- 1 Ancestry of Alarka
- 2 In Mahabharata
- 3 In Ramayana
- 4 Mandasor Pillar Inscription of Yashodharman
- 5 In Roman history
- 6 Alaric I
- 7 ठाकुर देशराज
- 8 अद्भुत जाटविजेता अलारिक (Alarik)
- 9 References
Ancestry of Alarka
Pururava → Ayu → Kshatra Vriddha → Suhotra → Kasya → Kasi → Rashtra → Dirghatama → Dhanvantari → Ketumat → Bhimaratha → Divodasa → Dyumat (Also called Pratardana Satrujit and Ritadgvaja) → Alarka + Others
Then Dasharatha was overwhelmed with grief and swooned away, and, coming to himself again, he prayed Kaikeyi to waive her right.
- ..."Alarka, that gave his eyes to a Brahman."
Mandasor Pillar Inscription of Yashodharman
- ..."he in whom, possessed of a wealth of virtue, (and so) falling but little short of Manu and Bharata and Alarka and Mandhatri, the title of "universal sovereign" shines more (than in any other), like a resplendent level (set) in good gold."
In Roman history
"Before long, one of the German chieftains, Alaric, became dissatisfied with the treatment that he received. He collected an army, of which the nucleus consisted of West Goths, and set out for Italy. Rome fell into his hands in 410 and was plundered by his followers. Alaric appears to have been deeply impressed by the sight of the civilization about him. He did not destroy the city, hardly even did serious damage to it, and he gave especial orders to his soldiers not to injure the churches or their property.
History of Origin of Some Clans in India:End of p.46
Alaric died before he could find a satisfactory spot for his people to settle upon - permanently. After his death the West Goths wandered into Gaul, and then into Spain, which had already been occupied by other barbarian tribes, the Vandals and Suevi. These had crossed the Rhine into Gaul for years before Alaric took Rome; for three years they devastated the country and then proceeded across the Pyrenees. When the West Goths reached Spain they quickly concluded peace with the Roman government. They then set to work to fight the Vandals, with such success that the emperor granted them a considerable district (419) in Southern Gaul, where they established a West Gothic Kingdom. Ten years after, the Vandals moved on into Africa, where they founded a kingdom and extended their con trot over the Western Mediterranean. Their place in Spain was taken by the West Goths who, under their king, Ruric (466-484), conquered a great part of the peninsula, so that their kingdom extended from the Loire to the Straits of Gibraltar"- History of Western Europe pages 26-27.
Alaric I ( b. 370 (or 375) – d. 410) was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son (or paternal grandson) of chieftain Rothestes, according to Christian Settipani. Alaric is most famous for his sack of Rome in 410, which marked a decisive event in the decline of the Roman Empire.
Alaric's first appearance was as the leader of a mixed band of Goths and allied peoples who invaded Thrace in 391, who were stopped by the half-Vandal Roman General Stilicho. Later joining the Roman army, he began his career under the Gothic soldier Gainas.
In 394 Alaric led a Gothic force of 20,000 that helped the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius defeat the Frankish usurper Arbogast at the Battle of Frigidus. Despite sacrificing around 10,000 of his men, Alaric received little recognition from the Emperor. Disappointed, he left the army and was elected reiks of the Visigoths in 395, and marched toward Constantinople until he was diverted by Roman forces. He then moved southward into Greece, where he sacked Piraeus (the port of Athens) and destroyed Corinth, Megara, Argos, and Sparta. As a response, the Eastern emperor Flavius Arcadius appointed Alaric magister militum (“master of the soldiers”) in Illyricum.
In 401 Alaric invaded Italy, but he was defeated by Stilicho at Pollentia (modern Pollenza) on April 6, 402. A second invasion also ended in defeat at the Battle of Verona, though Alaric forced the Roman Senate to pay a large subsidy to the Visigoths. During the Italian invasion of Radagaisus Alaric remained idle in Illyria.
In 408, Western Emperor Flavius Honorius ordered the execution of Stilicho and his family, amid rumours that the general had made a deal with Alaric. Honorius then incited the Roman population to massacre tens of thousands of wives and children of Goths serving in the Roman military. Subsequently, around 30,000 Gothic soldiers defected to Alaric, and joined his march on Rome to avenge their murdered families.
