|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)|
Nichakshu (निचक्षु) was a Kuru king fourth in line from Janamejaya.
According to Puranas, Janamejaya was succeeded by his grandson Ashwamedhatta (अश्वमेध दत्त) . Further in the lineage, are mentioned, Adhisima-krishna and Nichakshu. After the time of his successors, the dynasty came to an end.
Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 90 gives History and family tree of Puru, Bharatas and Pandavas commencing from Daksha.
According to the Chhandogya Upanishad the whole of the northern doab, including the area covered by the South Panchala suffered from natural calamities such as floods, locusts and hailstorms. The capital of the Kurus, Hastinapura, being washed away, Nichakshu, fourth in line from Janamejaya, shifted his capital from Hastinapur to Kausambi. Their migration across the South Panchala and passage through that region brought about a fusion of the Kurus and the Panchalas about 820 B.C.
Excavation at Hastinapur, Kurukshetra and Surrounding sites
Hastinapur and Surroundings: Excavations were conducted at Hastinapur (29°9'; 78°3', Dt Meerut ,Uttar Pradesh ) in 1950-52 by B.B.Lal on behalf of the ASI. Hastinapur, which is located between Meerut and Mawana in Uttar Pradesh is now a forgotten village, but the 1952 excavations revealed a few interesting discoveries which are highly debatable as whether they can be really correlated with the Mahabharata period.
After the archaeological excavations at ‘Vidura-ka-tila’, a collection of several mounds ,some being 50 to 60 feet high and extending a few furlongs, named after Vidura, a site 37 km (23 miles) north-east of Meerut, it was concluded to be remains of the ancient city of Hastinapur, the capital of Kauravas and Pandavas of Mahabharata, which was washed away by Ganges floods. In the archaeological excavations around hastinapur, about 135 iron objects which included arrow and spearheads, shafts, tongs, hooks, axes, and knives were found, which indicate the existence of a vigorous iron industry. There are indications of brick – lined roads and drainage systems, and an agro – livestock based economy. The painted grey ware (PGW) of Hastinapura has been assigned to 2800 BCE and beyond.
Further excavations at what is today referred to as Draupadi–ki–rasoi (Draupadi’s Kitchen) and Draupadi Ghat resulted in the finding of copper utensils, iron seals, Ornaments made of gold and silver, terracotta discs and several oblong shaped ivory dice used in the game of chauper, all dating to around 3000 BC. These places are visited frequently by tourists since the excavations.
Kota venkatachalam assigns 3138 B.c., as the year of Mahabharata War according to the calculations based on the movement of saptarishi mandala given in the text of Mahabharata Later, according to the Matsya and vayu puranas a heavy flood on the river Ganga destroyed Hastinapura and Nichakshu, the fifth king after Parikshit (Arjuna’s grand son) who ascended the throne after Kurukshetra war, shifted his capital to Kausambi, 50 kms from prayagraj. There is definite archaeological evidence of a massive flood level. The devastation by the Ganga is still visible in the thick clay soil. After the exile, the pandavas asked for three villages: Paniprastha, Sonaprastha and Indraprastha, generally identified with the modern panipat, Sonepat and Purana Kila in New Delhi. These sites have also yielded the same pottery and anti Quities. Building structures with drainage sytems and painted grey ware (PGW) were excavated at purana Qila.
Kurukshetra and Surroundings: Kurukshetra, now in Haryana, was the site kurukshtra war. Excavations here now yielded iron arrow and spearheads dated by Thermoluminence Test (TM) to 3100 B.C. (CIRCA). The Mahabharata mentions many small villages, tanks and hills, which are still identifiable. What is the historicity of the Mahabharata? Our doubting historians will never accept any of these finds unless they are supported by inscriptions, which will never be forthcoming as the earliest inscriptions belong to 300B.C.
Reference: Dwarka to Kurushetra. Dr. S. R. Rao. Journal of Marine Archaeology (1995-96).
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ... दिल्ली (AS, p.434): दिल्ली की संसार के प्राचीनतम नगरों में गणना की जाती है. महाभारत के अनुसार दिल्ली को पहली बार पांडवों ने इंद्रप्रस्थ नाम से बसाया था (देखें इंद्रप्रस्थ), किंतु आधुनिक विद्वानों का मत है कि दिल्ली के आसपास--उदाहरणार्थ रोपड़ (पंजाब) के निकट, सिंधु घाटी सभ्यता के चिन्ह प्राप्त हुए हैं और पुराने किले के निम्नतम खंडहरों में आदिम दिल्ली के अवशेष मिलें तो कोई आश्चर्य नहीं. वास्तव में, देश में अपनी मध्यवर्ती स्थिति के कारण तथा उत्तर पश्चिम से भारत के चतुर्दिक भागों को जाने वाले मार्गों के केंद्र पर बसी होने से दिल्ली भारतीय इतिहास में अनेक साम्राज्यों की राजधानी रही है. महाभारत के युग में कुरु प्रदेश की राजधानी हस्तिनापुर में थी. इसी काल में पांडवों ने अपनी राजधानी इंद्रप्रस्थ में बनाई. जातकों के अनुसार इंद्रप्रस्थ 7 कोस के घेरे में बसा हुआ था. पांडवों के वंशजों की राजधानी इंद्रप्रस्थ में कब तक रही यह निश्चय पूर्वक नहीं कहा जा सकता किंतु पुराणों के साक्ष्य के अनुसार परीक्षित तथा जनमेजय के उत्तराधिकारी ने हस्तिनापुर में भी बहुत समय तक अपनी राजधानी रखी थी और इन्हीं के वंशज निचक्षु ने हस्तिनापुर के गंगा में बह जाने पर अपनी नई राजधानी प्रयाग के निकट कौशांबी में बनाई. (देखें पार्टीजर, डायनेस्टीज ऑफ दि कलि एज-पृ.5).