The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians/II. Futúhu-l Buldán, of Biládurí

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The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians

Sir H. M. Elliot, Edited by John Dowson, 1867, Volume I

Early Arab Geographers On History Of India

Introduction to Al-Baladhuri

[p.113]: THIS work is in the Leyden University Library, and has been described by Hamaker, at pp. 7 and 239 of his "Specimen Catalogi, Codd MSS. Orientalium," An abstract of it is given in an appendix contained in the third volume of Dr. Gustave Weil's Geschichte der Chalifen, and the entire chapter on the conquest of Sind, has been edited by M. Reinaud in the Journal Asiatique for February 1845, reprinted with additional notes in his valuable "Fragments Arabes et Persans inedits relatifs a l' Inde. [There is also a copy in the British Museum. The complete text has lately been admirably printed at Leyden, under the editorship of M. de Goeje.

The author is Ahmad bin Yahya, bin Jábir, surnamed also Abú Ja'far and Abú-l Hasan, but more usually known as Biládurí, who lived towards the middle of the ninth century of our era, at the court of the Khalif Al Mutawakkal, where he was engaged as instructor to one of the princes of his family. He died A.H. 279, A.D. 892-3 This is according to Reinaud's statement- Pascual de Gayangos while he gives the same year of his death, on the authority of Abú-l Mahásin, says he lived at Baghdád in the Khalifat of Al-Mu'tamad. He left a large as well as a small edition of the Futúhu-l Buldán.

[p.114]: This work contains as its name implies, an account of the first conquests of the Arabs in Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Persia, Armenia, Transoxiana, Africa, Spain and Sind. It is one of the earliest Arabic chronicles; for Tabarí, though he wrote at Bagh-dád, and did not compose his work till afterwards, was evidently not acquainted with this author, since he omits much that Bilá-durí has mentioned. It brings down the history of events to the close of the reign of Mu'tasim, A.H. 227, A.D. 842. Wákidí, who is quoted by Biládurí, also wrote a book of "Conquests," and amongst them a "Conquest of Sind," which Dr. Sprenger mentions that he has seen quoted by Nuwairí at folio 103 of the large copy of Leyden. Copies of his other Futúh are very common; and much passes under his name which was never written by him, as in the instance of the work translated by Ockley; but his Futúhu-s Sind is rare. Nuwairí mentions also another author of Indian history, folio 795,-Al Husain bin Yazíd us Siráfí. We find also other authors on Sindian invasions quoted as existing at the early period of the Arabian conquests.

Biládurí does not himself appear to have visited Sind, but quotes the authors on whom he relied for information. Thus we have mention of Abú-l Hassan 'Ali bin Muhammad Al Madaíní, with whom he had verbal communication. This author, who died A.H. 840 (1436 A.D.), at the advanced age of ninety-three, composed, amongst other works, Al Mughází wau-s Siyár, "Wars and Marches," which contained a detailed account of the expeditions of the Musulmáns in Khurásán and on the Indus. Mansúr bin Hátim is also mentioned as an author on Sindian History, with whom, as well as with Al Madáiní, Biládurí had held personal intercourse. Another author quoted by Biládurí is Ibnu-l Kalbí.

Besides the Futúhu-l buldán, our author wrote another work on cosmography, with a description of the inhabited earth entitled Kitábu-l buldán, the "Book of Countries," which is in the Library of the British Museum. (Bibl. Rich. No. 7496).

[p.115]: He also wrote a work on the genealogy of the Arabian tribes, the title of which is not known, and he translated several works from the Persian. He also has the credit of being a good poet. He is cited frequently by Ibn Haukal, Al-Mas'údí, and other ancient geographers, but his history is rarely quoted. Kudáma, who wrote at Baghdád, towards the end of the ninth century, gives an extract from it, and Ibn Asír also quotes it under the years 89 and 95 H.

