Pakistan

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Punjab province Pakistan
Sindh province Pakistan

Pakistan (Hindi: पाकिस्तान, Urdu: پاکستان) is a country located in South Asia, while its western provinces are contiguous with Central Asia and the Middle East. It has a 1,046 kilometer coastline along the Arabian Sea in the south, and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast.

History

Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world and is the second most populous country with a Muslim majority. Its territory was a part of the pre-partitioned British India and has a long history of settlement and civilisation including the Indus Valley Civilisation. Most of it was conquered in the 1st millennium BCE by Persians and Greeks. Later arrivals include the Arabs, Afghans, Turks, Baloch and Mongols. The territory was incorporated into the British India in the nineteenth century.

Origin

The name "Pakistan" means "Land of the Pure" in Urdu, Sindhi, and Persian. It was coined in 1934 as "Pakstan" by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, who published it in the pamphlet Now or Never.[1] The name represented, according to Ali, the "thirty million Muslims of PAKSTAN, who live in the five Northern Units of (British) India—Punjab, N.W.F.P. (Afghania), Kashmir, Sindh, and Baluchistan."[2] The nation was founded officially as the Dominion of Pakistan in 1947, and was renamed the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in 1956.

Modern day Pakistan consists of four major parts called provinces Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan and North-West Frontier Province. It also governs part of Kashmir which is currently split between Pakistan and India. The Indus region was the site of several ancient cultures including Mehrgarh, one of the world's earliest known towns, and the Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BCE - 1500 BCE) at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.

Waves of conquerors and migrants including Harappan, Indo-Aryan, Persian, Grecian, Saka, Parthian, Kushan, White Hun, Afghan, Arab, Turkics, and Mughal settled in the Indo-Gangetic plains throughout the centuries, influencing the locals and being absorbed among them. The modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947, but the region has an extensive history that overlaps with the histories of India, Afghanistan and Iran. The region is a crossroad of historic trade routes, including the Silk Road. 17th century Badshahi Masjid built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore 17th century Badshahi Masjid built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore

The Indus Valley civilization collapsed in the middle of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Vedic Civilisation, which extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plains. Successive empires and kingdoms ruled the region from the Achaemenid Persian empire around 543 BCE, to Alexander the Great in 326 BCE and the Mauryan empire. The Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab from 184 BCE, and reached its greatest extent under Menander, establishing the Greco-Buddhist period with advances in trade and culture. The city of Taxila (Takshashila) became a major centre of learning in ancient times - the remains of the city, located to the west of Islamabad, are one of the country's major archaeological sites.

The History of Pakistan: The Kushans

Source - Source - http://www.kushan.org/general/other/part1.htm

These are extracts from the history of Pakistan written by pak_history@yahoo.com (name withheld by request of author). They were originaly posted on usenet on soc.culture.pakistan in 1998. They have been edited so that only sections dealing with Kushan history are preserved here. The hyperlinks included are references to my own glossary of names and places. Obviously this material falls under the copyright of the original author whose permission has been sought in reproducing it here. The author has a website at http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Embassy/6817/main.html THE KUSHANS

The next important chapter in Pakistan's history begins with the arrival of another wave of Central Asian tribes called the Yueh-chi. Because of the turbulent and unsettled conditions on the borders of China, one tribe was chasing out the other and occupying their grazing lands. One such movement brought the Yueh-chi to Pakistan, a branch of which was known as the Kushans. This was about the middle of the first century A.D. The Kushans overthrew the Saka-Parthian princes and established an empire which became one of the world's greatest and most distinguished both from the point of view of territory as well as cultural and religious achievements. The Kushan ruler who Conquered Pakistan was Vima Kadphises who was succeeded in about 78 A.D. by Kanishka. The Kushan rule, however, did not completely eliminate the Sakas from Pakistan. They had permanently settled down in these areas in large numbers and continued to be governed by their princes who merely extended allegiance to the Kushan kings.This is proved by the Sue Vihara inscription in the Bahawalpur Division which is dated in the regnal year of Kanishka 11 (89 A.D.). Even the era said to have been founded by Kanishka in 78 A.D. was known as Saka Era. "There is evidence to show that they (Sakas) still governed their own states, no doubt as feudatories more or less nominal of the Kushans."32

The Kushans, with their capital at Purushapura (Peshawar) had their dominions on both sides of the Hindu Kush i.e., extending up to and including parts of Turkistan in the north-west, embracing the whole of modern Afghanistan, and in the east the entire of Pakistan and major portion of northern India. The greatest ruler of the dynasty, Kanishka, had adopted Buddhism and it was during his period that both Buddhist religion and Greek art reached their zenith which is known under the nomenclature of Gandhara Civilization. It was again during his regime and because of his efforts that Buddhism spread in Central Asia and China. This period is regarded as the most important in the history of Buddhism.

