Jaya Naga

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Jaya Naga (जय नाग) was a Nagavanshi king mentioned in Mahabharata (V.101.4,16) born in the race of Takshaka.

Variants of name

Mention by Panini

Jaya (जय) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [1]

Jaya (जाया) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [2]


Jaya: K P Jayaswal[3] writes ....The name Jaya (750) is quite in line with the Bharasiva Naga names we read on the coins e.g., Haya, Traya, etc. (JBORS, XIX. 1; History of India, (Naga-Vakataka Period) p. 35).

Jayanaga:K P Jayaswal[4] writes ....In the history of Prakataditya, the Francis Joseph of the Gupta Period, many changes happened in the history of the dynasty and the country, most of which we have already noticed. The remaining matter is the defection of the 'traitorous' prince of the Vindhya country that is, Malwa. In Durga (which I am unable to identify) he, according to the Tibetan text, declared himself king. "The Gauda nation became split up". King Jaya, mahavisha, set himself up in the South-East, then followed Kesari (or Simha) , then king Soma. 'Jaya the mahavisha (great poison)' seems to be the Jayanaga of Karnasuvarna (कर्णसुवर्ण) (EI, XVIII, 60) who issued a copper-plate with the imperial title maharajadhiraja. It seems that the gubernatorial family of Malwa noted in the Mandasor inscription of 533 A.D. had been ousted and Malwa had been recovered by the Guptas in the time of Prakataditya.

Identification of Jayanaga

Kila-Kila (किलकिला) were Nagas, earlier known as Vidisa Vrisha and later Kila-Kila Vrisha. It means they were earlier ruler of Vidisa and offshoot of Vidisa Nagas.

Dr Naval Viyogi[5] writes that Earlier Vakatakas (250-510 AD) estiblished their rule in Vindhya region. Bu later established authority over whole of Central India. From Vakataka inscriptions it is well established that A dynasty which took its name Vakataka came into existence about a century before Samudragupta 's conquests. The first king of the dynasty was Vindhyashakti (250–270). Second king was Pravarasena I (270–330).

Dr Naval Viyogi[6] mentions Kilkila at two places as a Kilkila River and as Kilkila Yavana:

In Puranas they have been called Vindhyakas or royal family of Vindhyadesh. It is, therefore clear that they were original inhabitant of Vindhya Pradesh. The Vindhyakas or the Vakatakas used to live at the bank of river Kilkila or the country around it. This is a small river-near Panna, having a reputation for its unhealthy water. We are thus brought to very area, Ajaygarh Panna (Panna, Madhya Pradesh) where the earliest Vakatak inscriptions are found, that is the district of Ganj-Nachna. The Bhagwata Purana, is describing the Vidisa Nagas and Praviraka, calls the whole group The kila-kila kings. The location of dynasty in Bundelkhand is thus unanimous."

Ajaygarh Panna (Panna, Madhya Pradesh) has been identified as the kingdom of Kilkila clan. We get information about the Fort of Ajaygarh from Imperial Gazetteer of India[7], which tells us that ...The name by which the fort is now known is comparatively speaking modern, and is not used in the numerous inscriptions found upon it, in which it is always called Jaya-pura-durga. Although it was undoubtedly built about the ninth century, and was always a place of importance, it is never mentioned by any Muhammadan historian except Abul Fazl, who merely records that it was the head-quarters of a mahal in the Kalinjar sarkar, and notes that it had a stone fort on a hill. Its present name is a corruption of Jaya-durga, through its synonym Jaya-garh, the legend ordinarily given, which accounts for its foundation by one Ajaipal of the Chauhan house of Ajmer, being a modern invention.

We are of opinion that this Fort of Ajaygarh, Panna was founded by Jayanaga.

चन्द्रगुप्त द्वितीय का यौधेयों से युद्ध

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[8] ने लिखा है....इन्द्रप्रस्थ के पास गुप्त सेना ने यौधेयों को सब से करारी हार दी। उनकी सबसे बड़ी क्षति हुई, उनका महासेनापति मारा गया। विक्रम का आदेश था कि किसी भी तरह जय महासेनापति को पकड़ लाओ। ‘जय’ युद्ध में बुरी तरह घायल होकर रणभूमि में गिर गया। यौधेयों ने फिर-फिर हमला करके घायल सेनापति को रणभूमि से ले जाना चाहा, मगर गुप्त सेना ने ऐसा न करने दिया। ‘जय’ के पास आकर जब वीरसेन ने प्रणाम किया तो वह केवल इतना ही कह सका कि “यौधेय-भूमि से मेरे शव को ही ले जा सकते हो।” वीरसेन ने अपने बड़े-बड़े चिकित्सकों को बुलाया। परन्तु ‘जय’ थोड़ी देर बाद चल बसा। यौधेय पुरुष तथा स्त्रियां भी लड़े। विस्तृत यौधेय भूमि युद्ध क्षेत्र बन गई थी।