He was called Biládurí or Bilázurí, from his addiction to the use of an intoxicating electuary made from the Balázar, or Malacca bean, which, from its resemblance in shape and colour to a heart, is called anacardium.1 [The name is written optionally with either <arabic>. Goeje transcribes the name as "Belád-sorí." The author, however, is better known as Biládurí or Beladori, and that form has therefore been retained. The Leyden MS., like other old MSS., prefers the ...<arabic> to the ...<arabic>, even when the latter is manifestly correct-thus it gives Brahmanábáz for Brahmanábád, and Rúzbár for Rúdbár.2


Conquests of Sind

'Alí, son of Muhammad, son of 'Abdu-llah, son of Abú Saif, has related that the Khalif 'Umar, son of Al Khattáb appointed 'Usman, son of Abú-l 'Así of the tribe of Sakíf to Bahrain and 'Umán in the year 15 H. (636 A.D.) 'Usmán sent his brother Hakam to Bahrain, and he himself went to 'Umán, and despatched an army to Tána. When the army returned he wrote to the Khalif 'Umar to inform

[p.116]: him of it. 'Umar wrote in reply-"O brother of Sakíf, thou has placed the worm in the wood, but I swear by God, that if our men had been killed I would have taken (slain) an equal number from your tribe." Hakam despatched a force to Barauz [Broach]; he also sent to the bay of Debal his brother Mughíra, who met and defeated the enemy.

When 'Usmán, son of 'Akkán became Khalif, he appointed 'Abdu-llah son of 'Ámar, son of Kuraiz, to (the government of) 'Irák, and wrote to him an order to send a person to the confines of Hind in order to acquire knowledge and bring back information. He accordingly deputed Hakím, son of Jaballa al 'Abdí. When this man returned he was sent on to the Khalif, who questioned him about the state of those regions. He replied that he knew them because he had examined them. The Khalif then told him to describe them. He said "Water is scarce, the fruits are poor, and the robbers are bold; if few troops are sent there they will be slain, if many, they will starve." 'Usmán asked him whether he spoke accurately or hyperbolically [Lit. in rhyme]. He said that he spoke according to his knowledge, The Khalif abstained from sending any expedition there.

At the end of the year 38, or the beginning of the year 39 H. (659 A.D.) in the Khalifat of 'Alí son of Abú Sálib, Haras the son of Marra-l 'Abdí went with the sanction of the Khalif to the same frontier, as a volunteer. He was victorious, got plunder, made captives, and distributed in one day a thousand heads. He and those who were with him, saving a few, were slain in the land of Kíkán1 in the year 42 H. (662 A.D.) Kíkán is in Sind near the frontiers of Khurásán.

In the year 44 H. (664 A.D.), and in the days of the Khalif Mu'áwiya, Muhallab son of Abú Safra made war upon the same frontier, and advanced as far as Banna and Alahwár,2 which lie between Multán and Kábul. The enemy opposed him and killed him and his followers. In the land of Kíkán, Muhallab encountered eighteen Turkí horsemen, riding crop-tailed horses. They fought well but were all slain. Muhallab said, "How much more

[p.117]: active than we those barbarians were." So he docked the tails of his horses, and was the first among the Musulmáns who did so.

In the reign of Mu'áwiya, son of Abú Sufain, the Amír 'Abdu-llah, son of 'Ámir, or according to some, Mu'áwiya himself sent 'Abdu-llah, son of Suar al 'Abdi, to the frontier of Hind. He fought in Kíkán and captured booty. Then he came to Mu'áwiya and presented to him some Kíkán horses. He staid near the Khalif some time and then returned to Kíkán, when the Turks called their forces together and slew him.

* * * * * * *

In the reign of the same Mu'áwiya, the Chief Ziyád, son of Abú Sufian, appointed Sinán, son of Salama, son of al Muhabbik the Huzailí (to the command). He was a good and godly man, and was the first who made his troops take an oath of divorce. He proceeded to the frontier and having subdued Makrán and its cities by force, he staid there and established his power in the country. According to Ibn al Kalbí, it was Hakím bin Jabala al 'Abdí who conquered Makrán.

Ziyád then appointed Ráshid son of 'Umrú-l Judaidí of the tribe of Azd, to the frontier. He proceeded to Makrán and was victorious in warring against Kíkán, but he was slain fighting against the Meds. Sinán, son of Salama, then succeeded to the command and was confirmed therein by Ziyád. He remained there two years.