The budding and blossoming of Gandhara art was not a new phenomena in Pakistan's history as this land had given birth to several such brilliant civilizations since pre-historic times beginning with Indus Valley Civilization. Judeiro Daro and Shahi Tump in Baluchistan; Moenjo Daro, Kot Diji, Amri, Chanhu Daro, and Sehwan in Sind; Harappa, Sari Kola and Taxila in the Punjab, Takht-i-Bahi and Mingora in NWFP have been seats of learning and art, centres of great religious activity and pivots of political power. It may be pointed out that Sari Kola in Pindi Division (3000 B.C.), Kot Diji in Khairpur Division (2800 B.C.) and Amri in Dadu District (3000 B.C.) are all pre-Indus Valley civilizations. "When the great monarch Kanishka actively espoused the cause of Buddhism and essayed to play the part of a second Ashoka, the devotion of the adherents of the favoured creed received an impulse which speedily resulted in the copious production of artistic creations of no small merit. "In literature the memory of Kanishka is associated with the names of the eminent Buddhist writers Nagarjuna, Asvaghosha and Vasumitra. Asvaghosha is described as having been a poet, musician, scholar, religious controversialist and zealous Buddhist monk. Charaka, the most celebrated of the early Indian authors treating of medical science, is reputed to have been the court physician of Kanishka. "Architecture, with its subsidiary art of sculpture, enjoyed the liberal patronage of Kanishka, who was like Ashoka a great builder. The tower at Peshawar built over the relics of Buddha and chiefly constructed of timber stood 400 feet high. The Sirsukh section of Taxila hides the ruins of the city built by Kanishka. A town in Kashmir, still represented by a village bore the King's name."33 A unique feature of Kanishka's empire was that with the capital at Peshawar its frontiers touched the borders of all the great civilizations of the time, while its Central Asian provinces lay astride the Roman-Middle East-Chinese trade routes. Roman Empire during the days of Trajan and Hadrian (98-138 A.D.) had expanded furthest East almost touching Pakistan's Kushan Empire. Similarly, Kanishka's conquests had brought Khotan, Yarkand and Kashgar within Pakistan's jurisdiction effecting direct contact with China. This was one of the most important factors in providing impetus to art and architecture, science and learning in Pakistan. The best specimen of Graeco-Roman art discovered in and around Peshawar, Swat and Taxila belong to this period, mostly executed during the 2nd century A.D. in the reigns of Kanishka and his son Huvislika. The Kushans exchanged embassies with the Chinese as well as the Romans. Mark Antony had sent ambassadors, and the Kushans sent a return embassy to the court of Augustus "In the middle of the first century of our era, one of the Tokhari princes belonging to the Kushans, Kujula Kadphises, unified the dispersed Tokhari principalities. As he grew stronger, the leader of the Kushans extended his suzerainship to the lands south of the Hindu Kush, in the Kabul Basin and on the Upper Indus. Kujula Kadphises's successors, the most prominent of whom was Kanishka (circa A.D. 78-120) kept on the expansive policy of his subcontinent (Kashmir, the Punjab and Sind). The rulers of Gujrat, Rajasthan and the states lying in the Ganges-Jumna doab were the vassals of the Kushan kings. The Kushan kings also held control of the territory of the present day Afghanistan, Kashgar, Khotan, Yarkand and the southern areas of Middle Asia. Gandhara i.e., the territory lying in the valleys of the Kabul and the Middle Indus, became the centre of a vast empire. The city of Purushapura (the present-day Peshawar) is known to have been the capital of Kanishka.

"The Kushan empire dissolved in the third century of our era. The Iranian shahs of the Sassanid dynasty took in the western territories. Various dynasties of Middle Asia took hold of the lands north of the Hindu Kush."34

After ruling for over two hundred years from the middle of the 1st century A.D. to the middle of the 3rd century A.D. the Kushan Empire collapsed. Already, a few decades earlier, its frontiers had shrinked to those of Pakistan having shed the territories beyond the Hindu Kush in Central Asia and eastward of Sutlej in India. The final blow was administered by Shahpur I, the head of a new dynasty of Sassanians that had emerged in Iran in 226 A.D. after a long period of anarchy prevailing for over 500 years since Alexander had eliminated the Achaemenians. "Shahpur I clearly includes in his Empire the greater part of Pakistan. Shahpur's son Narses had been made Shah of Seistan, Baluchistan and Sind and the seashore i.e., Pakistan and a bit more."35

But this time Iran could not keep its sway over Pakistan for long. Though defeated, Kushans continued to rule over Pakistan for a considerably long period with the smaller kingdoms still retained by the redoubtable Sakas---both being Central Asian tribes. It seemed that ethnically and politically the Central Asian elements had become a permanent feature of Pakistan. Strong Kushan-Saka dynasties continued to exist in Kabul and Pakistan until another great event in the history of this area i.e., the Hun invasions in the 5th century A.D.-----some principalities survived even till the Arab conquest.

