Yemen

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Map of Yemen
Yeman in Middle East Countries

Yemen (Arabic: اليَمَن‎ al-Yaman) is an Arab country in Western Asia, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. Its capital is Sanaa.

Variants

Location

It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea to the south, and Oman to the east.

Arabia Felix

Arabia Felix (literally: Fertile/Happy Arabia; also Ancient Greek: Εὐδαίμων Ἀραβία, Eudaemon Arabia) was the Latin name previously used by geographers to describe South Arabia,[1][2] or what is now Yemen.[3]

Etymology

One etymology derives Yemen from yamin, meaning "on the right side", as the south is on the right when facing the sunrise. Another derives Yemen from yumn, meaning "felicity", as much of the country is fertile. The Romans called it Arabia Felix (Happy Arabia) as opposed to Arabia Deserta (Deserted Arabia). Yemen was mentioned in Old South Arabian inscriptions as Yamnat.[4] In Arabic literature, the term Al-Yaman includes much greater territory than that of the republic of Yemen; it stretches from northern Asir to Dhofar.[5][6]

Jat History

The studies of Quzi Athar Mubarakpuri also bring to light that the Jats did not remain confined to Persia. They got settlement in different Parts of Arab land, which was under the Persian rule in those days. The Arab geographers testified that fact that in the coastal region of the Persian Gulf from Ubullah to Bahrain they had many pockets of their population and that they engaged themselves in different kind of work including cattle breeding. [7], [8] It is also confirmed by the Arab historians that in pre Islamic period their largest concentration was found in Ubullah, a fertile and pleasant place near the city of Basrah. Their second big settlement was in Bahrain where they had been residing in large numbers prior to the period of the prophet (SAW) as we are informed by Al-Baladhuri and other historians [9] In the same way, there are clear evidences for their settlement in Yemen before the advent of Islam and their important role in socio- political life of those days Yemen. In the times of pious Caliphs when Persia and many parts of the Arab region (previously ruled by Persian and Roman Kings) came under the Muslim army and a number of them got converted to Islam also. It is confirmed by different historical and geographical works, as cited by Maulana Mubarakpuri that they had settled in large number in Antioc and coastal town of Syria under the patronage of the pious and Umayyad caliphate (Khilafat-e-Rashidah and Banu Umayyab) [10], [11]

It is very interesting that we come to know through the studies of Maulana Mubarakpuri that the Jats residing in Bahrain, Yemen and other coastal regions in a large number had influenced the local Arabs by their language to such extent that the latter lost the originality and eloquence of their language. For the same reason the language of the people of the tribes of Banu Abd Qais and Azd was declared to be diluted and unauthentic due to their mingling and frequent interaction with Persian and Indian people. [12], [13]

Mention by Pliny

Pliny[14] mentions.... Charax is a city situate at the furthest extremity of the Arabian Gulf, at which begins the more prominent portion of Arabia Felix:50 it is built on an artificial elevation, having the Tigris on the right, and the Eulæus on the left, and lies on a piece of ground three miles in extent, just between the confluence of those streams. It was first founded by Alexander the Great, with colonists from the royal city of Durine, which was then destroyed, and such of his soldiers as were invalided and left behind. By his order it was to be called Alexandria, and a borough called Pella, from his native place, was to be peopled solely by Macedonians; the city, however, was destroyed by inundations of the rivers. Antiochus51, the fifth king of Syria, afterwards rebuilt this place and called it by his own name; and on its being again destroyed, Pasines, the son of Saggonadacus, and king of the neighbouring Arabians, whom Juba has incorrectly described as a satrap of king Antiochus, restored it, and raised embankments for its protection, calling it after himself. These embankments extended in length a distance of nearly three miles, in breadth a little less. It stood at first at a distance of ten stadia from the shore, and even had a harbour52 of its own. But according to Juba, it is fifty miles from the sea; and at the present day, the ambassadors from Arabia, and our own merchants who have visited the place, say that it stands at a distance of one hundred and twenty miles from the sea-shore. Indeed, in no part of the world have alluvial deposits been formed more rapidly by the rivers, and to a greater extent than here; and it is only a matter of surprise that the tides, which run to a considerable distance beyond this city, do not carry them back again. At this place was born Dionysius53, the most recent author of a description of the world; he was sent by the late emperor Augustus to gather all necessary information in the East, when his eldest54 son was about to set out for Armenia to take the command against the Parthians and Arabians.


50 Called "Eudemon" by Pliny.

51 The Great, the father of Antiochus Epiphanes.

52 Though this passage is probably corrupt, the reading employed by Sillig is inadmissible, as it makes nothing but nonsense. "Et jam Vip sanda porticus habet;" "and even now, Vipsanda has its porticos."