'Abbád, son of Ziyád, then made war on the frontier of Hind by way of Sijistán, He went to Sanárúz, from whence he proceeded by way of Kház to Ruzbár1 in Sijistán on the banks of the Hind-mand. Then he descended to Kish, and crossing the desert came to Kandahár.3 He fought the inhabitants, routed them, put them to flight and subdued the country; but many Musulmáns perished. 'Abbád observed the high caps of the people of that country, and had some made like them, which he called 'Abbádíya.

Ziyád next appointed Al Manzar, son of Al Jarúd al 'Abdí, to the frontiers of India. He was known by the name of Abú-l Ash'as. He attacked and conquered Núkán and Kíkán. The Musulmáns

[p.118]: obtained great plunder, and their forces spread over all the country. He captured Kusdár and took prisoners there. Sinán had previously taken it, but its inhabitants had been guilty of defection. He died there (in Kuzdár).

The governor 'Ubaidu-llah, son of Ziyád, then appointed Ibn Harrí al Báhalí. God, by his hands, subdued these countries, for he waged fierce war in them and conquered and plundered them. Some writers say that it was Sinán, son of Salama, who was appointed to the (chief) command by 'Ubaidu-llah and that Harrí led the forces.

The people of Núkán are now Muhammadans. 'Amrán, son of Músa, son of Yahya, son of Khálid the Barmakide, built a city there in the Khalifat of M'utasim bi-llah which he called Al Baizá (the white). When al Hajjáj, son of Yúsuf, son of al Hakim, son of Abú 'Akail al Sakifí, was governor of Irak, Sa'íd, son of Aslam, son of Zura'a al Kalábí was appointed to Makrán and its frontiers. He was opposed and slain there by Mu'áwiya and Muhammad, sons of al Haras al 'Aláfí. * * * * * Hajjáj then appointed Mujjá', son of S'ir al Tamímí to the frontier. He made war upon, plundered and defeated the tribes about Kandá-bíl, and this conquest was subsequently completed by Muhammad, son of al Kásim. Mujjá' died in Makrán after being there a year.

After the death of Mujjá', Hajjáj appointed in his place Muhammad, son of Hárún, son of Zará' al Namarí. Under the government of Muhammad, the king of the Isle of Rubies1 sent as a present to Hajjáj, certain Muhammadan girls who had been born in his country, the orphan daughters of merchants who had died there. The king hoped by this measure to ingratiate himself with Hajjáj; but the ship in which he had embarked these girls was attacked and taken by some barks (bawárij) belonging to the Meds of Debal. One of the women of the tribe of Yarbú' exclaimed, "Oh Hajjáj!" When this news reached Hajjáj, he replied, "I am here."2 He

[p.119]: then sent an ambassador to Dáhir to demand their release, but Dáhir replied, "They are pirates who have captured these women, and over them I have no authority." Then Hajjáj sent 'Ubaidu-llah, son of Nabhán, against Debal. 'Ubaidu-llah being killed, Hajjáj wrote to Budail, son of Tahfa, of the tribe of Bajali, who was at 'Umán, directing him to proceed to Debal. When he arrived there his horse took fright (and threw him), and the enemy surrounded him and killed him. Some authors say he was killed by the Jats of Budha.

The Isle of Rubies is so denominated because of the beauty of the women. Afterwards, Hajjáj, during the Khiláfat of Walíd, son of 'Abdu-l malik, appointed Muhammad, son of Kásim, son of Muhammad, son of Hakim, son of Abú 'Ukail to command on the Sindian frontier. Muhammad was in Fárs when the order arrived, and had previously received instructions to go to Rai.1 Abú-l Aswad Jahm, son of Zahru-l Ju'fí, was at the head of the advanced guard, and he was ordered to return to Muhammad, and he joined him on the borders of Sind. Hajjáj ordered six thousand Syrian warriors to attend Muhammad, and others besides. He was provided with all he could require, without omitting even thread and needles. He had leave to remain at Shíráz until all the men who were to accompany him had assembled, and all the preparations had been duly made. Hajjáj had some dressed cotton saturated with strong vinegar, and then dried it in the shade, and said, "When you arrive in Sind, if you find the vinegar scarce, soak the cotton in water, and with the water you can cook your food and season your dishes as you wish." Some authors say, that when Muhammad arrived on the frontiers, he wrote to complain of the scarcity of vinegar, and this was the reason which induced Hajjáj to send cotton soaked in vinegar.