An important development had taken place in the neighbouring Country of India a little earlier which deserves our attention. Buddhism, which was on the decline from the 3rd century A.D. onward was overthrown by Hinduism reasserting its lost hegemony. This process culminated with the coming into power of the Guptas by the end of the 4th century A.D. A point of considerable significance to be noted here is that though the Gupta Empire is considered one of the most glorious in the annals of Hindu history covering a vast area of this sub-continent, yet it could not bring Pakistan under its tutelage. During the Gupta period, Pakistan was in the hands of Kushan Shahis and Sassanians. Even during Samudragupta's triumphal career this region remained independent of India. "Samudragupta did not attempt to carry his arms across the Sutlej or to dispute the authority of the Kushan kings who continued to rule in and beyond the Indus basin...... Gupta Empire---the greatest in India since the days of Ashoka-- extended in the north to the base of the mountains, but did not include Kashmir"36

References:

32. Cambridge history of India, by EJ Rapson
33. Oxford history of India, by VA Smith
34. The peoples of Pakistan, by YV Gankovsky
35. Pakistan in early Sassanian times, by M Sprengling
36. Oxford history of India

Jats in Pakistan

Hyderabad city of Pakistan was founded by Nehra Jats. Nehras were rulers of Nehrun state in Sindh at the time of attack on Sindh by Muhammad bin Qasim in 710. Present Hyderabad city was settled on the land of Nehrun. The Hyderabad city was then named Nehrun Kot and was called the heart of the Mehran.

Jats in Sindh

Migration of Jats from Sindh

Sindh is a province of Pakistan. It is named after Sindhu gotra jats. Descendants of Maharaja Sindhu are Sindhu gotra jats. Sindhu river is also after Sindhu gotra. Jats appear to be the original race of Sind valley, stretching from the mouth of Indus to as far as the valley of Peshawar. [3] Sindh has been ruled by Balhara, Nehra, Panwar, Hala and Rai gotra of Jats.

However, Jats appear to be the original race of Sind valley, stretching from the mouth of Indus to as far as the valley of Peshawar. [4]Traditionally Jats of Sind consider their origin from the far northwest and claimed ancient Garh Gajni (modern Rawalpindi) as their original abode. [5] Persian chronicler Firishta strengthened this view and informs us that Jats were originally living near the river of the Koh-i-Jud (Salt Range) in northwest Punjab. [6] The Jats then occupied the Indus valley and settled themselves on both the banks of the Indus River. By the fourth century region of Multan was under their control.[7]Then they rose to the sovereign power and their ruler Jit Salindra, who promoted the renown of his race, started the Jat colonisation in Punjab and fortified the town Salpur/Sorpur, near Multan. [8] In the seventh century the Chinese traveler Hieun Tsang witnessed their settlement along the flat marshy lowlands which streches to some thousand li. [9] Ibn Hauqual mentions the area of their abode in between Mansura and Makran. [10] By the end of seventh century, Jats were thickly populated in Deybal region. [11] In the early eighth century, when the Arab commander Muhammad bin Qasim came to Sind, the Jats were living along both sides of the river Indus. Their main population was settled in the lower Sind, especially in the region of Brahmanabad (Mansura); Lohana (round the Brahmanabad) with their two territories Lakha, to the west of Lohana and Samma, to the south of Lohana; Nerun (modern Hyderabad); Dahlilah; Roar and Deybal. In the further east, their abode also extended in between Deybal, Kacheha (Qassa) and Kathiawar in Gujarat. In upper Sind they were settled in Siwistan (Schwan) and Alor/Aror region.[12][13]

