royal family. Ambitious of obtaining kingdoms in his future lives, he bestowed his wealth on Brahmanas. He raised a school in the place of his ancestral worship, for the education of the children of Aryya countries, and he gave chamara, umbrella and treasures to the Principal of that school. On the banks of the Vitasta he bestowed fifty-five villages to the Brahmanas.
At last the king was attacked with a bowel complaint. He discarded his son Sanggramadeva as not being born of him, and crowned Varnata son of Ramadeva, and grandson of his uncle, and placed him under the care of the ministers, Ekanggas, and petty kings.
Those who aspired to usurp the kingdom on the accession of the infant Sanggramadeva to the throne were disappointed. The new king was, however, endangered
[p.148]: by the wiles of Parvvagupta. Though living in the capital he did not even send men to enquire sifter the health of the dying king. Whereupon Yshaskara became angry, and repented his choice and tried through his Ministers who were there consoling him, to set up Sanggramadeva to the throne. On the morning Varnata was, by order of the dying king, taken out bound from his room where he had been during the night with bars fastened. The room had eight pillars. When the disease of the king became acute, he nominated Sanggramadeva as his heir and leaving his capital went to the temple he had built. In his last moments, and when he knew his end was approaching, his servants deserted him, and he was left, bereft of his crown and arms, clad in red cloth, and with his hair and beard growing. When on the approach of death he set out of his capital to die, he took with him two thousand and five hundred pieces of gold; Parvagupta and other four persons robbed him of this money and divided it among themselves, even before the King dead. Oppressed by the pangs of the disease, rolling about in his bed within a dark ... room of the temple, still retaining his sense, and seeing his own men turn against him, the king lived, for two or three days more. But his servants and friends intending to usurp the kingdom, hurried him out of the world by poison. Of all his wives, the chaste Trailokyadevi died with him. Another version of the king's death is, that when superintending the conduct
[p.149]: of the Brahmanas and mendicants of his kingdom, he found one Brahmana named Chakrabhanu at Chakramelaka, engaged in some vile act. The king was roused with virtuous indignation, and caused the Brahmana's forehead to be marked with the foot of a dog. This Brahmana's maternal uncle Viranātha was the king's minister for war and peace; and he somehow killed the king. This version cannot be trusted, as it appears to have been got up by the Brahmanas in order to prove the strength of their power by examples from past history. For they say that the king died seven days after the marking of the Brahmanas forehead, while as a fact he suffered a long time from disease. Or, if you maintain that he died of some other disease, then it may be as well believed that he died through the curse of Varnata and others.
After reigning for nine years, the king died in the twenty-fourth year of the Kashmirian era in the month of Bhadra, on the third dark lunar day.
Parvvagupta, Bhubhata and four others, now set up the infant Sanggrama, the crooked feeted as king, and making his father's mother guardian of the infant king, exercised great influence in the kingdom. But in course of time Parvvagupta murdered the king's grand-mother as well as his five colleagues, and gradually came to exercise the supreme powers both of the king and of the minister. He, served the infant king with attention, and regaled him with good food, &c., so that simple minded men
[p.150]: did not believe him to be an enemy of the king. Those whom king Yashaskara had kept at distance for fear of rebellion, were now employed for the destruction of the present sovereign. Parvvagupta dyed his black beard with saffrou as kings used to do. He feared to destroy the prince publicly, on account of the Ekanggas, and therefore employed magic. One night he heard a Divine voice saying "On the first day of Chaitra, the kingdom will come to you lawfully, but if you attempt otherwise, your life and your line will soon be at an end." He was afraid his magic would be fruitless. He feared the Ekanggas, and lived in great bewilderment and excitement day and night, and his senses were well nigh lost. One day when the paths were unfrequented by men on account of a heavy fall of snow, he collected an army and besieged the capital. He killed the loyal minister Ramavardhana who was obstructing his son Buddha. The ancestral Belāvitta then pulled Parvvagupta by garlands of flowers from the throne, and threw him on the ground. Vakranggdhrisangrāma* was then murdered by Parvvagupta in another house, and his body, with a stone tied round the neck, was thrown during night into the Vitasta.
On the twenty-fourth year of the Kashmirian era, in the month of Falguna, on the tenth dark lunar day Parvvagupta seated himself on the throne. He was the son
* The crooked feeted ; but Vakranggdhrisangrāma according to the French edition means Sangrāma of the crooked limb.