Moving swiftly along Roman roads, Alaric sacked the cities of Aquileia and Cremona and ravaged the lands along the Adriatic Sea. The Visigothic leader thereupon laid siege upon Rome in 408. Eventually, the Senate granted him a substantial subsidy. In addition, Alaric forced the Senate to liberate all 40,000 Gothic slaves in Rome. Honorius, however, refused to appoint Alaric as the commander of the Western Roman Army, and in 409 the Visigoths again surrounded Rome. Alaric lifted his blockade after proclaiming Attalus as Western Emperor. Attalus appointed him magister utriusque militiae (“master of both services”) but refused to allow him to send an army into Africa. Negotiations with Honorius broke down, and Alaric deposed Attalus in the summer of 410, and besieged Rome for the third time. Allies within the capital opened the gates for him on August 24, and for three days his troops sacked the city. Although the Visigoths plundered Rome, they treated its inhabitants humanely and burned only a few buildings. Having abandoned a plan to occupy Sicily and North Africa after the destruction of his fleet in a storm, Alaric died as the Visigoths were marching northward.
Born on Peuce Island at the mouth of the Danube Delta in present day Romania, Alaric belonged to the noble Balti dynasty of the Tervingian Goths. The Goths suffered setbacks against the Huns, made a mass migration across the Danube, and fought a war with Rome. Alaric was probably a child during this period.
In Roman service
During the fourth century, the Roman emperors commonly employed foederati: irregular troops under Roman command, but organized by tribal structures. To spare the provincial populations from excessive taxation and to save money, emperors began to employ units recruited from Germanic tribes. The largest of these contingents was that of the Goths, who in 382, had been allowed to settle within the imperial boundaries, keeping a large degree of autonomy.
In 394 Alaric served as a leader of foederati under Theodosius I in the campaign which crushed the usurper Eugenius. As the Battle of the Frigidus, which terminated this campaign, was fought at the passes of the Julian Alps, Alaric probably learned the weakness of Italy's natural defences on its northeastern frontier at the head of the Adriatic Sea.
Theodosius died in 395, leaving the Empire to be divided between his two sons Arcadius and Honorius, the former taking the eastern and the latter the western portion of the Empire. Arcadius showed little interest in ruling, leaving most of the actual power to his Praetorian Prefect Rufinus. Honorius was still a minor; as his guardian, Theodosius had appointed the magister militum Stilicho. Stilicho also claimed to be the guardian of Arcadius, causing much rivalry between the western and eastern courts.
According to Edward Gibbon in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, during the shifting of offices that took place at the beginning of the new reigns, Alaric apparently hoped he would be promoted from a mere commander to the rank of general in one of the regular armies. He was denied the promotion, however. Among the Visigoths settled in Lower Moesia (now part of Bulgaria and Romania), the situation was ripe for rebellion. They had suffered disproportionately great losses at Frigidus. According to rumour, exposing the Visigoths in battle was a convenient way of weakening the Gothic tribes. This, combined with their post-battle rewards, prompted them to raise Alaric "on a shield" and proclaim him king; according to Jordanes, a 6th-century Roman bureaucrat of Gothic origin who later turned his hand to history, both the new king and his people decided "rather to seek new kingdoms by their own work, than to slumber in peaceful subjection to the rule of others."
Alaric struck first at the eastern empire. He marched to the neighborhood of Constantinople but, finding himself unable to undertake a siege, retraced his steps westward and then marched southward through Thessaly and the unguarded pass of Thermopylae into Greece.
The armies of the eastern empire were occupied with Hunnic incursions in Asia Minor and Syria. Instead, Rufinus attempted to negotiate with Alaric in person, which only aroused suspicions in Constantinople that Rufinius was in league with the Goths. Stilicho now marched east against Alaric. According to Claudian, Stilicho was in a position to destroy the Goths when he was ordered by Arcadius to leave Illyricum. Soon after, Rufinus' own soldiers hacked him to death. Power in Constantinople now passed to the eunuch Chamberlain Eutropius.
Rufinus' death and Stilicho's departure gave free rein to Alaric's movements; he ravaged Attica but spared Athens, which capitulated at once to the conqueror. In 396, he wiped out the last remnants of the Mysteries at Eleusis in Attica, ending a tradition of esoteric religious ceremonies that had lasted since the Bronze Age. Then he penetrated into the Peloponnesus and captured its most famous cities—Corinth, Argos, and Sparta—selling many of their inhabitants into slavery.