Migration of Jats from Sindh

As for the migration of Jats from Sind, it may be assumed that natural calamity and increase in population compelled them to migrate from their original abode in search of livelihood.[14]Hoernle has propounded the 'wedge theory' for the migration of most of the ancient tribes. This wedge theory tends us to believe that the Jats were among the first wave of the Aryans, and their first southeast migration took place from the Nort-West, and established their rule at Sorpur in Multan regions. Further they migrated towards east and stretched their abode from Brahmanabad (Mansura) to Kathiawar. As Jataki, the peculiar dialect of the Jats, also proves that the Jats must have come from the NW Punjab and from other districts (e.g. Multan) dependent upon the great country of the Five rivers.[15] By the end of fifth and the beginning of the sixth century, their southward migration, second in line, took place and they reached Kota in Rajasthan, probably via Bikaner regions. From Kota they migrated further east and established their rule at Malwa under the rule of Salichandra, son of Vira Chandra. Salichandra erected a minster (mindra) on banks of the river Taveli in Malwa.[16] Probably after their defeat by Sultan Mahmud in 1027 AD, and later hard pressed by the Ghaznavi Turkish Commander, the Jats of Sind again migrated to Rajasthan and settled themselves in Bundi regions.[14]The second inscription found at Bundi probably dates from circa samvat 1191 (1135 AD) possibly refers to the Jats as opponents of the Parmara rulers of Rajasthan.[17]

Jats in Baluchistan

According to Dr Natthan Singh and Thakur Deshraj, Bal/Biloch is one of Jat gotras and Baluchistan gets its name from this clan.

According to Ram Swarup Joon, Gedown and Niel write that the forefathers, of Laumiri Baluchis were Jats. According to Todd, in ancient times the boundaries of Jat kingdom of Sindhu, included parts of Baluchistan, Makran, Balorari and the Salt Ranges. People of Gill gotra came to known as Gilzai Pathans; Gill Jats at one time ruled the area of Hindukush Mountains. The last ruler of Ghazni was Subhag Sen. At the time of Alexander's invasion king Chitra Verma ruled Baluchistan.

Sialkot and Quetta of Baluchistan were capitals of Madrak Kings. Makran province of Baluchistan belonged to the Jats. When King Sapur the second of Sasanian dynasty became friendly with Samudra Gupta, Sindhu and Makran provinces were given to the Jats.

According to Todd, in 1023, Umer Bin Moosaiw wrested Hirat and Kaikan from the Jats and made 3000 Jat soldiers prisoners. The Tawarikh Tibri by Sulaiman Nadvi also mentions this event. It states that a Jat Commander of Umer Bin Moosa refused to join the attack. But inspite of this, Umer was victorious despite heavy losses.

According to Thomson, Awans are a Jat race and were converted to Islam by Mahmud Ghaznavi. In several districts of the Punjab they are registered as Jats. Mr. Thomson in his Jehlum Settlement report adduces many strong reasons in support of his conclusion that the Awans are a Jat race who came from passes west of D.I.Khan. Griffin also agrees to the local Muslim origin of Awans while Cunningham holds that Janjuas and Awans are descended from Anu and calls them Anwan. Another scholar Wilson is of the view that Awans are of indigenous Hindu/Buddhist/Pagan/Animist origin. In the genealogical tree of the Nawabs of Kalabagh, who are regarded heads of the Awans, there are found several native names such as Rai, Harkaran, etc.[18]

In Pakistan, Rajput and Jat tribes are so mixed up that it is difficult to distinguish one from the other at many places and in several cases. Some of the Rajput tribes are probably of Jat origin and vice versa. In southwest Punjab the name Jat includes a most miscellaneous congries of tribes of all sorts. Its significance tends to be occupational: to denote a body of cultivators or agriculturists. Even tribes which bear well-known Rajput names are often classified as Jats in the Punjab. Anyway, the origin of both is the same as stated earlier.The Jats in ancient times inhabited the whole valley of the Indus down to Sind.... They now form a most numerous as well as the most important section of the agricultural population of Punjab. Beyond the Punjab, Jats are chiefly found in Sind where they form mass of the population. The main (Muslim) Rajput tribes of the Punjab are: Bhatti, Punwar, Chauhan, Minhas, Tiwana, Noon, Chib, Gheba, Jodhra, Janjua, Sial and Wattu etc.

While the important (Muslim) Jat tribes are: Bajwa, Chatta, Cheema, Randhawa, Ghammon, Buta, Kahlon, Gil, Sehota, Taror, Waraich, Summa, Wahla, Bhutta, Malhi, Sukhera, Alpials, Dahas, Langah, Ranghar, Meo, Awan, Khokhar, Ghakkar, etc. But some of these Rajput tribes are classified are Jats and vice versa. [19]

Jats in Sindh Pakistan

Girdhari Lal Legha, Jatland member, provided following info on Jats in Sindh (http://www.jatland.com/forums/showthread.php?33982-Jaat-in-Sindh-Pakistan): I am a new user, want to share info about Jat in Pakistan. I am also seeking our rilatives those who are residing in Rajasthan.

Here (in Pak) Jat (Hindu) are residing, near Rajasthan border side districts, which are Umarkot, Tharparkar, Mirpurkhas and Sanghar districts of Sindh Province. By subcaste /gotra - they are, Banbho, Mehya, Godara, Jakhar , Saran, Jajra, Delu, Banta, Chabrar, Sihag, Ponia, and Legha....


