Javadvipa

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Java Transportation Network

Javadvipa (जावाद्वीप) is an island of Indonesia. It is derived from Sanskrit word Yavadvipa (यवद्वीप).

Variants of name

Location

Java lies between Sumatra to the west and Bali to the east. Borneo lies to the north and Christmas Island is to the south. It is the world's 13th largest island. Java is surrounded by the Java Sea to the north, Sunda Strait to the west, the Indian Ocean to the south and Bali Strait and Madura Strait in the east. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on its northwestern coast.

Administration

Java is divided into four provinces and two special regions:

Etymology

The origins of the name "Java" are not clear. One possibility is that the island was named after the jáwa-wut plant, which was said to be common in the island during the time, and that prior to Indianization the island had different names.[1]

There are other possible sources: the word jaú and its variations mean "beyond" or "distant".[2]

Sanskrit yava means barley, a plant for which the island was famous.[3]

"Yavadvipa" is mentioned in India's earliest epic, the Ramayana. Sugriva, the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa, the island of Java, in search of Sita.[4] It was hence referred to in India by the Sanskrit name "yāvaka dvīpa" (dvīpa = island).

Java is mentioned in the ancient Tamil text Manimekalai by Chithalai Chathanar that states that Java had a kingdom with a capital called Nagapuram.[5][6][7]

Another source states that the "Java" word is derived from a Proto-Austronesian root word, Iawa that meaning "home".[8]

The great island of Iabadiu or Jabadiu was mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia composed around 150 CE in the Roman Empire. Iabadiu is said to mean "barley island", to be rich in gold, and have a silver town called Argyra at the west end. The name indicates Java,[9] and seems to be derived from the Sanskrit name Java-dvipa (Yavadvipa).

The annual news of Songshu and Liangshu referred Java as She-po (5th century CE), He-ling (640-818 CE), then called it She-po again until the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 CE), where they began mentioning Zhao-Wa.[10] According to Ma Huan's book (the Yingya Shenlan), the Chinese call Java as Chao-Wa, and the island was called She-pó (She-bó) in the past.[11] When John of Marignolli (1338-1353) returned from China to Avignon, he stayed at the Kingdom of Saba for a few months, which he said had many elephants and led by a queen; Saba may be his interpretation of She-bó.[12]

Jat clans

History

Much of Indonesian history took place on Java. It was the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java was also the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s. Java dominates Indonesia politically, economically and culturally.

Four of Indonesia's eight UNESCO world heritage sites are located in Java: Ujung Kulon National Park, Borobudur Temple, Prambanan Temple, and Sangiran Early Man Site.

Formed mostly as the result of volcanic eruptions from geologic subduction between Sunda Plate and Australian Plate, Java is the 13th largest island in the world and the fifth largest in Indonesia by landmass at about 138,800 square kilometres (53,600 sq mi). A chain of volcanic mountains forms an east–west spine along the island.

Fossilised remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", dating back 1.7 million years were found along the banks of the Bengawan Solo River.[14]

The island's exceptional fertility and rainfall allowed the development of wet-field rice cultivation, which required sophisticated levels of cooperation between villages. Out of these village alliances, small kingdoms developed. The chain of volcanic mountains and associated highlands running the length of Java kept its interior regions and peoples separate and relatively isolated.[15]

Before the advent of Islamic states and European colonialism, the rivers provided the main means of communication, although Java's many rivers are mostly short. Only the Brantas and Sala rivers could provide long-distance communication, and this way their valleys supported the centres of major kingdoms. A system of roads, permanent bridges and toll gates is thought to have been established in Java by at least the mid-17th century. Local powers could disrupt the routes as could the wet season and road use was highly dependent on constant maintenance. Subsequently, communication between Java's population was difficult.[22]

Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms era: The Taruma and Sunda kingdoms of western Java appeared in the 4th and 7th centuries respectively, while the Kalingga Kingdom sent embassies to China starting in 640.[16] However, the first major principality was the Medang Kingdom that was founded in central Java at the beginning of the 8th century. Medang's religion centred on the Hindu god Shiva, and the kingdom produced some of Java's earliest Hindu temples on the Dieng Plateau. Around the 8th century the Sailendra dynasty rose in Kedu Plain and become the patron of Mahayana Buddhism. This ancient kingdom built monuments such as the 9th century Borobudur and Prambanan in central Java.

Around the 10th century the centre of power shifted from central to eastern Java. The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.

