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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Beed district map
Map of Maharashtra showing districts

Beed (बीड़) is a city and district of Maharashtra state in India.


According to tradition a Yavana ruler of ancient India, named it Bhir (Persian ٻھېڔ for Water) after finding water at a very low depth [1] and Bhir might have become Beed in course of time.


  • Beed बीड़ दे. Bhid भीड़ (p.636)
  • Bhid भीड़ (Beed बीड़), महा., (p.669)
  • Durgawati दुर्गावती = Beed (बीड़) (महाराष्ट्र) (p.439)
  • Balni बलनी दे. Beed बीड (p.612)
  • Champavatinagara (चंपावतीनगर) (AS, p.323)
  • Bhir
  • Vijjalavida विज्जलवीड (AS, p.853)


The early history of Beed is unknown and there is a contradiction in the historical accounts in defining the foundation and early history. According to legend, Beed was an inhabited place in the period of Pandavas and Kurus as Durgawati. Its name was subsequently changed to Balni. Champavati, who was sister of Vikramaditya, after capturing, renamed it as Champavatinagar. After that the city fell to Chalukya, Rashtrkuta and Yadava dynasties before felling to the Muslim rule.

However, some scholars say that it was possibly founded by the Yadava rulers of Devagiri (Daulatabad). Tārīkh-e-Bīr (history of Beed) mentions that Muhammad bin Tughluq named it Bir (Arabic بئر meaning ‘well’) after building a fort and several wells in and around the city. Ground water was abundant in the city and when wells were built, water was found at only at several feet. Hence Tughluq named it as "Bir"[2][3][4] Until recent times, wells were abundant in the city. They became little important due to modern system of water supply hence subsequently most of them were filled. It is unclear that as to how the present name Beed came into use. There are at least two different traditions. The first tradition says that since the district is situated at the foot of Balaghat Range as if it is in a hole, it was named as Bil (बील Marathi for hole) which in course of time corrupted to Bid.

According to the second tradition a Yavana (यवण) ruler of ancient India, named it Bhir (Persian ٻھېڔ for Water) after finding water at a very low depth [5] and Bhir might have become Beed in course of time. The first tradition seems to be untrue, because with no angle, the entire district can be called a ‘hole’. Only north eastern part of the district is at lower heights and a vast area of 10,615 km2 can not be called a ‘hole’ just because of slight depression. Furthermore, Bil (बील hole) in Marathi is spoken for a deep and narrow hole and not for a slight depression. The second tradition though have some distortion, appears to be true and in accord with Tārīkh-e-Bīr of Quazi Muhammad Qutubullah (1898). The word ‘Yavana’ in early Indian literature meant a Greek or any foreigner. At a much later date it was frequently applied to the Muslim invaders of India.[6] It is quite possible that Muhammad bin Tughluq may have been referred in this tradition as Yavana ruler. Muslims ruled the Deccan for centuries and almost all Muslim rulers had Persian as their court language. It seems that Arabic word 'Bir' was eventually pronounced ‘Bhir’ in the Indian accent and the people mistakenly took this Arabic word as Persian for the court language of the rulers was Persian. Until recent times after independence, the city was called ‘Bir’ and ‘Bhir’ in the official documents.

Beed is a historical city of possibly medieval origin. But the early history is obscure. Historians speculate; based on archaeological remains, that the city might have been founded by the Yadava rulers (1173–1317) of Devagiri (Daulatabad). Beed was later a part of the Nizams in British India. Operation Polo, the code name of the Hyderabad "Police Action" was a military operation in September 1948 in which the Indian Armed Forces invaded the State of Hyderabad and overthrew its Nizam, annexing the state into the Indian Union. Beed remained in annexed Hyderabad state until 1956 when it was included in Bombay Presidency. On 1 May 1960 Maharashtra state was created on linguistic basis and Marathi & Muslim dominant Beed district became part of Maharashtra.[7][8]

Early history of the Beed is obscure until it became part of Tughluq empire. If the city was founded in Yadava era then possibly it happened in king Singhana's (1210–47) period, when Yadava dynasty was at its height. Singhana may have built Kankaleshwar temple with a small surrounding city. Beed came under Muslim rule for the first time in 1317 when Qutb-ud-Din Mubarak Shah (1316–20), the last Khalji, captured Devagiri and Yadava dynasty was ended. Beed remained under Khaljis until 1320 when Ghiyas-ud-Din (1320–25) took over. In 1327 Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–51) made Daulatabad his capital. Firishta narrates that Tughluq and his army camped near Bīr city in 1341 (AH 742 Islamic calendar) while on the journey back to Daulatabad from Warangal. The emperor lost one of his teeth here, which he ordered to be buried with much ceremony and a tomb was constructed at the place.[9] The tomb of Tughluq's tooth is in about to collapse condition on a hill near the village Karjani about 13 km south of the city. Juna Khan one of the governors of Tughluq empire is said to have resided in Beed for quite some time and introduced many reforms for the welfare of the ruled. He diverted the course of Bensura from west to east by constructing a protection wall around the city. Before his time there was no such protection for the city and it was situated on the eastern bank of the river. After that the population was largely shifted to the western part.[10]