Here, however, his victorious career suffered a serious setback. In 397 Stilicho crossed the sea to Greece and succeeded in trapping the Goths in the mountains of Pholoe, on the borders of Elis and Arcadia in the peninsula. From there Alaric escaped with difficulty, and not without some suspicion of connivance by Stilicho, who supposedly had again received orders to depart. Alaric then crossed the Gulf of Corinth and marched with the plunder of Greece northward to Epirus. Here his rampage continued until the eastern government appointed him magister militum per Illyricum, giving him the Roman command he had desired, as well as the authority to resupply his men from the imperial arsenals.
First invasion of Italy
It was probably in 401 that Alaric made his first invasion of Italy, originally with the intention to petition for a position closer to Rome. Alaric had a fascination for the 'golden age' of Rome and insisted on his tribesmen calling him 'Alaricus'. Supernatural influences were not lacking to urge him to this great enterprise. Some lines of the Roman poet Claudian inform us that he heard a voice proceeding from a sacred grove, "Break off all delays, Alaric. This very year thou shalt force the Alpine barrier of Italy; thou shalt penetrate to the city." But the prophecy was not to be fulfilled at this time. After spreading desolation through North Italy and striking terror into the citizens of Rome, Alaric was met by Stilicho at Pollentia, today in Piedmont. The battle which followed on April 6, 402 (coinciding with Easter), was a victory for Rome, though a costly one. But it effectively halted the Goths' progress.
Stilicho's enemies later reproached him for having gained his victory by taking impious advantage of the great Christian festival. Alaric, too, was outwardly a Christian, though an Arian, not Orthodox though he continued to practice the Pagan rituals of his ancestors as well as observing Christian ritual practices. He had trusted to the sanctity of Easter for immunity from attack.
Alaric's wife was reportedly taken prisoner after this battle; it is not unreasonable to suppose that he and his troops were hampered by the presence of large numbers of women and children, which gave his invasion of Italy the character of a human migration.
After another defeat before Verona, Alaric left Italy, probably in 403. He had not "penetrated to the city" but his invasion of Italy had produced important results. It caused the imperial residence to be transferred from Milan to Ravenna, and necessitated the withdrawal of Legio XX Valeria Victrix from Britain.
Second siege of Rome
Throughout his career, Alaric's primary goal was not to undermine the Empire, but to secure for himself a regular and recognized position within the Empire's borders. His demands were certainly grand: the concession of a block of territory 200 miles long by 150 wide between the Danube and the Gulf of Venice (to be held probably on some terms of nominal dependence on the Empire) and the title of commander-in-chief of the Imperial Army. Immense as his terms were, the emperor would have been well advised to grant them. Honorius, however, refused to see beyond his own safety, guaranteed by the dikes and marshes of Ravenna. As all attempts to conduct a satisfactory negotiation with this emperor failed, Alaric, after instituting a second siege and blockade of Rome in 409, came to terms with the Senate. With their consent, he set up a rival emperor, the prefect of the city, a Greek named Priscus Attalus.
Third siege of Rome
Alaric cashiered his ineffectual puppet emperor after eleven months and again tried to reopen negotiations with Honorius. These negotiations might have succeeded had it not been for the malignant influence of another Goth, Sarus, an Amali, and therefore hereditary enemy of Alaric and his house. Alaric, again outwitted by an enemy's machinations, marched southward and in deadly earnest, began his third siege of Rome. Apparently, defence was impossible; there are hints, not well substantiated, of treachery; surprise is a more likely explanation. However, this may be—for our information at this point of the story is meagre — on 24 August 410, Alaric and his Visigoths burst in by the Porta Salaria on the northeast of the city. Rome, for so long victorious against its enemies, was now at the mercy of its foreign conquerors.
The contemporary ecclesiastics recorded with wonder many instances of the Visigoths' clemency: Christian churches saved from ravage; protection granted to vast multitudes both of pagans and Christians who took refuge therein; vessels of gold and silver which were found in a private dwelling, spared because they "belonged to St. Peter"; at least one case in which a beautiful Roman matron appealed, not in vain, to the better feelings of the Gothic soldier who attempted her dishonor. But even these exceptional instances show that Rome was not entirely spared the horrors which usually accompany the storming of a besieged city. Nonetheless, the written sources do not mention damages wrought by fire, save the Gardens of Sallust, which were situated close to the gate by which the Goths had made their entrance; nor is there any reason to attribute any extensive destruction of the buildings of the city to Alaric and his followers. The Basilica Aemilia in the Roman Forum did burn down, which perhaps can be attributed to Alaric: the archaeological evidence was provided by coins dating from 410 found melted in the floor. The pagan emperors' tombs of the Mausoleum of Augustus and Castel Sant'Angelo were rifled and the ashes scattered.
