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Author: Laxman Burdak IFS (R)

Kukkutagiri (कुक्कुटा गिरि) is a mountain mentioned by Panini and term Kukkuta (कुक्कुट) in Mahabharata (IX.44.74) .


Range on the western frontier from Afghanistan to Baluchistan. [1] Mention by Panini Kukkuṭāgiri (कुक्कुटागिरि) is name of a Mountain mentioned by Panini. [2]

Variants of nane

Mention by Panini

Kukkuta-kantha (कुक्कुट-कंथ) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [3]

Kukkuta (कुक्कुट) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [4]

Kukkutagiri (कुक्कुटागिरि) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [5]

Kaukkutika (कौक्कुटिक ) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [6]


Kurkihar (कुर्किहार) is an ancient village in Gaya district in Bihar. Kurkihar is a small village located on a site that was earlier a Buddhist monastery named Kukkutapada or Kukkar-vihar.

For detail history see - Kurkihar.


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[7] ने लेख किया है ...कुक्कुटाराम (AS, p.199) महावंश 5, 122. पाटलिपुत्र में स्थित एक विहार जो संभवत: वर्तमान [p.200]: रानीपुर (पटना) के पूर्व की ओर टीले के स्थान पर था. बौद्ध साहित्य के अनुसार मौर्य सम्राट अशोक ने इसी बिहार में द्वितीय बौद्ध संगीति का सम्मेलन किया था.

Visit by Xuanzang in 637 AD

Alexander Cunningham[8] writes that From the Bodhi-drum Hwen Thsang crossed the river Nairanjan, and visited a stupa named Gandha-hasti, or the " Scented Elephant," near which there was a tank and a stone pillar.[9] The ruins of the stupa and the lower portion of the shaft of the pillar still exist at Bakror, on the eastern bank of the Lilajan river, about 1 mile to the south-east of Bauddha-Gaya.

Travelling eastward, the pilgrim crossed the river

[p.460]: Mo-ho, or Mohana Nadi, and entered a large forest, where lie saw another stone pillar. Then proceeding to the north-east for 100 li, or nearly 17 miles, he reached the mountain of Kiu-kiu-cha-po-tho, or Kukkutapada, or " Cock's-foot," which was remarkable for three bold peaks. According to Fa-Hian's account, the Hill of the Cock's-foot was 3 li, or half a mile, to the south of the holy tree of Bauddha-Gaya. For 3 li we should no doubt read 3 yojanas, or 21 miles, which agrees very closely with Hwen Thsang's distance of 17 miles, plus about two miles for the crossings of the two rivers, or altogether 19 miles.

I have already identified this place with the present Kurkihar, which, though omitted in the maps, is perhaps the largest place between the cities of Gaya and Bihar. It is situated 3 miles to the north-east of Vazirganj, 16 miles to the north-north-east of Gaya, and 20 miles to the north-east of Bauddha-Gaya.[10] The true name of Kurkihar is said to be Kurak-vihar, which I believe to be only a contracted form of Kukkatapada-Vihara or "Cock's-foot Temple," as the Sanskrit Kukkuta is the same word as the Hindi Kukkar, or Kurak, a " cock." The present Kurkihar therefore corresponds both in name and in position with the famous " Cock's-foot Hill " of the Buddhists. There is, however, no three-peaked hill in its neighbourhood ; but about half a mile to the north of the village three rugged hills rise boldly out of the plain, which, as they stand so close together that their bases meet, may fairly be identified with the three-peaked hill of Hwen Thsang. This identification is confirmed by the presence of several ruined mounds, in which numerous Buddhist statues and votive stupas have been found.

In Mahavansa

Mahavansa/Chapter 36 tells....After the death of Bhatika Tissa (his younger brother) Kanittha Tissa reigned eighteen years in the island of Lankä. Since he was well pleased with the thera Mahanaga in the Bhutarama he built for him in splendid fashion the Ratanapasada in the Abhayagiri. Moreover, he built in the Abhayagiri a wall and a great parivena and a great parivena besides in the (vihara) called Manisoma. In that place he built a temple for the cetiya and in like manner for the Ambatthala-thupa; and (he ordered) the restoration of the temple in Nagadipa. Doing away with the boundary of the Mahavihara, the king built there the row of cells (called) Kukkutagiri with all things provided. In the Mahävihãra the ruler of men built twelve great four-sided pasadas, admirable to see and beautiful, aria he added a mantling to the thupa of the Dakkhinavihara, and a refectory besides, doing away with the boundary of the Mahameghavana. And moving the wall of the Mahavihära to the side, he also made a road leading to the Dakkhinavihara. He built the Bhutaramavihara and the Ramagonaka, and the arama of Nandatissa besides.

In Jatakas

383. Kukkuta-Jataka.

448. Kukkuta-Jataka.

In Mahabharata

Mahabharata mentions in verses:

  • Kukkuta (कुक्कुट) (IX.44.74),
  • Kukkutavaktra (कुक्कुटवक्त्र) (IX.44.74),
  • Kukkutika (कुक्कुटिका) (L) (IX.45.14),

Shalya Parva, Mahabharata/Book IX Chapter 44 mentions the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo, the diverse gods, various clans who joined it. Kukkutavaktra (कुक्कुटवक्त्र) is mentioned in verse (IX.44.74). [11]

Shalya Parva, Mahabharata/Book IX Chapter 45 gives the List of the mothers who became the companions when Skanda was installed. Kukkutika (कुक्कुटिका) is mentioned in verse (IX.45.14). [12]

Jat clans

External links


  1. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.39
  2. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.39,511
  3. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.68
  4. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.221
  5. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.39, 40, 41
  6. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.381
  7. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.199
  8. The Ancient Geography of India/Magadha, p.459-460
  9. Julien's ' Hiouen Thsang,' iii. 1. See Map No. XII.
  10. Julien's ' Hiouen Thsang,' iii. 6. See Map No. XII.
  11. कूर्मकुक्कुटवक्त्राश च शशॊलूक मुखास तदा, खरॊष्ट्रवदनाश चैव वराहवदनास तदा (IX.44.74)
  12. लम्बसी केतकी चैव चित्रसेना तहा बला, कुक्कुटिका शङ्खनिका तदा जर्जरिका नृप

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