Bhim Singh Dahiya writes that ...Mayura attacked the capital of Indra. Here, as in the other Purana, the name of Mura is Sanskritised into Mayura, the reasons for which have already been discussed earlier. The second name Ugra, is again a tribal name, the Ugrians of Greek writers, and the present Uighur of Soviet Central Asia. The name of the ropes of Muraa, called Mourava ropes, is again the same as the name of the City and the clan, Maurav, as per Persian records. Thus the Mura and Naraka are identical with the Mura and Nairi of Assyriyan records, the present Mor and Nara clan of the Jats. This area was definitely in the west of India, rather in the northhwest and Pragjyotisha was its capital city. At the time of Mahabharata, it was ruled over by Bhagadatta who is called a king of Yavanas and also a king of Asuras. He was a friend of Pandu. He attended the Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira. Arjuna, defeats him in the North, and in the war he is killed by Arjuna. Vajradatta, son of Bhaga Datta was also killed by Arjuna. In Sabha Parva both Mura and Naraka are stated to be rulers in the West.
All this discussion clearly establishes that the country of Mura was in the North-West of India, and the present city of Merv can very well be identified with their ancient capital. As already mentioned, this city in the Iranian literature, is called Mourav or Maur.
The Harsha Charita of Bana/Chapter VII mentions....Having crossed the realm of China, the Pandava Arjuna, in order to complete the Rajasuya sacrifice, subdued Mount Hemakuta,....Not too ambitious, surely, of conquest were the ancients, seeing that in a small part of the earth there were numerous monarchs such as Bhagadatta, Dantavakra, Kratha, Karna, Kaurava, Shishupala, Salva, Jarasandha, and Sindhuraja. King Yudhishthira was easily content since he endured quite near at hand the kingdom of the Kimpurushas, when the conquests of Dhananjaya had made the earth to shake....
Bhagadatta (भगदत्त) has been mentioned in Mahabharata (I.61.9), (I.177.12), (II.13.14), (II.31.9),(II.47.12), (3-255-4b), (V.19.14),(VI.47.17), (VI.52.5), (VI.83.8),(VIII.4.16), (VIII.51.9).
Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 61 gives us Genealogy of the Danavas, Asuras, Kauravas, Pandavas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Rakshasas. Bhagadatta is mentioned in verse (I.61.9). ...."And he who was known as the great Asura Vashkala became on earth the great Bhagadatta. 
Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 177 mentions Kshatriyas who came on Swayamvara of Draupadi. Bhagadatta is mentioned in verse (I.177.12). 
Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 13 mentions the List of Kshatriyas leaving their dominions in the north, fled to other countries out of fear of Jarasandha: Kshatriyas in support of Jarasandha includes Yavana kings Mura and Naraka in verse (II.13.13). "that king of the Yavanas, who hath chastised Mura and Naraka, whose power is unlimited, and who ruleth the west like another Varuna, who is called Bhagadatta..." 
Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 31 mentions the Kshatriyas who brought tributes on Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira. Bhagadatta is mentioned in verse (II.31.9)....."Yajnasena with his sons, and Salya that lord of earth and that great car warrior king Bhagadatta of Pragjyotisha...."
Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 47 mentions Kings who brought tributes to Yudhishthira. This includes Yavana king Bhagadatta in verse (II.47.12)..." And that great warrior king Bhagadatta, the brave ruler of Pragjyotisha and the mighty sovereign of the mlechchas, at the head of a large number of Yavanas waited at the gate unable to enter..." 
Karna's conquests: Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 255 describes Karna's victory march and countries subjugated..... that mighty bowman, Karna, surrounded by a large army, besieged the beautiful city of Drupada (Drupadapura) (द्रुपदपुर) (3-255-1b). And he, after a hard conflict, brought the hero under subjection, and, O best of monarchs, made Drupada contribute silver and gold and gems, and also pay tribute. And having subdued him, (Karna) brought under subjection those princes that were under him (Drupada) and made them pay tribute. Then going to the north, he subdued the sovereigns (of that quarter) and having effected the defeat of Bhagadatta (भगदत्त) (3-255-4b) , Radha's son ascended that mighty mountain Himavat (हिमवन्त) (3-255-5a), all along fighting his foes. And ranging all sides, he conquered and brought under subjection all the kings inhabiting the Himavat (3-255-6a), and made them pay dues.