Then Muhammad, son of Kásim went to Makrán, and remained there some time. He then went to Kannazbúr and took it, and then to Armáíl, which he also took. Muhammad, son of Hárún, son of Zará', went to meet him, and joined him, but he died near Armáíl at Kásim's side, and was buried at Kambal.2

Conquest of Debal

[p.120]: Muhammad, son of Kásim, left Armáíl, accompanied by Jahm, the son of Zahru-l Ju'fí, and arrived at Debal on Friday, where ships brought to him a supply of men, arms, and warlike machines. He dug an entrenchment which he defended with spearmen, and unfurled his standards; each body of warriors was arrayed under its own banner, and he fixed the manjaník, which was called "the bride," and required five hundred men to work it. There was at Debal a lofty temple (budd) surmounted by a long pole, and on the pole was fixed a red flag, which when the breeze blew was unfurled over the city. The budd is a high steeple, below which the idol or idols are deposited, as in this instance. The Indians give in general the name of budd to anything connected with their worship or which forms the object of their veneration. So, an idol is called budd.

In the correspondence which ensued, Muhammad informed Hajjáj of what he had done, and solicited advice respecting the future. Letters were written every three days. One day a reply was re¬ceived to this effect:-"Fix the manjaník and shorten its foot, and place it on the east; you will then call the manjaník-master, and tell him to aim at the flag-staff, of which you have given a descrip¬tion." So he brought down the flagstaff, and it was broken; at which the infidels were sore afflicted. The idolaters advanced to the combat, but were put to flight; ladders were then brought and the Musulmáns escaladed the wall. The first who gained the summit was a man of Kúfa, of the tribe of Murád. The town was thus taken by assault, and the carnage endured for three days. The governor of the town, appointed by Dáhir, fled, and the priests of the temple were massacred. Muhammad marked out a place for the Musulmáns to dwell in, built a mosque, and left four thousand Musulmáns to garrison the place.

Muhammad, son of Yahya, says that Mansúr, the son of Hátim, the grammarian, a freeman of the family of Khálid, son of Assaid, relates that he had seen the pole broken into fragments which had been placed on the steeple of the temple. 'Ambissa son of Ishak Az Zabbí, the governor of Sind, in the Khalífat of Mu'tasim billah,

[p.121]: knocked down the upper part of the minaret of the temple and converted it into a prison. At the same time he began to repair the ruined town with the stones of the minaret; but before he had completed his labours, he was deprived of his employment, and was succeeded by Hárún, son of Abí Khálid-al Marúrúzí, and he was slain there.

Muhammad went to Nírún

Muhammad, son of Kásim then went to Nírún,1 the inhabitants of which place had already sent two Samanís, or priests, of their town to Hajjáj to treat for peace. They furnished Muhammad with supplies, and admitting him to enter the town, they were allowed to capitulate. Muhammad conquered all the towns successively which he met on his route, until he had crossed a river which runs on this side of the Mihrán (Indus). He then saw approaching towards him Sarbídas, the Samaní, who came to demand peace in the name of the inhabitants. Muhammad imposed tribute upon them, and then went towards Sahbán, and took it. Then he went to the banks of the Mihrán, and there remained. When this news reached Dáhir, he prepared for battle. Muhammad, son of Kásim, had sent Muham¬mad, son of Mus'ab, son of 'Abdu-r Rahmán as Sakifí, to Sadúsán, with men mounted on horses and asses, at whose approach the inhabitants solicited quarter and peace, the terms of which were negociated by the Samaní. Muhammad granted them peace, but he imposed tribute on the place, and took pledges from them, and then returned to his master. He brought with him four thousand Jats, and left at Sadúsán an officer in command.