Majapahit was established by Wijaya[[17] and by the end of the reign of Hayam Wuruk (r. 1350–89) it claimed sovereignty over the entire Indonesian archipelago, although control was likely limited to Java, Bali and Madura. Hayam Wuruk's prime minister, Gajah Mada, led many of the kingdom's territorial conquests.[18] Previous Javanese kingdoms had their power based in agriculture, however, Majapahit took control of ports and shipping lanes and became Java's first commercial empire. With the death of Hayam Wuruk and the coming of Islam to Indonesia, Majapahit went into decline.[19]

Spread of Islam and rise of Islamic sultanates: Islam became the dominant religion in Java at the end of the 16th century. During this era, the Islamic kingdoms of Demak, Cirebon, and Banten were ascendant. The Mataram Sultanate became the dominant power of central and eastern Java at the end of the 16th century. The principalities of Surabaya and Cirebon were eventually subjugated such that only Mataram and Banten were left to face the Dutch in the 17th century.

यवद्वीप

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[20] ने लेख किया है ...यवद्वीप अथवा 'जावा द्वीप' (AS, p.770): गुजरात के राजकुमार 'विजय' ने सर्वप्रथम इस देश में भारतीय उपनिवेश की स्थापना 603 ई. में की थी। इसका उल्लेख 'ब्रह्मांडपुराण' (पूर्व. 51) में है।

जावा द्वीप

जावा द्वीप इण्डोनेशिया गणराज्य में स्थित है। इस द्वीप का भारतीय इतिहास से बहुत निकट का सम्बंध रहा है। प्राचीन समय में इस द्वीप को 'यव द्वीप' कहा जाता था। भारत के कई ग्रंथों में जावा द्वीप का उल्लेख हुआ है। लगभग दो हज़ार वर्ष तक यहाँ भारतीय सभ्यता का प्रभुत्व रहा। आज भी यहाँ भारतीयों की बड़ी बस्तियाँ पाई जाती हैं। विशेषकर पूर्व जावा में 'मजापहित' साम्राज्य के वंशज टेंगर लोग रहते हैं, जो अब भी हिन्दू हैं। 'बोरोबुदुर' और 'प्रमबनन मंदिर' यहाँ के प्रसिद्ध धार्मिक स्थल हैं।

इतिहास: प्राचीन काल में जावा निकटवर्ती क्षेत्रों के समान भारतीय राजाओं के अधीन था। भारतीय राजाओं ने ही यहाँ बौद्ध धर्म का प्रचार किया था। यहाँ बहुत से हिन्दू एवं बौद्ध समुदाय के मंदिर तथा उनके अवशेष विद्यमान हैं। मैगेलांग के निकट 'बोरोबुदुर' मंदिर संसार का बृहत्तम बौद्ध मंदिर है। 14वीं-15वीं सदी में यहाँ मुस्लिम संस्कृति फैली और यहाँ मुसलमानों का राजनीतिक आधिपत्य हुआ। इसके बाद पुर्तग़ाली, डच एवं अंग्रेज़ व्यापारी आए, किंतु 1619 ई. से डचों ने राज्य प्रारंभ किया। 27 दिसम्बर, 1949 में इंडोनेशिया गणराज्य की स्थापना हुई, जिसमें जावा प्रमुख द्वीप है।

भौगोलिक स्थिति: जावा इंडोनेशिया गणराज्य में स्थित एक द्वीप है, जो मलाया द्वीप श्रृंखला में बृहत्तम तथा सर्वप्रसिद्ध है। इसका क्षेत्रफल 1,32,174 वर्ग मील है। इसके उत्तर में जावा समुद्र, दक्षिण में हिन्द महासागर और पूर्वं में बाली तथा पश्चिम में सुमात्रा द्वीप हैं, जो क्रमश: बाली तथा सुंडा जलडमरूमध्यों द्वारा जावा से अलग हो गए हैं। जावा की पूर्व से पश्चिम में लंबाई लगभग 960 कि.मी. तथा उत्तर से दक्षिण की अधिकतम चौड़ाई लगभग 200 कि.मी. है।

जावा द्वीप का निर्माण अधिकांशत: तृतीय कयुगीन चट्टानों द्वारा तथा अंशत: नवीनतर चट्टानों द्वारा हुआ है। केवल तीन स्थानों पर प्राचीनतर चट्टानें उपलब्ध होती हैं, जो संभवत: क्रिटेशस युग की हैं। जावा के भूगर्भ एवं धरातल पर 'प्लाइओसीन' तथा मध्य तृतीयक युगीन ज्वालामुखी उद्गारों का अधिक प्रभाव पड़ा है।