[p.151]: of Sangramagupta, son of Abhinava, the Divira, who inhabited the other side of the, hill of Vishoka. Those who were determined not to see him king, came in the morning and bowed to him. While the minor chiefs, the Ekanggas, the ministers, the Kayasthas, and the Tantris were afraid of him, and gave up all idea of further resistance. A big drum which was in the care of Madanāditya, the Ekāngga of the descendants of Suyya, was broken through carelessness. On this the king became angry and insulted Him by disrobing him. Madanaditya shaved his hair and beard, and became a hermit. Even to this day his descendants are dwelling at Tripureshvara. The king was avaricious and encouraged the servants who harassed the people. And with this ill-gotten wealth he set up a god named Parvvagupteshvara near the temple of Skanda.
There was a noble minded and wise lady among the females of the king Yashaskara. This chaste lady evaded the embraces of Parvvagupta on various pretexts. "If you complete" said she to Parvvagupta " the temple of Yashaskarasvami, only half done by my late husband, I shall comply with your request." Puffed up with pride, the king completed the temple within a few days. But the queen perished in the fire lighted for the consecration of the fane ; and when she died, flowers were showered on her from the heaven and whoever looked on Her, with lustful eyes was struck dumb. The king pined in disappointment, and was attacked with a disease, in
[p.152]: which he continually felt thirsty. Avaricious men, although they know that they are here but for a short time, do not leave their habits. The king on account of some virtues committed in former life died at the shrine of Sureshvara, thus relinquishing on the thirteenth day of the dark half of Ashada, in the year twenty-six, the kingdom which he had obtained by rebellion. If some portion of the future punishment were not visible in this earth, who would desist from sin ?
His son Kshemagupta succeeded him. This king was a great drunkard and naturally wicked, and was rendered still more so, by his evil associates, even as clouds shed a deeper darkness over a moonless night. Phalguna and other wicked courtiers who served him, dressed them-selves as richly as the king. Though the king was addicted to wine, women and dice, and his courtiers stole enormously, yet his wealth was not exhausted ; and it is strange that the king still remained so rich. Is it not strange that Shri (wealth) should even for a day love the lotus, whose friend is the affectionate black-bee who loves honey and sucks it from the bud? Vamana and other courtiers of the family of Jishnu tempted him like the devil.
King addicted to other people's wives: The king became a scoffer of others, addicted to other people's wives, and covetous of other peopled wealth. He plucked the beards of those who waited on him, spat at them, abused them and struck their heads with his fists. Women became his favorites by yielding their persons, the hunters, by knocking about in
[p.153]: the woods, and his courtiers by their indecent speech. The court was filled with the prostitutes, the cunning, the foolish and the rebels ; and , was unfit for the wise to approach. The king was made to dance by the sons of Jishnu, like an idol in a machine ; and they called him scatterer of kangkana and so induced to scatter away to them that kind of ornaments. They attributed faults to the innocent, showed new things to the king, insulted noble persons by striking their heads with flats, and thereby received favors from the king. They exposed the rounded breasts of their wives and thereby induced the passionate king to their houses, and there got out money from him by dice. In expectation of money, the shameless courtiers brought their wives to the king, and afterwards asked him whose wife had given, him the greatest pleasure.
Among the courtiers, Hari and Dhurjati were prevented by their mother from bringing their wives, to the king, and so they became beggars. Thus the courtiers made their wives unchaste, and themselves objects of ridicule. They sacrificed their long-standing friendship with others, and sometimes they even lost their wealth. What was it then that they so eagerly pursued at such sacrifices? Bhatta Phalgnua had been the minister of king Yashaskara ; he now served the present king, but the advices of this minister who had set up Phulgunasvami and other gods, were ridiculed by the king.
[p.154]: Old Rakka, the lord of Kampana thirsted for vengeance and entered among the evil courtiers of the king. He set fire to the Jayendravihara in order to kill Sanggrama the Damara who was inside the building. And in order to make his name lasting, he brought the images of Buddha from the burning monasteries and other stones from dilapidated temples ; and sot up Kshemagaurishvara by the side of the road leading to the market. When a man dies, another enjoys his wealth, making it his own ; but he thinks not that after his death it will again go to a third person. Fie to the lust of wealth deepened by ignorance. The king bestowed thirty-six villages which were attached to the several monasteries that were burnt, to the lord of Khasa. Sinharaja, governor of fort Lohara, married his daughter to the king. This girl's name was Didda, and her mother's father was the Shahi, and the king was greatly addicted to her. This Shahi received much wealth from the king, and setup Bhimakeshava. Didda and Chandralekha daughter of Phalguna, the lord of Dvira, became jealous of each other.
