It is an Indo-European language within the smaller Indo-Iranian subfamily. Unusually for an Indo-European language, Punjabi is tonal; the tones arose as a reinterpretation of different consonant series in terms of pitch. In terms of linguistic typology it is an inflecting language, and word order is Subject Object Verb.
Dialects and geographic distribution
Being one of the widely spoken languages in the world, Punjabi is the official language of the Indian State of Punjab and the shared State Capital Chandigarh. It is one of the second official languages of Delhi and Haryana. It is also spoken in neighbouring areas such as Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Punjabi is the predominantly spoken language in the Punjab province of Pakistan (and the most widely spoken language in Pakistan according to the CIA factbook), although it has no official status there, and both Urdu and English are preferred languages of the elite of Pakistan.
Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabis have emigrated in large numbers such as the United States, Australia, England (where it is the second most commonly used language) and Canada (where it is the fifth most commonly used language). In recent times Punjabi has grown fast and has now become the fourth most spoken language in Canada.
Punjabi is the preferred language of most Sikhs, (most of their religious literature being written in it) and Punjabi Hindus. It is the usual language of Bhangra music, which has recently gained wide popularity both in South Asia and abroad.
There are many dialects of Punjabi and they all form part of a dialect continuum, merging with Sindhi and related languages in Pakistan, and Hindustani in India. The main dialects of Punjabi are Majhi, Doabi, Malwai and Powadhi in India, and Pothohari, Lahndi and Multani in Pakistan. Majhi is the standard written form of Punjabi. Punjabi is the fifth top language. It is spoken mainly in Punjab.
- Eastern (Central Zone): Bhattiani (a mixture of Punjabi and Rajasthani), Powadhi, Doabi, Malwai, Majhi, Bathi
- Western (Northwestern Zone, Lahndi): Multani, Hindko, Pothohari
- Northern Zone: Dogri, Pahari
As classified in SIL Ethnologue:
└Indo-Aryan └Northern zone └Western Pahari └Dogri [dgo] └Central zone └Eastern Punjabi [pan] └Northwestern zone └Lahnda [lah] ├Jakati [jat] ├Mirpur Punjabi [pmu] ├Northern Hindko [hno] ├Pahari-Potwari [phr] ├Siraiki [skr] ├Southern Hindko [hnd] └Western Punjabi [pnb]
Western and Eastern Punjabi
Many sourcesTemplate:Who subdivide the Punjabi language into Western Punjabi or Lahndi (Template:Lang), and Eastern Punjabi. They tend to do so based on GA Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India. The decision to divide the language has been controversial. The exact division of the language and even the legitimacy of such a division is disputed.
The dialect spoken in central Punjabi — on both the Indian and Pakistani sides — is Majhi or Majhaili. Grierson defined Western Punjabi (which he called "Lahnda") as being west of a line running north-south from Sahiwal and Gujranwala districts. This is well within present day Pakistan. Masica remarks that "whatever validity Frierson's line may once have had has no doubt been disturbed by the great movements of population associated with partition". Contrary to this, Ethnologue has come to classify Lahndi as the dialect of Punjabi spoken in all of Pakistan.
Main article: Punjabi grammar
There are several scripts used for writing in Punjabi, depending on the region and the dialect spoken, as well as the religion of the speaker. In the Punjab province of Pakistan, the script used is Shahmukhi (from the mouth of the Kings), a modified version of Persian-Nasta'liq (Arabic) script. In the Indian State of Punjab, Sikhs and others use the Gurmukhī (from the mouth of the Gurus) script. Hindus, and those living in neighbouring Indian states such as Haryana and Himachal Pradesh sometimes use the Devanāgarī script also to write Punjabi. However, Gurmukhī and Shahmukhi scripts are the most commonly used for writing Punjabi and are considered the official scripts of the language.
Role in Education
- Punjabi Dictionary English to Punjabi Dictionary
- Punjabi to English Dictionary Convert Punjabi word into English
- Punjabi to English dictionary Punjabi Dictionary
- Punjabi Kosh Free Windows based Punjabi->English->Punjabi dictionary
- Punjabi Kashmiri Dictionary by Omkar N Koul and Rattan Lal Talashi. Patiala: Language Department. 1998.
- The Times of India - "Punjabi, Urdu made official languages in Delhi" 25 June 2003
- CIA World Factbook, Pakistan- People
- "Punjabi Community". The United Kingdom Parliament.
- Canadian Census Data (2001)
- Punjabi is 4th most spoken language in Canada-Indians Abroad-The Times of India
- Advanced Centre for Technical Development of Punjabi Language, Literature and Culture
- Template:Cite book
- -authentic Punjabi translation, English-Hindi translation at low cost
- Punjabi language history
- Online translator English to Punjabi, or vice-versa
- Punjabi Dictionary (Gurmukhi)
- Punjabi Kosh Free Unicode based Punjabi->English->Punjabi dictionary
- Punjabi language online tutorial
- Learn Gurmukhi - Sound and Graphics
- Panjabi Language
- Intuitive predictive transliteration technology for Punjabi
- Dulai, Narinder K. 1989. A Pedagogical Grammar of Punjabi. Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies.
- Dulai, Narinder K. and Omkar N Koul 1980. Punjabi Phonetic ReaderMysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
- Koul, Omkar N. and Madhu Bala 1989. Modes of Address and Pronominal Usage in Punjabi. Mysore: Cenral Institute of Indian languages.
- Koul, Omkar N. and Madhu Bala 1992. Punjabi Language and Linguistics: An Annotated Bibliography. Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies.
- Koul, Omkar N. and Madhu Bala 2007. Punjabi Newspaper Reader. Springfield: Dunwoody Press.
- Sukhvinder Singh 2006. Panjabi Phonology: A Sociolinguistic Study. Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies.
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