In 1347 Beed came under Bahmanid rule when Hasan Gangu (1347–58), founder of Bahmanid Sultanate, rebelled against Tughluq rule and ascended throne of Daulatabad as Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah. Muhammad Tughluq acted vigorously and came to Deccan to subdue the rebels. He recaptured the province of Daulatabad, of which, Beed was a part. Hasan Gangu and other insurgents fled to Bidar and Gulbarga through Beed. Before the matter is fully settled a rebel broke in Gujarat and the sultan approached to Gujarat appointing Imad-ul-Mulk as governor in Deccan. Meanwhile, Hasan Gangu attacked Daulatabad and marched towards Beed and captured it. After that the city remained under Bahmanid rule and is said to be flourished under Firuz Shah Bahmani's (1397–1422) rule. During the reign of Humayun Shah Bahmani (1451–61), famous as Zālim (cruel), his brother Hasan Shah rebelled and came to Beed. A Jagirdar (feudatory) of Beed, Habibullah Shah was his supporter. Humayun Shah sent an army and after a fierce fighting in the grounds of Kankaleshwar temple, the rebellion armies defeated Humayun's army. Humayun became furious and sent another force to defeat the rebels. This time rebels were defeated, Habibullah Shah was killed and captured Hasan Shah was taken to the capital and was put before a hungry lion.[11]


विज्जलवीड (AS, p.853): किंवदंती के अनुसार प्राचीन भारत के प्रसिद्ध गणितज्ञ भास्कराचार्य का जन्म स्थान था, जो सह्यद्रि में स्थित था। यह प्राचीन नगर अब बीड़ कहलाता है। बीड़ का सर्वप्रथम उल्लेख 'विज्जलवीड' नाम से भास्कराचार्य के ग्रंथों में मिलता है। भीड़ या बीड़ विज्जलवीड का ही संक्षिप्त अपभ्रंश दिखाई पड़ता है। [12]


चंपावतीनगर (AS, p.323) बीड़ का प्राचीन नाम. कहा जाता है कि विक्रमादित्य की बहन चंपावती ने इस स्थान का नाम, जिसे पहले बलनी कहते थे, विक्रमादित्य का अधिकार हो जाने पर बदलकर चंपावतीनगर कर दिया था. (देखें बीड़) [13]

भीड़ (बीड़) महाराष्ट्र

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[14] ने लेख किया है ...भीड़ (बीड़), महाराष्ट्र, (AS, p.669) - किंवदती के अनुसार महाभारत काल में इस नगर का नाम 'दुर्गावती' था। कुछ समय पश्चात् यह नाम 'बलनी' हो गया। तत्पश्चात् विक्रमादित्य की बहिन चंपावती ने यहाँ विक्रमादित्य का अधिकार हो जाने पर इसका नाम चंपावती रख दिया था। बीड़ का सर्वप्रथम उल्लेख 'विज्जलवीड' नाम से गणितज्ञ भास्कराचार्य के ग्रंथों में मिलता है। इनका जन्म विज्जलवीड में हुआ था जो सह्याद्रि में स्थित था। भीड़ या बीड़ विज्जलवीड का ही संक्षिप्त अपभ्रंश

[p.670]: दिखाई पड़ता है। भास्कराचार्य का जन्म 12वीं शती के प्रारंभ में हुया था। इनके ग्रंथ लीलाव तथा सिद्धांत शिरोमणी की तिथि 1120 ई. के आसपास मानी जाती है। बीड़ का प्राचीन इतिहास अंधकार में है किंतु यह निश्चित है कि यहाँ पर काल के क्रमानुसार आंध्र, चालुक्य, राष्ट्रकूट, यादव और फिर दिल्ली के सुलतानों का आधिपत्य रहा था। अकबर के समकालीन इतिहास लेखक फ़रिश्ता ने लिखा है कि 1326 ई. में मुहम्मद तुग़लक़ बीड़ होकर गुज़रा था। तुग़लकों के पश्चात् बीड़ पर बहमनी वंश के निज़ामशाही और फिर आदिलशाही सुल्तानों का क़ब्ज़ा हुआ और 1635 ई. में मुग़लों का क़ब्ज़ा हुआ। मुग़लों के पश्चात् यह स्थान मराठों और इसके बाद निज़ाम के राज्य में सम्मिलित हो गया था। भूतपूर्व हैदराबाद रियासत के भारत में विलय तक यह नगर इसी रियासत में था।