Jat Population according Gotra and village:

Total 700

A family consist on 4 to 12 members

By geological maps you can find these Villages/city.

List of Jat Clans of West Punjab (Pakistan)

Note - This list is from Wikipedia ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Jat_Clans_of_West_Punjab)

This is a list of Jat clans compiled by census takers for 1911 census of India. The list is ordered by administrative divisions, starting with the Lahore Division, and only refers to Muslim Jats.[20]

Please note that appearance of particular tribe as Jat in the list does not in itself confirm that the tribe is Jat or otherwise. Identity tends to change with time, and some groups in the list may no longer wish to be considered as Jats. This article is simply a reference point for anyone interested in the distribution of Jats tribes in the Punjab province of Pakistan, prior to the huge changes brought about by partition.


Lahore Division

Sialkot District

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Aulakh (614), Awan (714), Bains (626), Bajwa (13,727), Basra (3,583), Cheema (7,446), Deo (855), Dhariwal (524), Dhillon (2,758), Dhindsa (265), Ghumman (7,579), Gill (3,468), Heer (73), Hanjra (1,744), Kahlon (6,285), Kang (173), Lidhar (614), Maan (169), Nagra (299), Pannun (357), Sahi (1,786), Sarai (1,041), Sidhu (404), Sandhu (5,054), Virk (1,670) and, Waraich (5,917).

Gujranwala District

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Aulakh (357), Bajwa (2,483), Bhangu (372), Buttar (842), Chahal (609), Chatha (2,804), Chhina (3,252), Cheema (21,735), Deo (108), Dhariwal (744), Dhillon (769), Dhotar (357), Ghumman (1,429), Gill (2,635), Goraya (3,591), Haral (643), Hanjra (4,334), Kahlon (261), Kharal (12,077), Khokhar (7,893), Lodike (2,675), Maan (463), Mangat (549), Randhawa (577), Sahi (1,050), Sarai (296), Sidhu (196), Sandhu (3,192), Sipra (658), Samra (406), Tarar (4,841), Virk (7,644) and, Waraich (9,510).

Lahore District

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Aulakh (357), Awan (3,433), Bhatti (2,042), Bajwa (492), Bhullar (1,373), Buttar (198), Bath (340), Chauhan (393), Cheema (603), Chhina (742), Chander (1,221), Chahal (561), Deo (111), Dhillon (1,706), Dhariwal (752), Gill (2,381), Goraya (480), Ghumman (403), Gondal (1,080), Heer (376), Hanjra (836), Johiya (649), Khera (107), Kharal (2,064), Khokhar (2,708), Maan (637), Malhi (154), Pannun (7), Randhawa (162), Sidhu (1,022), Sandhu (9,965), Sarai (351), Sekhon (155), Sansi (522), Sial (1,373), Samra(45), Tarar (170), Uppal (87), Virk (1,375) and, Waraich (357)

Montgomery District (Sahiwal District)

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Arar (1,800), Bhadro (638), Bhatti (1,978), Chadhar (2,283), Chauhan (517), Dhakku (673), Dhudhi (582), Hans (964), Jakhar (676), Johiya (979), Kalsan (576), Khokhar (4,137), Kharal (735), Khichi (1,307), Mahar (1,225), Malil (1,633), Nonari (2,448), Sahu (1,178) and, Sial (3,709)


We have also included Gurdaspur and Amritsar Districts in this list, although both of these districts are in now in East Punjab as they formed part of the Lahore Division, and they were both home to a large community of Muslim Jats.

Amritsar District

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Aulakh (674), Bajwa (377), Bal (51), Bhangu (37), Bhullar (61), Chahal (91), Chadhar (166), Chhina (739), Cheema (137), Deo (237), Dhariwal (348), Dhillon (2,298), Ghumman (477), Gill (4,346), Goraya (412), Heer (74), Hanjra (142), Hundal (230), Kahlon (390), Kang (97), Mahil (38), Maan (95), Pannun (91), Randhawa (2,661), Sarai (171), Sidhu (879), Sandhu (2,054), Sohal (218), Samra (53), Virk (325) and, Waraich (492).