The king made ill use of advice and instruction in the use of kuntas ( a sort of bayonets) which he used in fox hunting. People often found him wandering with his dogs, and with men carrying traps and boxes, and with Domvas, and wanderers of the woods. He spent his days in fox hunting in the forest of Damodara -at Lalyana, Shimika, &c. One night, on the fourteenth day
[p.155]: of the dark moon, while thus hunting he saw fire issuing from the mouth of a yelling she-fox. This frightened him and brought on the Lutimaya fever which ended his life. In his last moments, he went to the shrine of Varaha in the neighbourhood of Hushkapura. In this shrine he built the temple named Kshemamatha, and another named Shrikantha. His body became like masura (a sort of lentil) on account of Luta, and he died in the bright lunar fortnight of the month of Pousha) in the year thirty-four, after a reign of nine years.
His infant son Abhimanyu then ascended the throne under the guardianship of Didda who trusted the great ministers of the kingdom. In this reign a great fire broke out near the market of Tunggeshvara, and consumed large houses from the temple of Bardhanasvami to the other side of Bhikshuki, all the tract in which the devil had laid his thread.* It burnt the houses which the impure king and his Domba and his Chandala relatives had made impure.
The guardian mother of the king was not a wise woman, she could not judge right from wrong. When her husband was living she quarrelled with the daughter of Phalguua the Chief minister. When her husband died, she saw that his other wives perished with him, and was advised by Phalguna to follow their example. But another humane minister, named Naravahana,
* See Appendix F.
[p.156]: entreated her, when she was weeping by the funeral pyre of her husband, not to die ; and Rakka took the sorrowful queen away from Phalguna. Phalguua was now afraid of the queen's resentment, knowing that she bore grudge against him, and was supported by the , other ministers. But he had all the authority, and him valor and judgment were marked by all. Now when Kardamaraja went with the bones of the late king to the Ganges, Phalguna, not venturing to stay at the palace for fear of his enemies, intended to stop at Parnotsa till Kardamaraja's return with a powerful army. But when he had reached Kāshtnvata outside the capital with some treasury guards, Didda, instigated by Rakka, &c. sent some club men, with promise of reward, to kill him. But Phalguna was apprised of it, and returning thence, he collected his army and went to the shrine of Varaha. Hearing that Phalguna had collected his army, and was returning, Didda, and her ministers became apprehensive of an attack. Phalguna lamented the death of his late master at Varaha, and laid down his arms at the foot of the god Varaha. This assuaged the fears of the queen-mother. It is a great sin to serve him who cannot judge right from wrong. To oppose him when he is angry is an act of rebellion. How can the wise show their anger, — by obedience to law, or by resort to arms ? Phalguna retired to Parnotsa with his army and the ministers were as glad as boys are when their , teacher goes away.
[p.157]: Now the queen of Kshemagupta thought day and night as to how she would destroy her enemy. Parvvagupta, when he aspired to the throne, married his two daughters , to ministers Chhoja and Bhubhata. Mahima and Patāla were the issues of these marriages and lived in the palace like princes. They now aspired to the throne, and joined Himaka and others. They were driven from the palace by the queen and went to their homes in anger. On one occasion, when Mahima was away from his house, the queen sent club-men to drive him out of the kingdom. But he knew it beforehand, and took shelter in the house of his father-in-law Shaktisena. Even there he was pursued and oppressed. Shaktisena was at last able to send back the club-men, and there in the house of his father-in- law Mahima at last found an open asylum. He was then joined by Himmaka, Utkala and Eramatta inhabitants of Parihasapura ; as also by Udayagupta son of Amritākara, and Yashodhara and other inhabitants of Lalitadityapura. Thus there were two factions in the kingdom. In this dilemma, only the minister Naravahana remained faithful to the party of Didda. The army of Mahima daily gained strength, and approached the shrine of Padmasvami intending to fight. Didda sent her son to Shuramatha and began anxiously to think how to meet the danger. She then gave much wealth ta the Brahmanas of Lalitadityapura, and through their agency prevented a junction between the different detachments of the enemy's army. The Brahmanas formed themselves
[p.158]: into a body find effected peace between the queen and Mahima. The queen had been hitherto regarded as incapable of action, but the event showed that she was quite equal to the danger. It was known that she was not capable of leaping over the hollow made by the foot of a cow ; but like Hanumana, she now crossed the sea. I bow to wealth by which all clangers can be averted. The queen gave Kampana and other places to Yashodhara and others, as bribe. Within a few days Mahima was destroyed through magic, and Didda reigned supreme.
