Deva Samhita

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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क
Lord Shiva

The Samhitas

Shiva and Parvati

These sacred texts[1], revealed to the adepts of the hoary antiquity, were carefully preserved by the line of faithful disciples and later methodically compiled by the Rishis in the form of the Samhitas. These Samhitas, the books of universal knowledge, are classified into three categories, viz.,

  • 1. Deva-Samhita (देव संहिता), that consists of entirely the most secret teachings,
  • 2. Asura-Samhita (असुर संहिता), that consists of secular knowledge, arts, science and technology, and
  • 3. Rishi-Samhita (ऋषि संहिता), that consists of both the secret teachings as well as the secular knowledge, i.e., Para and Apara Vidyas.

Deva Samhita

Among these three, it may be noted, the Deva-[Samhita] has been kept most secret and guarded by the [Mahatmas], who after performing the great mustic sacrifice within themselves have attained godhood and dwell in [Naka], the higher plane of absolute bliss along with the [Sadhyas] of their like of the preceding ages. The scriptural injunction about the transmission of the supreme secret concealed in the Deva-Samhita to any but to the disciplinary line is very clear and emphatic. It observes that the secret heritage preserved in this Samhita should under no circumstances and at no event, be transmitted to an undeserving disciple who has no regard whatsoever for the Brahma-Prishtha, the great Vedic heritage. This great tradition came down in regular succession among the royal sages for a longtime in the past but was later lost for want of worthy successors. Shri Krishna calls this secret doctrine as imperishable yoga and also uttamam rahasyam, supreme secret, which he passes on to Arjuna, his faithful devotee and friend and tells him at the end of the long dialogue: "The secret teaching should never be imparted to a person who is devoid of austerities, nor to one who is without devotion, nor even to him who is unwilling to hear, and again to him who speaks ill of me".

The Deva-Samhita, dealt with the Brahma-Vidya, i.e., the discipline pertaining to Atman and Paramatman, and the spiritual experiments that will lead one ultimately to Para Shanti, was always studied in seclusion in the most guarded secret places, in the tapovanas or mentally transmitted to the selective initiated chelas, who themselves were already on the advanced stage of spiritual experiments. This Samihita has, therefore, been designated as Sarva-Paroksa, not accessible or perceptible to any but to the disciples chosen on strict spiritual test. This knowledge, the Vedas say, must be communicated only in secret where one can feel the revibration of the glory and there too only to those who have attained the shining divine power through their [Sadhana].

Jats mentioned in Devasamhita

देवसंहिता के कुछ श्लोक निम्न प्रकार हैं-

भगवन सर्व भूतेश सर्व धर्म विदाम्बरः
कृपया कथ्यतां नाथ जाटानां जन्म कर्मजम् ।।12।।

अर्थ- हे भगवन! हे भूतेश! हे सर्व धर्म विशारदों में श्रेष्ठ! हे स्वामिन! आप कृपा करके मेरे तईं जाट जाति का जन्म एवं कर्म कथन कीजिये ।।12।।

का च माता पिता ह्वेषां का जाति बद किकुलं ।
कस्तिन काले शुभे जाता प्रश्नानेतान बद प्रभो ।।13।।

अर्थ- हे शंकरजी ! इनकी माता कौन है, पिता कौन है, जाति कौन है, किस काल में इनका जन्म हुआ है ? ।।13।।

श्री महादेव उवाच:
श्रृणु देवि जगद्वन्दे सत्यं सत्यं वदामिते ।
जटानां जन्मकर्माणि यन्न पूर्व प्रकाशितं ।।14।।

अर्थ- महादेवजी पार्वती का अभिप्राय जानकर बोले कि जगन्माता भगवती ! जाट जाति का जन्म कर्म मैं तुम्हारी ताईं सत्य-सत्य कथन करता हूँ कि जो आज पर्यंत किसी ने न श्रवण किया है और न कथन किया है ।।14।।

महाबला महावीर्या, महासत्य पराक्रमाः ।
सर्वाग्रे क्षत्रिया जट्‌टा देवकल्‍पा दृढ़-व्रता: || 15 ||

अर्थ- शिवजी बोले कि जाट महाबली हैं, महा वीर्यवान और बड़े पराक्रमी हैं क्षत्रिय प्रभृति क्षितिपालों के पूर्व काल में यह जाति ही पृथ्वी पर राजे-महाराजे रहीं । जाट जाति देव-जाति से श्रेष्ठ है, और दृढ़-प्रतिज्ञा वाले हैं || 15 ||

श्रृष्टेरादौ महामाये वीर भद्रस्य शक्तित: ।
कन्यानां दक्षस्य गर्भे जाता जट्टा महेश्वरी || 16 ||