Gurdaspur District

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Atwal (227), Aulakh (99), Bajwa (844), Bains (853), Baal (117), Basra (458), Bhangu (106), Bhullar (192), Buttar (605), Bupa Rai (9), Chahal (48), Chattar (880), Chhina (395), Chuna (415), Dhariwal (519), Dhillon (245), Gadri (555), Ghumman (851), Gill (1,198), Goraya (1,414), Hanjra (181), Jandi (538), Johal (55), Kahlon (1,729), Kallu (821), Khera (239), Malhi (51), Mami (166), Maan (354), Nat (755), Padda (151), Pannun (107), Randhawa ( 2,283), Rayar (578), Sarai (580), Sidhu (1,155), Sandhu (783), Sohal (197), Samra (184), Thathaal (473), Virk (1,017), Wahla (1,512), Waraich (2,512)

Rawalpindi Division

Rawalpindi District

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Aura (610), Bangial (1,204), Baghial (96), Bains (1,332), Boria (46), Chhina (692), Dhamial (1,502), Dhamtal (520) , Gondal (816), Hindan (541), Kalial (129), Kanial (149), Khatrils (2,004), Mogial (69), Mial (25), Sudhan (175), Sial (420) and, Thathaal (53).

Jhelum District

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Chadhar (601), Dhamial (4,370), Dhudhi (526), Gangal (1,049), Ghogha (710), Gondal (6,549), Gujjral (788), Hariar (579), Haral (500), Jandral (618), Jangal (572), Jhammat (1,471), Jatal (710), Kalial (3,039), Kanial (2,603), Khanda (734), Khangar (1,146), Khatarmal (1,184), Khokhar (603), Khoti (646), Manhas (457), Matial (1,147), Mekan (1,229), Mogial (1,830), Phaphra (663), Serwal (572), Sial (1,125), Tama (617), Tarar (745), Thathaal (1,230) and, Raya (1,790).

Gujrat District

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:


Awan (1,780), Bagril (586), Bains or Wains (596), Bangial (1,679), Chadhar (976), Cheema (2,572), Chauhan 726, Dhillon (692), Dhotar (1,355), Ghumman ( 846), Gondal (23,355), Heer (1,451), Hanjra (3,736), Kang (1,032), Langrial (3,736), Mangat (1,075), Sahi (3,974), Sarai (631), Sipra (1,084), Tarar 14,365, Sandhu 3,442, Sial (1,511), Total (4,192), Thathaal (1,930), Virk (1,030), Waraich (41,557), Wadhan 662 and,

Shahpur (Sargodha District) District

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Awan (1,219), Baghiar (807), Bajwa (1,686), Bhatti (4,212), Bhutta (753), Burana (935), Bains (712), Chadhar (4,001), Chhina (1,299), Cheema (2,708), Dhako (799), Dhudhi (1,405), Dhal (691), Ghumman (1,065), Gondal (28,623), Goraya 652), Haral (2,110), Hatiar (739), Heer (553), Hanjra (790), Jarola (550), Johiya (2,884), Jhawari (1,092), Jora (718), Kalera (679), Kaliar (855), Kharal (715), Khichi (633), Khokhar (5,228), Khat (1,005), Lak (1,779), Lali (684), Langah (638), Marath (548), Mekan (5,435), Naswana (505), Noons (708), Panjutha (596), Parhar (1,880), Rehan (1,880), Ranjha (7,536), Sagoo (715), Sandrana (577), Sandhu (504), Sipra (1,763), Sohal (810), Sujal (2,594), Talokar (966), Tarar (1,716), Tatri (1,122), Tulla (1,311), Ves (1,158), Virk (626), Waraich (3,483).

Multan Division

Lyalpur District (Faisalabad District)

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Ahir (580), Atwal (1,849), Aulakh (876), Awan (2,085), Bains or Waince (2,635), Bajwa (3,868), Bar (1,084), Bandech (725), Bhatti (9,190), Chadhar (3,428), Chahal (444), Chhaj (510), Changar (843), Chatha (967), Cheema (629), Chhina (202), Chauhan (629), Dhillon (1,147), Dhariwal (596), Deo (610), Ghuman (1,022), Gill (3,865), Gondal (997), Goraya (2,158), Hundal (495), Haral (1,312), Hanjra (805), Janjua (509), Jauson (531), Johal (56), Johiya (1,371), Kahlon (3,037), Kaliar (312), Kamoka (943), Kalasan (581), Kharal (4,985), Khera (326), Khichi (2,219), Khinge (506), Khokhar (3,371), Lak (679), Lona (1,051), Lurka (2,288), Maan (437), Nonari (858), Pansota (1,941), Rajoke (981), Randhawa (2,335), Sahi (805), Sial (5,464), Sidhu (224), Sandhu (3,659), Sipra (1,943), Tarar (514), Vahniwal (782), Virk (1,005), Wahla (1,215), Waraich (3,443), Waseer (1,661), Wasli (67), Wattu (1,695), and