ज्वालामुखी: जावा में सौ से भी अधिक ज्वालामुखी पर्वत हैं, जिनमें से 13 अब भी सक्रिय अवस्था में हैं। यहाँ 20 से भी अधिक पर्वत-शिखरों की ऊँचाई 8000 फुट से अधिक है, जिनमें सेमेरू (12,060') सर्वोच्च है। इस द्वीप में भूकंप आते रहते हैं, लेकिन बहुत ही विरल। हिन्द महासागर में गिरने वाली नदियाँ छोटी और तीव्रगामी हैं। परंतु उत्तर में प्रवाहित होने वाली नदियाँ अपेक्षाकृत अधिक लंबी, धीमी गति वाली परिवाहनीय हैं।

कृषि: भारत के समान ही जावा भी कृषि प्रधान क्षेत्र है। रबर, गन्ना, चाय, कहवा तथा कोको यहाँ की व्यापारिक फ़सलें हैं, जो पहले बड़े बागानों में, किंतु अब छोटे खेतों में भी उगाई जाती हैं। संसार का कुल 90 प्रतिशत सिनकोना यहाँ पैदा होता है। नारियल की जटा, तेल, ताड़ का तेल और पटुआ भी निर्यात होते हैं। धान सर्वप्रमुख उपज और निवासियों का आहार है। सिंचाई की सहायता से इसकी दो फ़सलें उगाई जाती है। तंबाकू, मक्का, मटर, सोयाबीन और कसावा यहाँ की अन्य प्रमुख फ़सलें हैं।

उद्योग: खनिजों में कोयला और तेल का उत्पादन होता है। जावा के लोग लगभग तीस प्रकार की दस्तकारी के लिये प्रसिद्ध हैं। बड़े उद्योग अधिक नहीं हैं। जकार्ता, सुराबाया और सेमरांग में जहाज़ निर्माण का कार्य किया जाता है और साथ ही इनकी मरम्मत भी की जाती है। कपड़े, काग़ज़, दियासलाई, कांच और रासायनिक पदार्थो के भी कुछ कारखाने यहाँ की अर्थव्यवस्था का आधार हैं।

संदर्भ: भारतकोश-जावा द्वीप

Languages

Three main languages are spoken on the island: Javanese, Sundanese, and Madurese, where Javanese is the most spoken; it is the native language of about 60 million Javanese people in Indonesia, most of whom live on Java. Furthermore, most residents are bilingual, speaking Indonesian (the official language of Indonesia) as their first or second language. While the majority of the people of Java are Muslim, Java's population is a diverse mixture of religious beliefs, ethnicities, and cultures.

References

  1. Raffles, Thomas E.: History of Java. Oxford University Press, 1965, p. 2.
  2. Raffles, Thomas E.: History of Java. Oxford University Press, 1965, p. 3.
  3. History of Ancient India Kapur, Kamlesh, p.465
  4. History of Ancient India Kapur, Kamlesh, p.465
  5. Hindu culture in ancient India by Sekharipuram Vaidyanatha Viswanatha, p. 177.
  6. Tamil Literature by M. S. Purnalingam Pillai, p. 46.
  7. The Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago by V. Kanakasabhai, p. 11.
  8. Hatley, R., Schiller, J., Lucas, A., Martin-Schiller, B., (1984). "Mapping cultural regions of Java" in: Other Javas away from the kraton. pp. 1–32.
  9. J. Oliver Thomson (2013). History of Ancient Geography. Cambridge University Press. pp. 316–317. ISBN 9781107689923.
  10. Lombard, Denys (1990). The Javanese Crossroads: Essay of global history. ISBN 2713209498.
  11. Mills, J.V.G. (1970). Ying-yai Sheng-lan: The Overall Survey of the Ocean Shores [1433]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  12. Yule, Sir Henry (1913). Cathay and the way thither: being a collection of medieval notices of China vol. II. London: The Hakluyt Society.
  13. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/J,p.379
  14. Pope, G. G. (1988). "Recent advances in far eastern paleoanthropology". Annual Review of Anthropology. 17: 43–77.
  15. Ricklefs (1991), pp. 16–17.
  16. Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1. p.53,79
  17. Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1. p.201
  18. Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1. p.234
  19. Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.p. 241
  20. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.770