बीड़ का ज़िला मराठी कवि मुकुंदराम की जन्मभूमि है। इनका जन्म अंबाजोगई नामक स्थान पर हुआ था। महानुभाव-साहित्य की खोज होने से पूर्व ये मराठी के प्राचीनतम कवि माने जाते थे। इनके ग्रंथ 'विवेकसिंधु', 'परमामृत' आदि हैं। दासोपंत जी (1550-1615 ई.) का निवास स्थान अंबाजोगई में ही था। इन्होंने श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता पर बृहत् टीका लिखी है। काग़ज़ के अभाव में इन्होंने अपने ग्रंथ खद्दर के कपड़े पर लिखे थे। इनका एक ग्रंथ परिमाण में 24 हाथ लंबा और 2.5 हाथ चौड़ा है।

बीड़ में खंडेश्वरी देवी के दो मंदिर हैं. मंदिर के एक और की दीवार गढ़े हुए सुडौल पत्थर की बनी हुई है. दूसरा मंदिर नगर से कुछ दूर है. इसमें मूल मूर्ति के अभाव में खंडोबा की प्रतिमा प्रतिष्ठापित है. इस मंदिर में 45 फुट ऊंचे दो दीपस्तंभ हैं जो वर्गाकार आधार पर स्थित हैं. 1660 ई. में बनी जामा मस्जिद भी यहां का ऐतिहासिक स्मारक है.

बीड़ शहर का परिचय

बीड़ शहर, मध्य महाराष्ट्र राज्य, पश्चिमी भारत में, कृष्णा नदी की सहायक नदी के किनारे, निचली पहाड़ी शृंखला की घाटी में स्थित है। बीड़ नगर 'भिर' भी कहलाता है। इससे पहले 'चंपावती नगर' कहलाने वाले इस शहर का नाम संभवत: फ़ारसी के 'भिर' शब्द जिसका अर्थ पानी, शब्द से लिया गया है। बीड़ का प्रारंभिक इतिहास यह है कि चालुक्य और यादव हिन्दू राजवंशों से इसका संबद्ध रहा था। 14वीं शताब्दी में बीड़ को तुग़लक़ मुस्लिम राजवंश द्वारा जीत लिया गया था और 1947 तक यह मुस्लिम राज्य का ही एक भाग बना रहा था। 1660 ई. में बनी 'जामा मस्जिद' भी यहाँ का ऐतिहासिक स्मारक है।[15]


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[16] ने लेख किया है ...दुर्गावती (AS, p.439) किंवदंती के अनुसार बीड़ नगर (जिला बीड़, महाराष्ट्र) का पुराना नाम है. (दे. बीड़)

External links

See also


  1. "Gazetteers Department – Bhir".
  2. "Gazetteers Department – Bhir".
  3. Nathapuri, Abdul Hamīd (1998). Zilla Bīr Kī Tārīkh (History of Beed District) (in Urdu). Asian Printing Press, Gulshan Colony, Jogeshwari (W) Mumbai.
  4. Quazi M. Q. Bīri (1898). Tārīkh e Bīr (History of Beed) (in Urdu). Quazi M. Q. Bīri. p. 90.
  5. "Gazetteers Department – Bhir".
  6. Encyclopædia Britannica contributor (2007). "Yavana". Encyclopædia Britannica 2007 Ultimate Reference Suite DVD. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.
  7. "Gazetteers Department – Bhir".
  9. Firishta, Muhammad Qasim (1829). History of The Rise of The Mahomedan Power in India. John Briggs (translation from original persian text). Longman, London. Volume I, Page 424.
  10. Quazi M. Q. Bīri (1898). Tārīkh e Bīr (History of Beed) (in Urdu). Quazi M. Q. Bīri. p. 90.
  11. Nathapuri, Abdul Hamīd (1998). Zilla Bīr Kī Tārīkh (History of Beed District) (in Urdu). Asian Printing Press, Gulshan Colony, Jogeshwari (W) Mumbai.
  12. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.853
  13. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.323
  14. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.669-670
  15. भारतकोश-बीड़ महाराष्ट्र
  16. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.439