Now it happened that Yashodhara, lord of Kampana marched with his men against Dhakkana, the Shahi chief. He forcibly penetrated to the part of the country fortified with mountains and rivers and captured Dhakkana ; but confirmed him in his dignity on his paying a tribute. Rakka and others inflamed the queen-mother against the lord of Kampana ; for kings, crystal, and bad women assume the color of those that are near to him. By speaking in accordance with the temper of the listener the wicked gain access to the hearts of men, court-flatterers to the hearts of courtesans, and slaves to those of their masters. The queen believed that the protection given to the wily and rebellion Shahi chief was owing to the bribe given by him to the lord of Kampana. And when the victorious lord, of Kampana returned home, the queen sent clubmen to drive him away. Hearing of the insult offered to him, and remembering the former engagement, Himmaka, Eramatta and others became angry, and took offence. But
[p.159]: Naravahana, &c. did not forsake the queen, so that there was a division in the army as before. When Shuvadhara and the other rebels entered the capital, the queen sent her son to the temple of Bhattaraka. But the rebels through some blunder missed that opportunity of deposing the queen who was then alone. On the next day her people assembled and she was able to make a show of resistance to the enemy. The rebels who had stationed themselves from the temple Jayabhattārikā to the temple Suramatha, attacked the queen's men who fled within the capital in terror. At Sinhadvara (the Lion-gate) they saw the Ekānggas in firm array, who infused courage to the flying men and led them once more on to battle. The enemy moved also. At this juncture Rājakulabhatta arrived and struck panic amongst the enemy's soldiers and encouraged the queen's party by the sound of Turi. On his approach, the enemy's soldiers fell in great numbers. The gods of war never favor rebels. The powerful Himmaka struck Rajakulabhatta with sword, but the mail of the latter protected him. The queen's soldiers killed Himmaka, and captured Yashodhara. The sword of Eramattaka who was gallantly fighting was broken, he fell from his horse and was captured. Udayagupta, another of the rebel chiefs who was sought by the soldiers to be placed at their head, fled from the battle. The queen's party won the victory. They captured Yashodhara, Shubhadhara, Mukula with their friends, with whom the queen was very angry, Eramattaka had stopped the payment
[p.160]: of tax levied at Gaya on all Kashmirians performing funeral rites in that place. The queen caused him to be thrown into the Vitasta suspending a large piece of stone to his neck, and thus punished him for his evil action. Those ministers too, who from the reign of Gopala to that of Abhimanyu, were rebelling and creating anarchy and murdering kings in the kingdom, were now destroyed by the queen, with their families and servants. She bestowed Kampana &c. to Rakka and others. The great minister Naravahana thus made the widow queen, sole mistress of the kingdom, and in gratitude to him, the queen addressed him in the assembly of ministers as Rājānaka, a title second only to that of the king. The queen slept after the minister had slept, she ate after he had eaten, she was happy when he was so, and sorry when he was grieved. She always enquired after his health, asked his advice, and gave him whatever he wished to have.
There lived a charioteer named Kupya who had two sons named Sindhu and Bhuyya, of whom the elder Sindhu was a flatterer. He had been treasurer of Parvvagupta, and afterwards became the treasurer and favorite of the queen. He built another treasury office named Sindhugangja. Now this wicked person said to the queen that Naravahana had very nigh had usurped her kingdom. The queen believed what he said. At this time Naravahana once invited the queen to meal at his house. Sindhu insinuated to the queen, that if
[p.161]: she went there, she would be murdered. The queen became alarmed, and asked his advice as to what should be done. She privately returned from the way, to her palace, and intimated as an excuse, that she had just then her monthly courses. The minister suspected the motive of the queen, and the good terms which existed between him and the queen ceased. From that time the evil counsellor sowed ill feeling between them. There is nothing which bad men cannot destroy. Evil counsellors are more foolish than boys, and wiser than Vrihaspati. Fie to the creation, of Vidhata, in which wisdom and foolishness are alike displayed. The queen was ill spoken of by all for this conduct of hers. Naravahana was so excited by insults, day by day that he committed suicide. What but death is left to the spirited and high minded when insulted by one against whom there is no remedy. On his death, the kingdom became even as night without moon or words without truth.
