|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)|
Variants of name
Mention by Panini
K.P. Jayaswal writes about Turshka king in North India: "Then will rise in the North [uttarapatha] the Turushka king, of great army and great vigour. Up to the gate of Kashmir, Bashkala, Udyana (T.; S. -Udaya) with Kāviśa (570), for 700 yojanas he rules. 77,000 and 2,00,000 (revenue ?) will be his (571). 86,000 stupas he will make. 'He established in the country the Prajñāpāramitā the mother of the Buddhas and the foremost doctrine of Mahayana (Buddhism)' (574-75).
Comments: The description of the Turushka king is undoubtedly the description of Kanishka. The centre of his kingdom according to our text was Bashkala which was connected with Udyana-cum-Kapisa and Kashmir. The tract thus indicated by the word Bashkala is Balkh with a transposition in the second syllable lkh. According to the text, Turushka (Kanishka) was primarily a king of Afghanistan (Kavisa), Suwāt, and Kashmir on this side of the Himadri (in its wider significance) , and up to Balkh which was considered as one of the northern provinces of Bharatavarsha (I.A., 1933, p. 130).
H. W. Bellew writes that Bashgali is partly converted to Islam. Their women wear the horned head-dress which was peculiar to the ancient Jata of Kashghar. The proper name of this tribe is Bash or Posh, which represents the Pausikai of Herodotus, and Pasianoi of Strabo, and the Paishae of the Afghans.
H. W. Bellew writes that Bashgali Kafir inhabit the country north of the Waegali, the valleys runing south-east from Hindu Kush to the Kunar river at Birkot, and represent a tribe of different stock from the Rajput and Indian races. Biddulph says, the Kafir are separable into three main tribes, viz. : the Rumgali or Lumgali (Lughmani) who inhabit the upper valleys running south-west from Hindu Kush ; the Waegali, who inhabit the valleys running south-east from Hindu Kush to Kunar Valley at Chaghan Sarae ; and the Bashgali who inhabit the upper valleys farther north, running south-east to Kunar Valley at Birkot. These divisions may mean, Rumgali (Ramakula, or Ramadeva, Rahtor), Rajput tribes ; Bashgali (Bash-kula, or Pashae, or Pausikai) Skythian Jata tribes ; and Waegali (Bai-kula, or Boioi), Greek tribes.
H. W. Bellew writes that the termination -gal, -gali, -kal of some of the above names corresponds to the Hindi -Kula and Pukhto -Khel and is also found unaltered in some of the Balochistan tribes ; it means "clan," or "tribe," or "family," or "association."
Bashkala (बाष्कल) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.59.18), (I.61.9),
Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 59 gives Genealogy of Danavas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Yakshas, Rakshasas. Bashkala (बाष्कल) is mentioned in Mahabharata verse (I.59.18)....Diti had one son called Hiranyakasipu, who had five sons, all famous throughout the world. The eldest of them all was Prahlada, the next was Sahradha; the third was Anuhrada; and after him were Sivi and Vashkala.
Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 61 provides the Genealogy of the Danavas, Asuras, Kauravas, Pandavas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Rakshasas. Bashkala (बाष्कल) is mentioned in Mahabharata verse (I.61.9)....And he who was known as the great Asura Vashkala became on earth the great Bhagadatta.
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.320
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.321
- An Imperial History Of India/Provincial History of the Himalayas,p.23
- An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, Woking, 1891, p.146
- An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, Woking, 1891, p.147
- An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, Woking, 1891, p.145
- प्रह्रादः पूर्वजस तेषां संह्रादस तदनन्तरम, अनुह्रादस तृतीयॊ ऽभूत तस्माच च शिबिबाष्कलौ (I.59.18)
- बाष्कलॊ नाम यस तेषाम आसीद असुरसत्तमः, भगदत्त इति खयातः स आसीन मनुजेश्वरः (I.61.9)