Death and funeral
Alaric, having penetrated the city, marched southwards into Calabria. He desired to invade Africa, which, thanks to its grain, had become the key to holding Italy. But a storm battered his ships into pieces and many of his soldiers drowned. Alaric died soon after in Cosenza, probably of fever, and his body was, according to legend, buried under the riverbed of the Busento in accordance with the Pagan practices of the Visigothic people. The stream was temporarily turned aside from its course while the grave was dug wherein the Gothic chief and some of his most precious spoils were interred. When the work was finished, the river was turned back into its usual channel and the captives by whose hands the labor had been accomplished were put to death that none might learn their secret.
Sources: The chief authorities on the career of Alaric are: the historian Orosius and the poet Claudian, both contemporary, neither disinterested; Zosimus, a historian who lived probably about half a century after Alaric's death; and Jordanes, a Goth who wrote the history of his nation in 551, basing his work on The Trojan War. The legend of Alaric's burial in the Buzita River comes from Jordanes.
See also -
ठाकुर देशराज  ने लिखा है ... एलऋषि - इन्हें यूनानी लेखकों ने एलरिक लिखा है। उन्होंने ईस्वी सन 400 के आसपास ज्ञात (गाथ) लोगों के एक बड़े समूह के साथ कुस्तुनतुनिया पर चढ़ाई की थी किंतु परकोटे की सुदृढ़ दीवारों से इनका वश नहीं चला। अतः मिलन पर चढ़ाई की किंतु यहां वंडाल लोग रोम के बादशाह की मदद पर खड़े हो गए। इसलिए इस युद्ध में एलरिक की हार हुई किंतु एलरिक हताश होने वाले योद्धाओं में न था। उसने 408
[पृ.164]: ई. में दुबारा चढ़ाई की। बादशाह ने कुछ वायदे उससे ऐसे किए जिससे एलरिक ने घेरा उठा लिया। किंतु तीसरी बार एलरिक को बादशाह की बेईमानी के कारण इटली पर चढ़ाई की। दुर्भाग्य से बीमारी के फैलने के कारण एलरिक का देहांत हो गया। तब अतुलपाश जिससे कि यूनानियों ने अटाल्फ़स लिखा है ने ज्ञात (गाथ) एक लोगों की कमान संभाली। बहादुर जाट इस वीरता से अबकी बार लड़े की बादशाह को उनसे संधि करनी पड़ी। इस संधि के अनुसार रोम के बादशाह अतुलपास को अपनी लड़की व्याह दी।
अद्भुत जाटविजेता अलारिक (Alarik)
अलारिक जाट जाति का एक वीर योद्धा, साहसी तथा अद्भुत व्यक्ति था। रोम नगर को विजय करने वाला यह पहला व्यक्ति था। इसका जन्म 370 ई० में पीयूष नामक एक द्वीप में हुआ था जो कि डेन्यूब नदी के मुहाने पर है। सम्राट् वैलेन्स के उत्तराधिकारी सम्राट् थियोडोसियस के अधीन अव्यवस्थित सैनिकों के सेनापति के रूप में अलारिक ने युद्ध करके अपहरणकर्त्ता इयूजीनियस को परास्त कर दिया। यह युद्ध जूलियन एल्पस (इटली) पर्वत के दर्रों के पास फ्रीजीडस में हुआ था। इस युद्ध में अलारिक को इटली के उत्तर-पूर्व सीमा पर प्राकृतिक रक्षा की कमजोरी की जानकारी हुई।