The queen mother now became hardened by her cruelties, and thought of murdering the children of Sanggrama the Damara. They therefore fled to their country in the North, killing Kayyaka the lord of Dvara and others employed to murder them. Alarmed at having provoked them, she instead of feeling shame, for the selfish never feel shame, managed to get them again together. Whereupon Sthaneshvara and other Damaras, both great and low, became alarmed, and waited before the queen. She on her part was again alarmed at the accumulation
[p.162]: of so many Damaras and called back Phalguna, now that Rakka was dead. Phalguna hadd once laid down his arms, but he took them up again to administer the country. It is hard to resist the temptation of enjoyment. He had once had conquered Rajapuri and other places, but now that he was old his past glory was of no service to him, — even like a prostitute when she becomes aged.
Jayagupta became the favorite of Udaya, the queen's brother, and his colleague in the court of justice. Other cruel men joined Jayagupta, and began to rob the people. King Abhimanyu was attacked with consumption, although as he grow up, he became learned and wise. His pure character coming in contact with sin, was like Shirisha flower exposed in the sun. He died in the K. E.* Forty eight, in the mouth of Kartika, on the third bright lunar day.
The queen was excessively grieved at the death of her son whose infant son Nandigupta became king. For a short time, the queen, remained sunk in grief and did not exercise much cruelty. And from that time she became religious. The superintendent of the city, named Bhuyya, brother of Sindhu, and a good man, was her adviser in her pious deeds. She was how once more loved by all, because of her affection towards her subjects. Ministers who allay the cruelty of their sovereigns are scarce. For
* Kahmirian Era.
[p.163]: the benefit; of her dead son, the queen built a town, named Abhimanyupura, and an image of a god, named Abhimanyusvami. She then went to Diddapura and set up a god Diddāsvami, and a temple for the convenience of travellers from the interior of the country. For the benefit of her dead husband, she built Kangkanapura, and there set up an image of another god (Vishnu) of white stone which was also called Diddāsvāmi. She also built a large house (a sarai) for the Kashmirians and for her own countrymen *(the People of Lohara.) She set up a god named Sinoasvami after her father's name, and built a house far the dwelling of tho Brahmanas of her country. At the junction of the Vitasta and the Sindhu River, she built temples and houses of gods, and made the place holy. She built in all sixty-four images of gods. She repaired the part of the city, which was injured by fire ; and built stone walls to the temples. Her female servant Valgā of Vaivadhika caste, who used to support this crippled queen in her pastimes built a temple named Valgamatha. Vicious persons may do good things ; but that is no guarantee that they will not commit what is evil. The fish which noiselessly play in the river, eat their own species. Peacocks live merely on rain water, but eat snakes which live on air, and the heron who sits still as in silent prayer, devours the fishes who trust him. In one year, the grief of the queen was allayed. She attempted to take away the life of her grandson, a boy bent on his play, by magic In the K.E. 49 in
[p.164]: the month of Agrahāyana, on tho twelfth bright lunar day, she killed the child. In the K. E. 51 in the month of Agrahāyana, on the fifth bright lunar day, she killed her other grandson named Tribhuvana.
The last surviving grandson Bhimagupta, was coronated by the cruel queen, in order to be murdered. In the meantime the minister Phalguna was murdered. It was through him that her atrocities were partly concealed from the public. She now appeared to the subjects in her hideous character. The character of a woman though born of high family, is low even as a river which rises from the mountain but runs down-wards. Lakshmi born of sea, loves the lily which grows in a tank, even in the same manner, women born of high family, degrade themselves.