Mianwali District

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Ahir (521), Arar (678), Asar (678), Asran (662), Auler Khel (2,214), Aulakh (386), Aulara (1,915), Awan (3,614), Alakh (837), Bains or Waince (726), Bhatti (2,229), Bhachar (203), Bhidwal(1,295), Bhutta (545), Bhandar (589), Bhawan (593), Brakha (579), Bhamb (1,552), Chadhar (1,286), Chhina (3,076), Chahura (587), Chajri (594), Dharal (738), Dhal (1,471), Dhudhi (1, 114), Dhillon (?), Ghallu (1,478), Ghunera (1,279), Gorchi (1,054), Heer (1,034), Hansi (691), Janjua (986), Jakhar (1,424), Jhammat (462), Johiya ( 1,650), Jora (730), Khar (1,013), Khengar (1,555), Khokhar (3,126), Kundi (1,338), Kalu (1,582), Kohawer (496), Kanera (863), Kharal (646), Kalhar (600), Khichi (532), Kanial (785), Langah (626), Makal (562), Mallana (616), Unu (777), Pumma (893), Sahi (515), Samtia (77), Sangra (653), Saand (554), Sandhila (41), Sial (2,187), Sandi (981), Soomra orSoomro (611), Targar (3,011), Turkhel (255), Talokar (1,274),

Jhang District

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Awan (2,392), Aura (814), Chadhar (3,414), Dhudhi (600), Gilotar (1,497), Ganda (637), Gill (558), Gondal (900), Gujar (1,265), Haral (4,988), Hidan (914), Hanjra (1,176), Heer (584), Johiya (1,721), Juta (544), Kalsan (533), Kaloka (638), Kanwan (678), Kharal (1,792), Khichi (581), Khokhar (8,666), Kudhan (1,045), Lak (1,319), Lali (1,640), Lana (1,001), Mahra (597), Mahun (1,471), Marral (826), Maru (956), Nauls (2,136), Nonari (983), Noons (1,083), Rajoka (1,262), Sahmal (994), Satar (801), Sial (595) and, Sipra (3,092)

Muzaffargarh District

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Autrah (843), Babbar (2,363), Bhutta (2,803), Chatha (544), Chadhar (525), Daha (1,453), Ghallu (1,327), Hans (1,029), Janjua (778), Kalasra (1,281), Kalru (1,483), Khak (1,822), Kang (629), Lakaul (1,518), Langah (700), Lar (778), Mullana (1,797), Nonari (1,453), Parhar (2,610), Sahota (630), Sahu (870), Sandhel (2,477), Soomra or Soomro (611) and, Thaheem (1,748).

Multan District

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Arain (2,192), Bagar (602), Bagwar (1,179), Bhutta (9,697), Bhasa (1,829), Bilar (3,147), Bir (524), Bulla (6,691), Chachakar (974), Chachar (554), Chanal (919), Chandram (608), Chaughata (2,937), Charal (578), Chatha (1,612), Chavan (775), [Chadhar]] (884), Cheema (1,018), Dara (1,040), Dawana (1,210), Ghagar (1,177), Ghahi (301), Gill (503), Jajularu (2,379), Jakhar (175), Jhagar (1,177), Kachela (669), Khak (596), Khaki (596), Khichi (672), Lang (2,715), Langah ( 1,132), Langra (766), Langrial (753), Larsan (1,609), Lapra (579), Mahi (498), Maalta (121), Maho (934), Mahran (673), Mahre (1,018), Nonari (934), Nauls (611), Nourangi (1,247), Noon (3,766), Parhar (557), Parkar (753), Parohe (1,253), Pattiwala (816), Pukhowara (581), Raad (201), Raan (2,616), Rongia (689), Ruk (618), Sadal (674), Sadhari (974), Sadraj (1,091), Shajra (144), Sailigar (757), Samri (969), Sandhila (966), Shekha (674), Siana (933), Sipra (9), Soomra or Soomro (291), Thaheem (3,932), Uania (848), Vasli (649), Virk (328), Waseer (605) and, Wehi (2,509).

Dera Ghazi Khan District

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Aishiani (1,058), Awan (1,238), Babbar (4,294), Barra (1,927), Batwani (895), Bhatti (9,128), Bhutta (2,876), Buttar (1,292), Bab (5,257), Barar (501), Bohar (1,445), Chachar (1,898), Chhajra (913), Chhina (706), Changar (861), Chani (572), Chauhan (1,026), Dhandla (949), Daha (1,016), Dakhna (1,303), Darakhe (785), Dhol (638), Domra (822), Ghani (628), Hanbi (769), Heer (387), Hujan (733), Johiya (1,617), Jajalani (1,571), Kajla (558), Kanera (208), Kang (10), Khatti (612), Kachela (1,848), Kabru (554), Khak (556), Khaloti (720), Khera (567), Khokhar (3,465), Lakaul (1,157), Lak (658), Langah (1,558), Mahar (702), Mahesar (648), Metla (776), Mohana (663), Mulana (1,358), Malhan (529), Mangil (656), Manjotha (4,348), Meo (524), Makwal (1,091), Otrai (718), Parhar (1,144), Panwar (866), Phor (867), Sahota (994), Sandhila (1,082), Soomra or Soomro (2,508), Sambar ( 2,030), Shahkhani (961), Sial (3,915), Samdana (895), Thaheem (1,499) and, Virk (548)