Muhammad sought the means of crossing the Mihrán, and effected the passage in a place which adjoined the dominions of Rásil, chief of Kassa, in Hind, upon a bridge which he had caused to be con-structed. Dáhir had neglected every precaution, not believing that the Musulmáns would dare to advance so far. Muhammad and his Musulmáns encountered Dáhir mounted on his elephant, and sur-rounded by many of these animals, and his Takákaras (Thákurs) were near his person. A dreadful conflict ensued, such as had never been heard of. Dáhir dismounted and fought valiantly, but he was killed towards the evening, when the idolaters fled, and the

[p.122]: Musulmáns glutted themselves with massacre, According to Al Madáiní, the slayer of Dáhir was a man of the tribe of Kaláb, who composed some verses upon the occasion. * * * * Various authors concur in saying that Muhammad took the village of Ráwar1 by assault, in which city there was a wife of Dáhir, who, afraid of being captured, burned herself along with her handmaids and all that she possessed.

Muhammad went to old Brahmanábád

Then Muhammad, son of Kásim, went to old Brahmanábád, two parasangs from Mansúra, whích town indeed did not then exist, its site being a forest. The remnant of the army of Dáhir rallied at Brahmanábád and resistance being made, Muhammad was obliged to resort to force, when eight, or as some say, twenty-six thousand men were put to the sword. He left a prefect there. The place is now in ruins.

Muhammad then marched towards Alrúr

Muhammad then marched towards Alrúr2 and Baghrúr. The people of Sáwandarí came out to meet him and sued for peace, which was granted them, on the condition that they should entertain the Muhammadans and furnish guides. At this time they profess the Muhammadan creed. After that he went to Basmad, where the inhabitants obtained peace on the same terms as those accorded to the Sáwandrians. At last he reached Alrúr, one of the cities of Sind. It is situated on a hill. Muhammad besieged it for several months, and compelled it to surrender promising to spare the lives of the inhabitants and not touch the temples (budd). "The temples," he said, "shall be unto us, like as the churches of the Christians, the synagogues of the Jews, and the fire temples of the Magians." He imposed, however, the tribute upon the inhabitants, and built a mosque in the city.

Muhammad advanced to Alsaka

Muhammad advanced to Alsaka, 3 a town on this side of the Biyás, which was captured by him, and is now in ruins. He then crossed the Biyás, and went towards Multán, where, in the action which ensued, Záida, the son of 'Umur, of the tribe of Táí, covered himself with glory. The infidels retreated in disorder into the town, and Muhammad commenced the siege, but the provisions being ex¬hausted, the Musulmáns were reduced to eat asses. Then came there

[p.123]: forward a man who sued for quarter, and pointed out to them an aqueduct, by which the inhabitants were supplied with drinking water from the river of Basmad. It flowed within the city into a reservoir like a well, which they call taláh. 1 Muhammad destroyed the water-course; upon which the inhabitants, oppressed with thirst, surrendered at discretion. He massacred the men capable of bearing arms, but the children were taken captive, as well as the ministers of the temple, to the number of six thousand. The Musulmáns found there much gold in a chamber ten cubits long by eight broad, and there was an aperture above, through which the gold was poured into the chamber. Hence they call Multán "the Frontier of the House of Gold," for farj means "a frontier." 2 The temple (budd) of Multán received rich presents and offerings, and to it the people of Sind resorted as a place of pilgrimage. They circumambulated it, and shaved their heads and beards. They con-ceived that the image was that of the prophet Job,-God's peace be on him!

We are told that Hajjáj caused a calculation to be made of the sums expended in fitting out this expedition of Muhammad Kásim, and the riches which resulted from it. He had spent sixty millions (of dirhams) and that which had been sent to him amounted to one hundred and twenty millions. He said:-"We have appeased our anger, and avenged our injuries, and we have gained sixty millions of dirhams, as well as the head of Dáhir. Hajjáj then died. 3 Upon learning this, Muhammad left Multán and returned to Alrúr and Baghrúr, which had been previously captured. He made donations to his men, and sent an army towards al-Bailamán, the inhabitants of which place surrendered without any resistance. He made peace with the inhabitants of Surast, with whom the men of Basea4 are