In a village named Vaddivasaparnotasa there was born one named Vāna of the tribe of Khasha. He had a son named Tungga, who tended buffaloes. This man with his five brothers came to Kashmira, and entered the service of the minister for war and peace; and was employed to carry letters. He once brought a letter to the queen, she saw him, and fell in love with him. And though she enjoyed the intimacy of many persons, still she took this man to her favor. This shameless and vicious queen while living with Tungga murdered Bhuyya because he refused to live in criminal intimacy with her. Fie to wicked and hard hearted masters, who have no sense of justice in them. Good work brings no reward, hut when any fault is committed both life and wealth are
[p.165]: lost. And to Rankka's son, the shameless Devakalasha used to procure paramours for her, the queen gave the post of Velavita lately occupied by Bhuyya. Even Kardamaraja and others who were warriors and lords of Dvara did the same mean service for her. After a residences of four or five years in the palace, the infant king grew to be a sensible boy. He saw that the laws of the kingdom were bad, and that it was necessary to reform them; and he observed that his grand-mother's charaotor was disreputable. It was owing to the private instructions of Abhimanyu's widow that the young king turned so good. The cruel and sinful queen became alarmed and guided by the advice of Devakalasha, and without feeling any shame, openly bound the king. This act of hers cleared the doubt which the people had of the queen's guilt in respect of the murder of Nandigupta. And having put Bhimagupta to death after much torture, she usurped the throne in the K. E. 56.
Tungga, to whom the queen became every day more and more attached, at last superseded all, and became the chief minister. The old ministers made peace with Tungga and his five brothers, in order to conceal their attempt to effect a revolution in the kingdom. They consulted with the inhabitants of Kashmira, and called in the son of the queen's brother, the spirited Vigraharaja, who again brought in some Brahmanas to perform certain ceremonies for the success of their effort. The Brahmanas advised the murder of Tungga, and the
[p.166]: oppressed people began to seek for Tungga in order to kill him. Didda shut up Tungga in a room, and waited for few days apprehending an attack. She bribed Sumanomattaka and other Brahmanas with her gold. The intended attack, being thus bought off Vigraharaja was obliged to retire. Tungga was once more safe in his place and killed Kardamaraja and others who had attempted rebellion. Sulakkana son of Rakka, and other chief ministers were either exiled or allowed remain in the court according as Tungga and his partisans were angry or pleased with them.
Vigraharaja again began secretly to engage the Brahmanas to his party. But Tungga came upon them and captured the Brahmanas who were bribed. One Aditya, a favorite of Vigraharaja attempted to fly, but was caught by the soldiers and killed. Vatsaraja, a follower of Vigraharaja was flying, but was wounded and captured. Tungga bound Sumanomattaka and other Brahmanas, and sent them to prison.
On the death of Phalguna, the king of Rajapuri became very insolent, which led to an attack on him by the ministers of Kashmira. In the battle which ensued with Prithvipala, commander of the Rajapuri forces, many were destroyed on either side. Two of the ministers of Kashmira Shipātaka and Hansaraja perished. But Tungga with his brothers suddenly entered the city by another way, and set it on fire. The Rajapuri army well as Prithvipala and their king were defeated, and the king
[p.167]: now humbled consented to pay tribute to Tungga ; be that Tungga recovered the money which was spent in the war. Returning to the capital of Kashmira, the powerful Tungga accepted the lordship of Kampana and destroyed the villages of the Damaras.
Didda fearlessly made Sanggramaraja, the son of her brother Udayaraja, Yuvaraja. Her selection was made in the following manner. In order to test her nephews who were all young, she threw some fruits among them, and wished to see who could gather most. The princes began to quarrel with one another. She saw that while many of them had gathered the fruits, after being much beaten by their comrades, Sanggramaraja had gathered many without being hurt at all. She then asked him the cause of his success, to which he replied ; :"I set the others to quarrel and gathered the fruits without being hurt. For who does not gain his end by inducing others to danger and keeping himself aloof."
The queen heard his wily words, and according to her feminine judgment thought him fit for the kingdom. The hero meditates conquest by strength, and the timid by wiles.
In the K. E. 89 in the month of Vādra, on the eighth bright lunar day, the queen died, and the Yuvarija became king. This is the third change in dynasties effected by women. On the destruction of the Kaktaka dynasty (whose history is narrated in this book) that of the Sātavāha flourished ; as the mango trees flourish in the pleasure garden drenched with rain when the bad trees
[p.168]: are burnt by the wood-fire. The mildness of Sanggramaraja shewed his patience. And he supported the earth with his arms as the serpent-king does with his numerous heads.
There were ten kings during a period of sixty-four years and twenty-three days.