अर्थ- शंकरजी बोले हे भगवती ! सृष्टि के आदि में वीरभद्रजी की योगमाया के प्रभाव से उत्पन्न जो पुरूष उनके द्वारा और ब्रह्मपुत्र दक्ष महाराज की कन्या गणी से जाट जाति उत्पन्न होती भई, सो आगे स्पष्ट होवेगा || 16 ||

गर्व खर्चोत्र विग्राणां देवानां च महेश्वरी ।
विचित्रं विस्‍मयं सत्‍वं पौराण कै साङ्गीपितं || 17 ||

अर्थ- शंकरजी बोले हे देवि  ! जाट जाति की उत्पत्ति का जो इतिहास है सो अत्यन्त आश्चर्यमय है । इस इतिहास में विप्र जाति एवं देव जाति का गर्व खर्च होता है । इस कारण इतिहास वर्णनकर्ता कविगणों ने जाट जाति के इतिहास को प्रकाश नहीं किया है || 17 ||

Deva Samhita[2]

Deva Samhitā (देवसंहिता) is a collection of Sanskrit hymns by Gorakh Sinha during the early medieval period. Deva Samhitā propounded the theory of Origin of Jats from Shiva's Locks. [3] [4] [5] Devasamhita records an account of the Origin of the Jats in the form of discussion between Shiva and Parvati expressed in shloka (verses). Pārvatī asks Shiva, O Lord Bhutesha, knower of all religions, kindly narrate about the birth and exploits of the Jat race. Who is their father? Who is their mother? Which race are they? When were they born? Having read the mind of Parvati, Shiva said, "O mother of the world, I may tell you honestly the origin and exploits of the Jats about whom none else has so far revealed anything to you. Some relevant verses are given below.

There is mention of Jats in Deva Samhitā [6] in the form of powerful rulers over vast plains of Central Asia[7]. When Pārvatī asks Shiva about the origin of Jats, their antiquity and characters of Jats, Shiva tells her like this in Sanskrit shloka-15 as under:

महाबला महावीर्या, महासत्य पराक्रमाः Mahābalā mahāvīryā, Mahāsatya parākramāḥ
सर्वाग्रे क्षत्रिया जट्‌टा देवकल्‍पा दृढ़-व्रता: Sarvāgre kshatriyā jattā Devakalpā dridh-vratāḥ || 15 ||
Meaning - "They are symbol of sacrifice, bravery and industry. They are, like gods, firm of determination and of all the kshatriyā, the Jats are the prime rulers of the earth." [8]

Shiva explains Parvati about the origin of Jats in Shloka –16 of Deva samhita as under:

श्रृष्टेरादौ महामाये वीर भद्रस्य शक्तित: Shrishterādau mahāmāye Virabhadrasya shaktitaḥ
कन्यानां दक्षस्य गर्भे जाता जट्टा महेश्वरी Kanyānām Dakshasya garbhe jātā jattā maheshwarī. || 16 ||
Meaning – "In the beginning of the universe with the personification of the illusionary powers of Virabhadra and Daksha's daughter gani's womb originated the caste of Jats."

Pārvatī asks, in the shloka-17 of 'Deva Samhitā' about the origin and exploits of the Jats, whom none else has so far revealed, Shiva tells Parvati that:

गर्व खर्चोत्र विग्राणां देवानां च महेश्वरी Garva kharchotra vigrānam devānām cha maheshwarī
विचित्रं विस्‍मयं सत्‍वं पौराण कै साङ्गीपितं Vichitram vismayam satvam Pauran kai sāngīpitam || 17 ||
Meaning - "The history of origin of Jats is extremely wonderful and their antiquity glorious. The Pundits of history did not record their annals, lest it should injure and impair their false pride of the vipras and gods. We describe that realistic history before you."

Daksha's sacrifice by Virabhadra

The mention of ganas is in the form of attendants of Shiva in the story of creation of Virabhadra and destruction of Daksha in Hindu mythology. One day Daksha made arrangements for a great horse sacrifice, and invited all the gods omitting only Shiva. Shiva's first wife was Sati and daughter of Daksha Prajapati. Sati, being greatly humiliated, went to the banquet and Sati released the inward consuming fire and fell dead at Daksha's feet. Narada bore this news to Shiva. Shiva burned with anger, created Vīrabhadra who bowed at Shiva's feet and asked his will. [9]

Shiva directed Virabhadra: "Lead my army against Daksha and destroy his sacrifice; fear not the Brahmanas, for thou art a portion of my very self". On this direction of Shiva, Virabhadra appeared with Shiva's ganas in the midst of Daksha's assembly like a storm wind and broke the sacrificial vessels, polluted the offerings, insulted the priests and finally cut off Daksha's head, trampled on Indra, broke the staff of Yama, scattered the gods on every side; the he returned to Kailash. [10]