[p.124]: now at war. They are Meds, seafarers, and pirates. Then he went against the town of Kíraj. Dúhar advanced to oppose him, but the enemy was put to flight. Dúhar fled, but some say he was killed. The inhabitants surrendered. Muhammad slew (all those capable of bearing arms) and reduced the rest to slavery. * * * Meanwhile, Walíd, son of 'Abdu-l malik, died, and was succeeded by (his brother) Sulaimán, who appointed Sálih, son of 'Abdu-r-Rahmán, to collect the tribute of 'Irák. Yazíd, son of Abú kabsha as-Saksakí, was made governor of Sind, and Muhammad, son of Kásim, was sent back a prisoner with Mu'áwiya, son of Muhallab. The people of Hind wept for Muhammad, and preserved his like¬ness at Kíraj. He was imprisoned by Sálih at Wásit. Sálih put him to torture, together with other persons of the family of Abú 'Ukail, until they expired: for Hajjáj* (Muhammad's cousin) had put to death Adam, Sálih's brother, who professed the creed of the Khárijís. Hamza, the son of Baiz Hanafí, says:-

"Verily, courage, and generosity, and liberality,
Belonged to Muhammad, son of Kásim, son of Muhammad,
He led armies at the age of seventeen years,
He seemed destined for command from the day of his birth."

Yazíd, son of Abú Kabsha, died eighteen days after his arrival in Sind. Sulaimán then appointed Habíb, son of al Muhallab, to carry on the war in Sind, and he departed for that purpose. Meanwhile the princes of Hind had returned to their states, and Jaishiya, 2 son of Dáhir, had come back to Brahmanábád. Habíb proceeded to the banks of the Mihrán, where the people of Alrúr made their submis¬sion; but he warred against a certain tribe and reduced them.

When the Khalif Sulaimán, son of 'Abdu-l Malik, died, he was succeeded by 'Umar son of 'Abdu-l 'Azíz. 3 He wrote to the princes (of Hind) inviting them to become Musulmáns and submit to his authority, upon which they would be treated like all other Musul-

[p.125]: máns. These princes had already heard of his promises, character, and creed, so Jaishiya and other princes turned Musulmáns, and took Arab names. 'Amrú, son of Muslim al Bahálí was lieutenant of 'Umar on this frontier. He invaded several places in Hind and subdued them.

In the days of Yazíd, son of 'Abdu-l Malik, 1 the sons of Al Mu-hallib fled to Sind, and Hilál, son of Ahwaz al Tamímí was sent after them. He fell in with them and killed Mudrak, son of Muhallab, at Kandábíl. He also slew Mufazzal, 'Abdu-l Malik, Ziyád, Marún, and Mu'áwiya, sons of Muhallab; last of all he killed Mu'áwiya, son of Yazíd.

Junaid was appointed to the frontier of Sind

Junaid, son of 'Abdu-r Rahmán al Marrí was appointed to the frontier of Sind, under the authority of 'Umar, son of Hubaira al Fazárí, and was confirmed in the government by (the Khalif) Hashám, son of 'Abdu-l Malik. 2 When Khálid, son of 'Abdu-llah Al Kasrí was sent to 'Irák (as governor) Hashám wrote to Junaid directing him to keep up a correspondence with Khálid. Junaid went to Debal and from thence to the banks of the Mihrán, but Jaishiya (son of Dáhir) forbade him to cross, and sent to him, saying, "I have become a Musulmán, and an excellent man confirmed me in my states, but I have no faith in thee." But (Junaid) gave him pledges and took pledges from him, together with the tribute due from his territories. They thus exchanged guarantees, but Jaishiya acted like an infidel and took up arms. But some say, on the contrary, that he did not begin the attack, but that Junaid dealt unjustly with him. Jaishiya assembled his troops, fitted out ships and prepared for war. Junaid proceeded against him in ships and they fought in the lake of Ash Sharkí. Jaishiya's ship was destroyed, and he himself was taken prisoner and slain. Sasa3 son of Dáhir fled and proceeded towards 'Irák to complain of the the treachery of Junaid, but the latter did not cease to conciliate him until they had shaken hands, and then he slew him. Junaid made war against Kíraj, the people of which had rebelled. He made use of battering-rams, and battered the walls of the town with them until they were breached, and then he stormed the place, slaying, plundering, and making