विक्रमदित्य ने अग्रोदका (अग्रोहा), रोहितक (रोहतक), पृथूदका (पेहवा) आदि नगरों पर अधिकार कर लिया। अनेक पुरुषों को तलवार के घाट उतार दिया। दस वर्ष में तो गुप्त सेना केवल नगरों और उनके आस-पास की थोड़ी सी ही भूमि पर अधिकार कर सकी। विक्रमादित्य को सारी यौधेय-भूमि पर जगह-जगह सैनिक छावनियां बनानी पड़ीं। लाखों यौधेय-कुणिन्द-आर्जुनायन नर नारियों ने अपनी स्वतन्त्रता के लिए अपने जीवन का बलिदान किया। यौधेयों की सुन्दर भूमि श्मशान हो गई। बड़े-बड़े अनेक नगर उजाड़ दिए गये। विक्रमादित्य ने यौधेयों पर विजय प्राप्त करते ही अवन्ति (उज्जैन मालवा) पर आक्रमण कर दिये। विक्रमादित्य ने यौधेयों पर विजय प्राप्त करते ही अवन्ति (उज्जैन मालवा) पर आक्रमण कर दिया। कुछ ही दिनों में अवंति, लाट (गुजरात) सौराष्ट्र को जीत लिया। क्षत्रप वंश (शक जाट वंश) सदा के लिए लुप्त हो गया। विजयोत्साह में विक्रमादित्य ने अपने कितने ही चांदी के सिक्के चलाये। उन पर उसने लिखवाया - “श्रीगुप्त कुलस्य महाराजाधिराज श्रीचन्द्रगुप्त विक्रमादित्यस्य[9]।”

In Mahabharata

Udyoga Parva/Mahabharata Book V Chapter 101 mentions that the foremost of cities Bhogavati resembles the Amaravati. It is ruled over by Vasuki, the king of the Nagas. Shesha dwells here. He has thousand heads. There dwell in happiness innumerable Nagas -- sons of Surasa.

  • That Shesha dwelleth here, who, in consequence of his ascetic austerities of the foremost order, is able to support this earth with all her vastness.
  • His body is like that of a white mountain. He is decked in celestial ornaments. He hath a thousand heads. His tongues are blazing like flames of fire, and he is endued with great strength.
  • There dwell in happiness innumerable Nagas-- sons of Surasa -- possessed of diverse forms, and decked on ornaments of diverse kinds, bearing the signs of gems, Swastika, circles and drinking vessels.

Names of famous Nagas

  • Listen, however, to me as I name a few of the more famous ones amongst them. They are
1  इयं भॊगवती नाम पुरी वासुकिपालिता
     यादृशी देवराजस्य पुरी वर्यामरावती
 2 एष शेषः सथितॊ नागॊ येनेयं धार्यते सदा
     तपसा लॊकमुख्येन परभावमहता मही
 3 शवेतॊच्चय निभाकारॊ नानाविध विभूषणः
     सहस्रं धारयन मूर्ध्ना जवाला जिह्वॊ महाबलः
 4 इह नानाविधाकारा नानाविध विभूषणाः
     सुरसायाः सुता नागा निवसन्ति गतव्यथाः
 5 मणि स्वस्तिक चक्राङ्काः कमण्डलुक लक्षणाः
     सहस्रसंख्या बलिनः सर्वे रौद्राः सवभावतः
9 वासुकिस तक्षकश चैव कर्कॊटक धनंजयौ
     कालीयॊ नहुषश चैव कम्बलाश्वतराव उभौ
 10 बाह्यकुण्डॊ मणिर नागस तथैवापूरणः खगः
    वामनश चैल पत्रशकुकुरः कुकुणस तथा
11 आर्यकॊ नन्दकश चैव तथा कलशपॊतकौ
    कैलासकः पिञ्जरकॊ नागश चैरावतस तथा
12 सुमनॊमुखॊ दधिमुखः शङ्खॊ नन्दॊपनन्दकौ
    आप्तः कॊटनकश चैव शिखी निष्ठूरिकस तथा
13 तित्तिरिर हस्तिभद्रशकुमुदॊ माल्यपिण्डकः
    दवौ पद्मौ पुण्डरीकशपुष्पॊ मुद्गरपर्णकः
14 करवीरः पीठरकः संवृत्तॊ वृत्त एव च
    पिण्डारॊ बिल्वपत्रशमूषिकादः शिरीषकः
15 दिलीपः शङ्खशीर्षशजयॊतिष्कॊ ऽथापराजितः
    कौरव्यॊ धृतराष्ट्रशकुमारः कुशकस तथा
16 विरजा धारणश चैव सुबाहुर मुखरॊ जयः
    बधिरान्धौ विकुण्डशविरसः सुरसस तथा
17 एते चान्ये च बहवः कश्यपस्यात्मजाः समृताः
    मातले पश्य यद्य अत्र कश चित ते रॊचते वरः

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