सम्राट् थियोडोसियस के मरने के बाद अलारिक के देशवासी जाटों ने उसे अपना राजा घोषित कर दिया। इस सम्राट् की मृत्यु सन् 395 ई० में हुई थी जिसके दो पुत्र थे। इतिहासकार जोरडेन्ज लिखता है कि “इन दोनों ने निर्णय किया कि वे अपनी वीरता से नया राज्य स्थापित करेंगे तथा दूसरों के अधीन नहीं रहेंगे।” इस तरह से रोमन साम्राज्य पूर्वी एवं पश्चिमी साम्राज्यों में बंट
जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-390
अलारिक ने पहले तो पूर्वी रोमन साम्राज्य पर धावा बोल दिया और वह कांस्टेंटीपल तक पहुंच गया किन्तु उसकी सुदृढ़ दीवारों को न तोड़ सका। वह पश्चिम की ओर मुड़ा और फिर दक्षिण की ओर मुड़कर थोसालाई तथा थर्मोप्लाई (यूनान में) के दर्रे से होता हुआ यूनान पहुंचा। यूनान पर अलारिक का आक्रमण दो वर्ष 395 ई० से सन् 396 ई० तक जारी रहा। उसने अट्टीका पर विजय पाई, जिस पर एथेंज ने तुरन्त अलारिक को आत्मसमर्पित कर दिया तथा स्वयं को महाविनाश से बचा लिया। फिर वह पेलोपोनेसस में प्रवेश कर गया और प्रसिद्ध नगरों कोरिन्थ, आरगोस तथा स्पार्टा पर अधिकार कर लिया। इसी दौरान जाट दल को रोकने के लिए सम्राट् आर्केडियस ने स्टीलीचो के नेतृत्व में एक बड़ी रोमन सेना भेजी, अलारिक ने तुरन्त कोरिन्थियन खाड़ी को पार किया तथा यूनान को लूटते हुए उत्तर को एपिरस की ओर बढ़ गया। रोमन सेनाओं द्वारा उसका पीछा करना असम्भव था। अन्त में पूर्वी तथा पश्चिमी रोमन साम्राज्यों में विरोध बढ़ गया। सम्राट् आर्केडियस ने अलारिक की वीरता को देखते हुए उसको इल्लीरीकम रियासत के महत्त्वपूर्ण प्रशासक का पद दे दिया। यह रियासत दोनों रोमन साम्राज्यों के बीच में थी। सम्राट् का उद्देश्य यह था कि अलारिक जो योग्य एवं शक्तिशाली है, के मित्र बनाने से उसका राज्य सर्वशक्तिमान् बन जाएगा। इस प्रकार डेन्यूब नदी के प्रान्तों पर शासक के साथ-साथ अलारिक दोनों साम्राज्यों का बिचोला बन गया।
चतुर जाट अलारिक को दोनों साम्राज्यों को एक-दूसरे के विरुद्ध भड़काने का अच्छा अवसर मिल गया। उसने हथियार बनाने का एक बड़ा शस्त्रागार बनाया, जिससे कि अगली लड़ाई के लिए अपने जाट सैनिकों को हथियार दे सके।
400 ई० के लगभग अलारिक ने इटली पर अपना पहला आक्रमण किया तथा उत्तरी इटली में सर्वनाश तथा रोमवासियों को भयभीत करता हुआ पोल्लेन्सिया के स्थान पर पहुंचा। वहां पर उसकी टक्कर स्टीलीचो के नेतृत्व में रोमन सेनाओं से हुई। 6 अप्रैल 402 ई० को अलारिक इस युद्ध में हार गया। एक और हार के कारण अलारिक ने 403 ई० में इटली को छोड़ दिया।
जाट सेना का इटली पर पहला आक्रमण असफल रहा परन्तु इसके महत्त्वपूर्ण परिणाम निकले। इसके कारण शाही निवासस्थान मिलान से उठकर रवेन्ना में आ गये। ब्रिटेन से रोमन सेनाएं वापिस लानी पड़ीं तथा गॉल (फ्रांस) और स्पेन रोमन से निकल गये।
साहसिक अलारिक ने जूलियन अल्पस को पार किया और सितम्बर 408 ई० में रोम शहर का घेरा डाल दिया। राज्यसभा ने शान्ति स्थापित करने के लिए अलारिक के पास अपने राजदूत भेजे। उन्होंने अलारिक को यह कहकर डराना चाहा कि “रोमन जनता का विशाल समुदाय तथा उसका प्रबल क्रोध तुम्हारे विरुद्ध है।” अलारिक ने उसका जाट आदर्श उत्तर दिया कि “Thicker the hay, the easier mowed” अलारिक ने रोमन विशाल समुदाय को सूखी घास की उपमा देकर कहा कि “सूखी घास जितनी अधिक गहरी होगी, उतना ही उसे काटना हमारे लिये आसान होगा।” 
जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-391
अन्त में रोमनों ने अलारिक को भेंट के तौर पर 25,000 स्टरलिंग, बहुमूल्य रेशमी कपड़े और 3000 पौंड वजन की काली मिर्च दीं। जाट सेनाओं से इस पराजय के बाद रोमन राजनीति में बहुत उतार-चढ़ाव आए। कई वर्ष प्रतीक्षा के पश्चात् अलारिक ने रोमनों पर तीसरी बार आक्रमण कर दिया जो जाट इतिहास में एक महत्त्वपूर्ण घटना थी। 24 अगस्त, 410 ई० को अलारिक और उसकी जाट सेनाओं ने रोमनगर के उत्तर-पूर्वी सलारियन द्वार को तोड़कर रोम पर अधिकार कर लिया। जाटों ने स्वयं को निर्दयी व कठोर विजेता प्रदर्शित नहीं किया और अलारिक तथा उसकी सेनाओं ने नगर के भवनों की तबाही भी नहीं की। तत्कालीन पादरियों ने भी उनकी दयालुता के बहुत से उदाहरण प्रस्तुत किए हैं।
- “ईसाई गिरजाघरों का विनाश नहीं किया गया, बहुसंख्यकों की रक्षा की गई जिन्होंने वहां शरण ले रखी थी। व्यक्तिगत घरों में पाए गए सोने तथा चांदी के बर्तनों को उन्होंने नहीं लिया क्योंकि वे सेंट पीटर से सम्बन्धित थे। एक घटना यह भी थी कि एक सुन्दर विवाहित रोमन स्त्री ने, जिसके साथ जाट सैनिकों ने अच्छा व्यवहार किया था, उनकी सफलता के लिए प्रार्थना की थी।”
विजेता अलारिक रोम नगर के दक्षिण में कलेबरिया की ओर बढ़ा। उसने अफ्रीका पर आक्रमण करना चाहा जो कि अनाज की फसलों के लिए प्रसिद्ध था। एक भयंकर तूफान के कारण उसके जहाज टुकड़े-टुकड़े हो गये तथा बहुत सैनिक मर गये। इसके कुछ समय बाद अलारिक की बुखार से मृत्यु हो गई। इसके बाद उसका बहनोई अतौलफुस जाट सेना का सेनापति बना।
अलारिक के चरित्र व कारनामों के प्रमाण लिखने वाले प्रसिद्ध इतिहासकार निम्नलिखित हैं।
- (1) ओरोसियस तथा कवि क्लाऊडियन दोनों ठीक समकालीन थे।
- (2) जोरडेंज एक जाट था जिसने सन् 551 ई० में अपने देश (इटली) का इतिहास लिखा, जिसका आधार केसीओडोरस के प्राचीन इतिहास पर था जो कि 520 ई० में लिखा गया था।
- दुःषन्तेन करूषेण रामालर्क नलैस तथा, विरूपाश्वेन निमिना जनकेन च धीमता (XIII.115.68)
- Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists/CHAPTER II,p.38
- Bhim Singh Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Introduction, p.xvii
- History of Origin of Some Clans in India/Jat From Jutland, pp. 46-47
- William N. Bayless, "The Visigothic Invasion of Italy in 401" The Classical Journal 72.1 (October 1976), pp. 65–67.
- Marcel Brion, "Alaric the Goth" (R.M. McBride & Co., 1930)
- Wolfram, History of the Goths, pp. 281f
- Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Utpatti Aur Gaurav Khand)/Parishisht,p.163-164
- अनटिक्विटी ऑफ जाट रेस, पृ० 51 से 55, लेखक उजागरसिंह।
- जाट इतिहास, पृ० 185, लेखक ठा० देशराज; जाट इतिहास अंग्रेजी, पृ० 41-42 लेखक ले० रामसरूप जून।
- अनटिक्विटी ऑफ जाट रेस, पृ० 51 से 55, लेखक उजागरसिंह।
- (अनटिक्विटी ऑफ जाट रेस, पृ० 56, लेखक उजागरसिंह माहिल; जाट्स दी एन्शन्ट रूलर्ज, पृ० XVII, लेखक बी० एस० दहिया)।
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