[p.126]: captives. He then sent his officers to Marmad Mandal, Dahnaj, and Barús (Broach). Junaid used to say, "It is better to die with bravado than with resignation." He sent a force against Uzain1 and he also sent Habíd, son of Marra, with an army against the country of Máliba. 2 They made incursions against Uzain, and they attacked Baharímad 3 and burnt its suburbs. Junaid conquered al Bailamán and Jurz, 4 and he received at his abode, in addition to what his visitors presented to him, forty millions, and he himself carried off a similar sum.

The successor of Junaid

The successor of Junaid was Tamím, son of Zaid al 'Utbí. He was feeble and imbecile, and died near Debal in a water called the "Buffalo-water." This water was so called because buffalos took refuge there from the bears which infested the banks of the Mihrán. Tamím was one of the most generous of Arabs, he found in the treasury of Sind eighteen million Tátaríya dirhams, which he soon spent. * * * * * In the days of Tamím, the Musulmáns retired from several parts of India and left some of their positions, nor have they up to the present time advanced so far as in days gone by.

Hakim, son of 'Awána al Kalbí, succeeded Tamím. The people of India had returned to idolatry excepting those of Kassa, and the Musulmáns had no place of security in which they could take refuge, so he built a town on the other side of the lake facing India, and called it Al Mahfúza, "the secure," and this he made a place of refuge and security for them, and their chief town. He asked the elders of the tribe of Kalb, who were of Syrian descent, what name he should give the town. Some said Dimashk [Damascus], others, Hims [Emessa], and others Tadmúr [Palmyra]. Hakim said (to the latter), "May God destroy* you, O fool." He gave it the name of Al Mahfúza, and dwelt there.

'Amrú, son of Muhammad son of Kásim was with Hakim, and the latter advised with him, trusted him with many important matters, and sent him out of Al Mahfúza on a warlike expedition. He was victorious in his commission, and was made an amír. He founded

[p.127]: a city on this side of the lake, which he called Mansúra, in which city the governors now dwell. Hakim recovered from the hands of the enemy those places which they had subjugated, and gave satisfaction to the people in his country. Khálid said, "It is very sur-prising,-I gave the charge of the country to the most generous of Arabs, that is, to Tamím, and they were disgusted. I gave it to the most niggardly of men and they were satisfied." Hakim was killed there.

The governors who succeeded continued to kill the enemy, taking whatever they could acquire and subduing the people who rebelled. When the fortunate dynasty (that of the 'Abbásides) was estab¬lished, Abú Muslim appointed 'Abdu-r Rahmán, son of Abú Muslim Mughallisá-l 'Abdí, to the frontier of Sind. 'Abdu-r Rahmán went by way of Tukháristán, and proceeded against Mansúr, son of Jamhúr al Kalbí, who was in Sind. But he was met by Mansúr and slain, and his forces were put to flight. When Muslim heard this he appointed Músa, son of Ka'bu-t Tamímí, and sent him to Sind. When he arrived, the river Mihrán lay between him and Mansúr, son of Jamhúr. 1 Still he came up with Mansúr, put him and his forces to flight, and slew his brother Manzúr. Mansúr fled in wretched plight to the sands, where he died of thirst. Músa ruled in Sind, repaired the city of Mansúra, and enlarged its mosque. He was victorious in his campaigns.

The Khalif al Mansúr sent to Sind Hashám, son of 'Amrú al Taghlabí, and he reduced those places which still held out. He sent 'Amrú, son of Jamal, in boats to Nárand. 2 He also sent (a force) to the territories of Hind, subdued Kashmír, and took many prisoners and slaves. Multán was reduced, and he overpowered a body of Arabs who were in Kandábíl, and drove them out. He then went to Kandahár in boats, and conquered it. He destroyed the budd there, and built in its place a mosque. There was abund¬ance in the country under his rule, and the people blessed him-he extended the frontier, and enforced his decrees.