Deva Samhita mentions that after the destruction of Daksha's sacrifice by Virabhadra and his ganas, the followers of Shiva, the defeated gods sought Brahma and asked his counsel. Brahma advised the gods to make their peace with Shiva. Shiva accepted his advice and restored the burnt head of Daksha and the broken limbs were made whole. Then the devas thanked Shiva for his gentleness, and invited him to sacrifice. There Daksha looked on him with reverence, the rite was duly performed, and there also Vishnu appeared. A compromise was achieved between Vaishnavas and followers of Shiva.

The above story of creation of Virabhadra from the Shiva’s lock and destruction of Daksha by Virabhadra and his ganas is mythical and not scientifically possible but has some historical facts in it. Thakur Deshraj has explained that there was a clan of Jats named Shivi who had a republic ruled by democratic system of administration known as ganatantra. Kshudrakas had formed a sangha with Malavas. Shivis formed a sangha with a big federation or sangha known as Jat, which is clear from Paninis shloka in grammar of Aṣṭādhyāyī given below. [11]

The historian Ram Swaroop Joon explains that Shiva lived in Gangotri Hills which, due to Shiva's popularity, came to be known as Shiva's Jata. The mountain ranges in that area is now known as Shivaliks. Raja Virabhadra of the Puru dynasty was the ruler of 'Talkhapur' near Haridwar, which also formed part of the area known as 'Shiv ki Jata'. [12]

This is the area around Haridwar. King Bhagiratha brought the Ganga to the plains in this region. According to legend the Ganga flows out from Shiva's Jata. Actually this also means that the Ganga flows out from the area known as 'Shiv ki Jata', the birthplace of the Jat Raja Virabhadra who was a follower and admirer of Shiva. On hearing of Sati's tragedy, Shiva went to the durbar of Virabhadra and pulled at his hair in fury while narrating the story. This infuriated Virabhadra and with his army, are invaded Kankhal and killed Daksha. [13]

ठाकुर देशराज के जाट इतिहास से

ठाकुर देशराज [14]लिखते हैं कि जाटों की उत्पत्ति के सम्बन्ध में एक मनोरंजक कथा कही जाती है. महादेवजी के श्वसुर राजा दक्ष ने यज्ञ रचा और अन्य प्रायः सभी देवताओं को तो यज्ञ में बुलाया पर न तो महादेवजी को ही बुलाया और न ही अपनी पुत्री सती को ही निमंत्रित किया. पिता का यज्ञ समझ कर सती बिना बुलाए ही पहुँच गयी, किंतु जब उसने वहां देखा कि न तो उनके पति का भाग ही निकाला गया है और न उसका ही सत्कार किया गया इसलिए उसने वहीं प्राणांत कर दिए. महादेवजी को जब यह समाचार मिला, तो उन्होंने दक्ष और उसके सलाहकारों को दंड देने के लिए अपनी जटा से 'वीरभद्र' नामक गण उत्पन्न किया. वीरभद्र ने अपने अन्य साथी गणों के साथ आकर दक्ष का सर काट लिया और उसके साथियों को भी पूरा दंड दिया. यह केवल किंवदंती ही नहीं बल्कि संस्कृत श्लोकों में इसकी पूरी रचना की गयी है जो देवसंहिता के नाम से जानी जाती है. इसमें लिखा है कि विष्णु ने आकर शिवाजी को प्रसन्न करके उनके वरदान से दक्ष को जीवित किया और दक्ष और शिवाजी में समझोता कराने के बाद शिवाजी से प्रार्थना की कि महाराज आप अपने मतानुयाई 'जाटों' का यज्ञोपवीत संस्कार क्यों नहीं करवा लेते? ताकि हमारे भक्त वैष्णव और आपके भक्तों में कोई झगड़ा न रहे. लेकिन शिवाजी ने विष्णु की इस प्रार्थना पर यह उत्तर दिया कि मेरे अनुयाई भी प्रधान हैं.


  2. Gorakh Sinha during the early medieval period
  3. Y.P.Shastri, op.cit., p.40-41
  4. Dr Ram Swarup Joon, History of the Jats (Eng), 1967, p.14-15
  5. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter II, pp.85-86.
  6. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter II, pp.87-88.
  7. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.22
  8. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.18
  9. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus and Bhuddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  10. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus and Bhuddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  11. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88.
  12. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats (1938, 1967)
  13. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats (1938, 1967)
  14. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter II, pp.87-88.

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