Udyoga Parva/Mahabharata Book V Chapter 19 has mentioned Kanchanas in the army of king Bhagadatta who fought for Pandavas:....:"And in the same way king Bhagadatta, gladdening the heart of Dhritarashtra's son, gave an Akshauhini of troops to him." 
Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 47 describes immeasurable heroes assembled for battle. Bhagadatta is mentioned in verse (VI.47.17). ...."And Bhurisravas, and Shala, and Shalya, and Bhagadatta, and Vinda and Anuvinda of Avanti, protected the left flank. 
Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 52 describes gives the order of army of the (Kuru) in Mahabharata War. Bhagadatta is mentioned in verse (VI.52.5)....."And Bhurisravas and Sala, and Shalya and Bhagadatta, O sire, and the Madrakas, the Sindhu-Sauviras, and they that were called the Pancha-nodas, together with Jayadratha, were placed on its neck." 
Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 83 tells array of the Kauravas against the Pandavas. Bhagadatta is mentioned in verse (VI.83.8)...."Next to Drona was the valiant Bhagadatta, firmly resolved on fight, accompanied by the Magadhas, the Kalingas, and the Pisachas. 
Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 4 mentions the Warriors who are dead amongst the Kurus and the Pandavas after ten days. Bhagadatta is mentioned in verse (VIII.4.16). ...."the virtuous king Bhagadatta, who was ever devoted to Kshatriya duties, hath been despatched to Yama's abode by Dhananjaya exerting himself great with prowess. 
Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 51 Describes terrible massacre on seventeenth day of War. Sanjaya narrates the terrible massacre to Arjuna. Bhagadatta is mentioned in verse (VIII.51.9)....."who else is there, even if he resemble Vasava himself in prowess, that could vanquish king Bhagadatta? 
- Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998 p. 273
- Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Porus and the Mauryas, p.162
- Sabha Parvan, op. cit., 14/14.
- ibid., 51/14.
- ibid., 26/7.
- Drona Parvan,29/48.
- Ashvamedha Parva, chap. 76.
- Sabha Parva 13/13. मुरं च नरकं चैव शास्ति यॊ यवनाधिपौ, अपर्यन्त बलॊ राजा परतीच्यां वरुणॊ यदा (II.13.13)
- बाष्कलॊ नाम यस तेषाम आसीद असुरसत्तमः, भगदत्त इति खयातः स आसीन मनुजेश्वरः (I.61.9)
- पौण्ड्रकॊ वासुदेवश च भगदत्तश च वीर्यवान, कलिङ्गस ताम्रलिप्तश च पत्तनाधिपतिस तथा (I.177.12)
- मुरं च नरकं चैव शास्ति यॊ यवनाधिपौ, अपर्यन्त बलॊ राजा परतीच्यां वरुणॊ यदा (II.13.13)
- यज्ञसेनः सपुत्रश च शाल्वश च वसुधाधिपः, पराग्ज्यॊतिषश च नृपतिर भगथत्तॊ महायशाः (II.31.9)
- पराग्ज्यॊतिषाधिपः शूरॊ मलेच्छानाम अधिपॊ बली, यनवैः सहितॊ राजा भगथत्तॊ महारदः (II.47.12)
- तदैव धार्तराष्ट्रस्य हर्षं समभिवर्धयन, भगदत्तॊ महीपालः सेनाम अक्षौहिणीं थथौ Mahabharata (5.19.14)
- भूरिश्रवाः शलः शल्यॊ भगथत्तश च मारिष, विन्थानुविन्थाव आवन्त्यौ वामं पार्श्वम अपालयन (VI.47.17)
- भूरिश्रवाः शलः शल्यॊ भगथत्तश च मारिष, मथ्रकाः सिन्धुसौवीरास तदा पञ्च नथाश च ये (VI.52.5)
- थरॊणाथ अनन्तरं यत्तॊ भगथत्तः परतापवान, मागधैश च कलिङ्गैश च पिशाचैश च विशां पते (VI.83.8)
- भगथत्तॊ महीपालः क्षत्रधर्मरतः सथा, धनंजयेन विक्रम्य गमितॊ यमसाथनम (VIII.4.16)
- भगथत्तं हि राजानं कॊ ऽनयः शक्तस तवया विना, जेतुं पुरुषशार्थूल यॊ ऽपि सयाथ वासवॊपमः (VIII.51.9)
Back to The Ancient Jats