'Umar, son of Hafs, son of 'Usmán Hazármard, was then appointed

[p.128]: governor of Sind, and after him Dáúd, son of Yazíd, son of Hátim. There was with him Abú-l Samma, who had been a slave of the tribe of Kanda, and who is now governor. The affairs of the frontier went on prosperously until Bashar, son of Dáúd, was appointed under the Khalifat of Mámún. 1 He rebelled, and set up in opposition. Ghassán, son of 'Abbad, who was a native of the neighbourhood of Kúfa, was sent against him. Bashar proceeded to meet Ghassán under a safe conduct, and they both proceeded to the Muhammadan capital (Baghdád). Ghassán deputed Músa, son of Yahya, son of Khálid, son of Barmak, to the charge of the fron¬tier. Músa killed Bála, king of Ash-sharkí, although the latter had given him five hundred thousand dirhams to preserve his life. Bála was faithful to Ghassán, and wrote to him in the presence of his army, through the princes who were with him, but his request was rejected. Músa died in 2212 A.H. (836 A.D.), leaving a high reputation, and he appointed his son 'Amrán as his successor. The Khalif M'utasim bi-llah wrote to him confirming him in the government of the frontier. He marched to Kíkán against the Jats, whom he defeated and subjugated. He built a city there, which he called Al Baizá, "the white," 3 and he posted a military force there. Then he pro¬ceeded to Multán, and from thence to Kandábíl, which city stands upon a hill. Muhammad, son of Khalíl, was reigning there, but 'Amrán slew him, conquered the town, and carried away its inhabi¬tants to Kusdár. Then he made war upon the Meds, and killed three thousand of them. There he constructed a band, which is called "Sakru-l Med," Band of the Meds. He encamped on the river at Alrúr. 4 There he summoned the Jats, who came to his presence, when he sealed5 their hands, took from them the jizya (capitation tax), and he ordered that every man of them should bring a dog with him when he came to wait upon him,-hence the price of a dog rose to fifty dirhams. He again attacked the Meds, having with him the chief men of the Jats. He dug a canal from the sea to their tank, so their water became salt; and he sent out several marauding expeditions against them.

[p.129]: Dissensions then arose between the Nizárians1 and Yamánians, and 'Amrán joined with the latter. 'Umar, son of 'Abu-l Azíz al Habbári, consequently went to him and killed him unawares. The ancestor of this 'Umar had come into Sind with Hakim, son of 'Awána al Kalbí. 2

Mansúr, son of Hatím, related to me that Fazl, son of Máhán, formerly a slave of the sons of Sáma, got into Sindán and subdued it. He then sent an elephant to the Khalif Mámún, and wrote to him and offered up prayers for him in the Jámi' masjid, which he built there. When he died he was succeeded by Muhammad son of Fazl son of Máhán. He proceeded with sixty vessels against the Meds of Hind. He killed a great number of them, captured Kállarí3 (?) and then returned towards Sindán. But his brother, named Máhán, had made himself master of Sindán, and wrote to the Khalif Mu'tasim bi-llah, and had sent to him as a present the largest and longest sáj, 4 that had been seen. But the Indians were under the control of his brother whom they liked, so they slew Máhán and crucified him. The Indians afterwards made themselves masters of Sindán, but they spared the mosque, and the Muhammadans used to meet in it on the Friday and pray for the Khalif.

Abú Bakr, who had been a slave of the Karízís, related to me that the country called Al 'Usaifán between Kashmír and Multán and Kábul, was governed by a wise king. The people of this country worshipped an idol for which they had built a temple. The son of the king fell sick, and he desired the ministers of the temple to pray to the idol for the recovery of his son. They retired for a short time, and then returned and said, "We have prayed and our supplications have been accepted." But no long time passed before the youth died. Then the king attacked the temple, destroyed and broke in pieces the idol, and slew its ministers. He afterwards invited a party of Muhammadan traders who made known to him the unity of God. Hereupon he believed in the unity and became a Musulmán. This happened in the Khalifat of Mu'tasim bi-llah,-may God have mercy on him.

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