Bahawalpur State

According to 1911 census, the following were the principal Muslim Jat clans:

Atera (575), Athar (581), Atral (500), Bains or Waince (837), Bhatia (733), Bhatti (1,951), Bipar (508), Bohar (3,863), Chachar (9,331), Chadhar (597), Chani (632), Chapal (2,120), Chaughata (791), Chauhan (567), Chawali (506), Chimar (947), Chozan (958), Dahar (1,307), Daia (1,364), Dakhu (823), Dangar (689), Daha (3,571), Dhandu (844), Dhar (1,074), Dhudhi (686), Duran (977), Gauja (1,047), Ghallu (2,508), Hans (580), Jam (788), Jammun (1,657), Jhammat (2,097), Jhulne (1,285), Khak (1,453), Kakrial (894), Kalia (525), Kalhora (1,031), Kalwar (1,271), Kamboh (679), Kande (557), Kathal (538), Katwal (912), Khak (514), Khar (840), Kharal (1,770), Khokhar (2,771), Khombra (637), Khera (540) Koral (794), Langah (3,118), Lodhra (985), Mahr (3,022), Mahar (2,493), Mahla (1,160), Maij (3,786), Makwal (473), Malak (4,042), Manela (628), Marral (880), Masson (537), Naich (4,093), Nanwa (1,833), Noon (930), Nonari (1,560), Uthera (1,817), Pannun (914), Panwat (1,676) Parhar (7,860), Panwar (7,702), Sahu (1,131), Samma (1,072), Sameja (943), Sangi (1,159), Sial (847), Soomra or Soomro (3,721), Thaheem (1,653), Tunwar (1,691) and

Notable Jats in Pakistan

Following list of notable Jats in Pakistan was provided by Kashif Hamid (kashif_boparai@yahoo.com )

1. Ch Muhammad Afzal Sahi - Former Speaker of Punjab Assembly (PML-Q)

2. Ch. Fazal Elahi Cheema ( Late) - Former Chief Justice and Care taker Presedent

3. Ali Ahmad Aulakh - Present Agriculture Minister Punjab Pakistan

4. Ch Nazar Muhamad Gondal - Present Federal Agriculture Minister Pakistan.

5. Salman Taseer - Governor of the Punjab

6. Ch Sardar Muhammad Boparai - Chief Engineer Motorway Project in Pakistan

See also

External links

References

  1. Text of the Now or Never pamphlet, issued on January 28, 1933
  2. Wolpert, Stanley. 1984. Jinnah of Pakistan. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 421 pages. ISBN 0195678591.
  3. Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
  4. Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
  5. Elliot, op. cit., Vol.I, p.133
  6. Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah Firista, Gulsan-i-Ibrahimi, commonly known as Tarikh-i-Firishta, Nawal Kishore edition, (Kanpur, 1865), Vol.I, p.35
  7. Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
  8. Inscription No.1, Tod, op.cit., Vol.I, p. 622-23.
  9. Beal, op. cif., II, p. 273; Walters, op. cit., II, p. 252.
  10. Ibn Hauqal, Ed. Vol.I, p.40
  11. Encyclopedia of Islam, vol.II, p.488
  12. Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
  13. Chachnama, pp. 165-66; Alberuni, Qanun al-Mas'udi, in Zeki Validi Togan, Sifat al-ma'mura ala'l-Biruni; Memoirs of the Archeological Survey of India No. 53, pp.16,72; Abu Abudullah Muhammad Idrisi, Kitab Nuzhat-ul-Mustaq, Engl. translation by S.Maqbul Ahmad, entitled India and the Neighbouring Territories, (I.eiden, 1960), pp.44,145
  14. 14.0 14.1 Dr S.Jabir Raza, The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Vol I, 2004, Ed Dr Vir Singh
  15. Richard F. Burton, op. cit., p.246
  16. Inscription No.1, Tod, op.cit., Vol.II, Appendix pp. 914-917.
  17. Inscription No.II, Tod, op.cit., Vol.II, Appendix, pp. 917-919 and n. 13
  18. Jat clans in Pakistan
  19. Jat clans in Pakistan
  20. Census Of India 1911, Volume XIV Punjab Part 2, by Pandit Narikishan Kaul

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