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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Hayamukha (हयमुख) was one of the Buddhist places visited by Xuan Zang in 636 AD. The place was situated between Ayuto and Prayaga. Alexander Cunningham has identified it with Daundia-khera in Unnao district in Uttar Pradesh.[1]



Origin of the name


Visit by Xuanzang in 636 AD

Alexander Cunningham[2] writes that From Ayuto the pilgrim Xuanzang proceeded down the Ganges by boat for a distance of 300 li, or 50 miles, to O.ye.mu.khi which was situated on the northern bank of the river. M. Julien[3] reads this name as Hayamukha, or "Horse-face;" but it may perhaps also be read as Ayomukha, or " Iron-face," which was the name of one of the ancient Danavas, or Titans. Neither of these names, however, gives any clue to the site of the old city ; but if I am right in my identification of Ayuto with Kakupur, it is almost certain that Hayamukha must be Daundia-khera on the northern bank of the Ganges. Hwen Thsang makes the circuit of the town 20 li, or upwards of 3 miles ; but Daundia-khera presents no appearance of ever having been so large. There still exists an old ruined fort or citadel, 385 feet square, with the walls of two buildings which are called the palaces of the Raja and the Rani. But as Daundia-khera is universally allowed to have been the capital of the Bais Rajputs, who gave their name to the district of Baiswara in Oudh, it is almost certain that the place must once have been of much greater extent. Dondia or Daundia means simply a " drum-beater," and was probably applied to some mendicant, who took up his abode on the Khera or " mound," and as this name is not likely to have been imposed on the place until it was in ruins, the difference of name offers no impediment to the identification of Daundia-khera with Hayamukha.

[p.388]: Hwen Thsang makes Hayamukha 2500 li, or 417 miles, in circuit, which is perhaps too great ; but as Daundia-Khera was the capital of the Bais Rajputs, I conclude that the district must have comprised the whole of the present Baiswra, which lies between the Sai river and the Ganges, from Kanpur to Manikpur and Salon. But as these limits would give a circuit of only 200 miles, it seems almost certain that the district must have extended to the south of the Ganges in the time of Hwen Thsang. Its probable limits were, therefore, the Ghagra river on the north, and the Jumna on the south, a determination which derives some support from Tod,[4] who describes Bais-wara as an extensive district in the Doab between the Ganges and Jumna.


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[5] ने लेख किया है ... हयमुख (AS, p.1007) प्रसिद्ध ऐतिहासिक स्थान सांकाश्य (एटा, उत्तर प्रदेश) के निकट था। भारत की यात्रा पर आने वाले चीनी यात्री युवानच्वांग ने यहाँ 1000 बौद्ध भिक्षुओं की उपस्थिति का वर्णन किया है। हयमुख सम्भवतः कान्यकुब्ज (वर्तमान कन्नौज) के निकट अश्वतीर्थ नामक स्थान था। कनिंघम ने इसका अभिज्ञान 'डोंडीखेड़ा' नामक स्थान से किया है, जो प्रयाग से 104 मील उत्तर-पश्चिम में है। बील ने कनिंघम के उपर्युक्त अभिज्ञान को नहीं माना है।[6]


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[7] ने लेख किया है ...अयोमुख (AS, p.37) भारत का एक ऐतिहासिक स्थान था जहाँ चीनी यात्री युवानच्वांग 630 ई. से 645 ई. तक रहा था। युवानच्वांग ने इस स्थान को अयोध्या से लगभग 300 मील पूर्व की ओर बताया था। युवानच्वांग के वृत्त के अनुसार यह स्थान अयोध्या और प्रयाग के मार्ग पर अवस्थित था। युवानच्वांग की जीवनी से विदित होता है कि अयोमुख के मार्ग में ठगों ने युवान को पकड़ कर अपनी देवी पर उसकी बलि देने का प्रयत्न किया किंतु तूफ़ान आ जाने से वह बच गया। ऐसा जान पड़ता है कि उस समय इस प्रदेश में शाक्तों का विशेष ज़ोर था। कनिंघम के अनुसार यह स्थान प्रतापगढ़, उत्तर प्रदेश से 30 मील दक्षिण-पश्चिम की ओर था।


  1. The Ancient Geography of India/Hayamukha, p.387
  2. The Ancient Geography of India/Hayamukha, p.387
  3. Julien's 'Hiouen Thsang,' ii. 274.
  4. Julien's ' Hiouen Thsang," ii. 276.
  5. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.1007
  6. रेकाड्र्स ग्राव वेस्टर्न कंट्रीज 1,229
  7. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.37