53 Dionysius of Charax. No particulars of him are known beyond those mentioned by Pliny.

54 Caius, the son of Marcus Agrippa and Julia, the daughter of Augustus. He was the adopted son of Augustus.

यमन

यमन (अरबी भाषा: اليَمَن अल-यमन) मध्यपूर्व एशिया का एक देश है, जो अरब प्रायद्वीप में दक्षिण पश्चिम में स्थित है। 2 करोड़ वाली आबादी वाले देश यमन की सीमा उत्तर में सऊदी अरब, पश्चिम में लाल सागर, दक्षिण में अरब सागर और अदन की खाड़ी और पूर्व में ओमान से मिलती है। यमन की भौगोलिक सीमा में लगभग 200 से ज्यादा द्वीप भी शामिल हैं, जिनमें सोकोत्रा द्वीप सबसे बड़ा है।

यमन अरब प्रायद्वीप के दक्षिण-पश्चिमी कोने पर स्थित एक स्वतंत्र राष्ट्र है। इसके केवल तीन और अंकित सीमा है तथा पूर्व की ओर निर्घारित नहीं है। पश्चिमी सीमा पर 300 मील की लंबाई में लाल सागर फैला हैं। यह एक पहाड़ी देश है। इसके उतर-पूर्व में रूब-एल-खाली मरूस्थल हैं। यहाँ 4000 से 1000 फुट ऊॅचे उपजाऊ पठार भी हैं। यहाँ कई नदियाँ (वादी) बहती हैं, जिनमें उतर में वादी नजरान तथा दक्षिण में रुब अल-ख़ाली तथा हदरामौत (Hadramawt) बहती हैं। यहाँ जनवरी का ताप 14 डिग्री सें० तथा गरम जून मास का ताप 22 डिग्री सें० रहता हैं। उच्च प्रदेशों पर 16 इंच वर्षा होती हैं। यहाँ धूल के तूफान अधिक चला करते हैं। वनस्पति में बबूल, खजूर तथा फलों के पेड़ प्रमुख हैं। यद्यपि यहाँ शुष्क वन अधिक मिलते हैं, फिर भी ऐल्पाइन गुलाब, बालम (गुल मेंहदी) तथा तुलसी के पौधे पठरों तथा वादियों के किनारे मिलते हैं। जीवजंतुओं में बबून, हरिण (gazelle), तेंदुए, पहाड़ी खरगोश आदि प्रमुंख हैं। पक्षियों में गिद्ध, सारस, बगुला, तोता, हॉर्नबिल, चटखोरा आदि मिलते हैं।

यहाँ की राजधानी साना है। अन्य प्रमुख नगर ताइज़ (Ta'izz), अल-हुदैदाह (al Hudaydah), बैत अल-फकीह (Bayt al Faqih) हैं। अरबी यहाँ की प्रमुख भाषा है। यहाँ का धर्म इस्लाम है। केवल ५% भूमि पर कृषि की जाती है। उच्च प्रदेश प्रमुख कृषिस्थल हैं। शुष्क कृषि में कॉफी का स्थान अति प्राचीन कल से प्रमुख है। काट (Qat) की पैदावार तेजी से कॉफी का स्थान ले रही है। फलों में सेब, खूबानी, केला, कई प्रकार के अंगूर, नीबू, आडू, नारंगी तथा कई प्रकार के तरबूज अधिक उगाए जाते हैं। बादाम तथा अन्य काष्ठफल भी उगते हैं। जौ, जई, कम्मा, ज्वार, बाजरा, धान, तिल तथा सोरघम का खाद्यान्नों में प्रमुख स्थान है। पठारों तथा समुद्री तटों पर गेहूँ भी उगाया जाता है। खनिजों में नमक तथा चूने के पत्थर का स्थान प्रमुख है।

External links

References

  1. New Geographical Dictionary (Springfield, Mass., 1972), p. 63.
  2. Graf, D.; R. Talbert; S. Gillies; T. Elliott; J. Becker (15 December 2020). "Places: 746710 (Arabia Eudaemon)". Pleiades.
  3. Sergeant, R. B. & Lewcock, R. (eds.), Sanʻa: An Arabian Islamic City, London 1983
  4. Jawād ʻAlī (1968) [Digitized 17 February 2007]. الـمـفـصـّل في تـاريـخ العـرب قبـل الإسـلام [Detailed history of Arabs before Islam] (in Arabic) 1. Dār al-ʻIlm lil-Malāyīn. p. 171.
  5. Robert D. Burrowes Historical Dictionary of Yemen p.145 Rowman & Littlefield, 2010 ISBN 0-81-085528-3
  6. "He was worshiped by the Madhij and their allies at Jorash (Asir) in Northern Yemen" William Robertson Smith Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia P.193 ISBN 1117531937
  7. Al Baladhrui, Futuh al-Buldan, al Matba al-Misriah, Cairo , 1932 pp. 166,367,369
  8. Qazi Athar, P.66
  9. Al Tabari, Tarikh-i-Tabari. Barul Maarif, Cairo 1962, III/304
  10. Qazi Athar, pp, 66-67
  11. Zafarul Islam: Qazi Athar Mubarakpuri’s Studies on Jats, The Jats, Vol. II, Ed. Dr Vir Dingh, Delhi, 2006. p. 27
  12. Quzi Athar, p. 69
  13. Zafarul Islam: Qazi Athar Mubarakpuri’s Studies on Jats, The Jats, Vol. II, Ed. Dr Vir Dingh, Delhi, 2006. p. 29
  14. Natural History by Pliny Book VI/Chapter 31