Lalitaditya Muktapida

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Lalitāditya Muktapīḍa (r. 724 CE–760 CE) was an emperor of the Kashmiri Karkoṭa dynasty, which exercised influence in northwestern India from 625 CE until 1003.


He is known primarily for his successful resistance to Muslim and Tibetan advances into Kashmiri-dominated regions. He defeated the forces of Yashovarman, the successor to the emperor Harsha. Prior to these foreign incursions, he had expanded his own empire; Kashmir at that time was the most powerful state of Northern India.

Lalitaditya Muktapida, son of Durlabhaka-Pratapaditya II,[1] who preceded him as Karkoṭa emperor, was known to be a skilled horse rider and warrior, according to historian R.C. Majumdar. He conducted campaigns of expansion in areas to the south of Kashmir and was able to concentrate his attention on regions to the north. His empire expanded to the borders of the Karakoram mountains. During this period, he was drawn into a war with Yashovarman of Kannauj, the successor to the Emperor Harsha. Lalitaditya is believed to have defeated Yashovarman's forces.[2]

In the beginning of the 8th century, the Arab invasion had started knocking at the door of the Kabul valley. Simultaneously after the end of Tang reign in China, many Central Asian states that had come under the Chinese rule had disintegrated because of civil wars. During this period, the Muslim power in Sindh was trying to march towards the north. While the empires of Kabul and Gandhar were occupied by these invasions, Lalitaditya used the opportunity to establish his foothold in the north, moving with his victorious army from Dardistan to Turkestan. The entire area was rich in Kashmiri traditions and education, due to the efforts of Buddhist monks and Kashmiri people in towns of Central Asia.[3]

He expressed interest in other areas besides his military campaign. Art and trade gained importance during his reign, religious festivals were held, and special facilities as well as encouragement were provided to support painters and sculptors. He was a successful writer and a Veena player. Prithivi Nath Kaul Bamzai wrote that Lalitaditya's war victories have received special place among different accounts of his reign.

Moved capital Srinagar to Parihaspur

Lalitaditya Muktapida moved his capital from Srinagar to Parihaspur (a small town near Srinagar in Kashmir Valley). Kalhana mentions the construction of the city in his Book 4 cantos 194-204. Lalitaditya according to Kalhana built his residence and four temples in this area. The temples included one for Vishnu (Muktakeshva) where according to Kalhana the emperor used 84,000 tolas of gold to make the image of Vishnu. In another temple he used as many Palas of silver for the image of Parihaskesana. He also had made a statue of Buddha in copper that according to Kalhana “reached up to the sky.” The main temple was larger than the famous temple that Lalitaditya built in Martand.[4][5]

Parihaspur lost its status as a capital after Lalitaditya’s death. His son moved the royal residence.

Military campaigns

Kalhana in his Rajatarangini credits king Lalitaditya with leading an aggressive military campaigns in Northern India and Central Asia. He broke into the Uttarapatha and defeated the rebellious tribes of the Kambojas, Tukharas (Turks in Turkmenistan and Tocharians in Badakhshan), Bhautas (Tibetans in Baltistan and Tibet) and Daradas (Dards). His campaign then led him to subjugate the kingdoms of Pragjyotisha, Strirajya and the Uttarakurus.[6][7][8]

In Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[9] tells that in the history of Kashmir Tarapida (693-697AD) was succeeded by his youngest brother Lalitaditya (697-733 AD). He was a very powerful king, and carried on wars against his neighbours, but did not fight against those who submitted even at the moment of his victory. People fled from the cities which ho attacked, and towns became empty as by miscarriage. Almost the whole of his reign was speent in conquest. He carried his victorious arms to the east. He conquered Gadhipura (Kanyakubja) where the women, were hunch-backed. Yashovarmma, the king of the place, wisely submitted. But the king's servants were prouder than the king, even as the breeze from the sandal trees is more pleasant than

[p.68]: the spring. Yashovarmma unfortunately placed his name before that of Lalitaditya in the document of the treaty which was about to be concluded between the two kings ; which ran thus — "Peace is established between Yashovarmma and Lalitaditya." This offended Mitrasharma, who was minister of war and peace, as he regarded it as a slight to his master. The king who with his army was waiting with impatience, approved of the conduct of his servant in taking offence, and was so pleased with him that he made him head of the fire office': which he created out of eighteen that had existed Before- and in which five departments, Shahi and others were made heads. The five offices are thus named - the Great Constabulary, the Military Department, the great Stable Department, the Treasury, and the Supreme Executive office. Yashovarmma and his family were extirpated. The poets Vākpati, Rājashri and Bhavabhuti, &c,, who were in the court of the king of Kanyakubja, now came over to the king of Kashmira and used to chant songs to him. Kanyakubja, from the Yamuna to the Kalika submitted to him even like the courtyard of his own house. (IV, p.68)

He marched thence with his army towards the east. He passed Kalingga, where elephants wore caught. And then he came to Goura. Thence he reached the Eastern Sea, and pursued his course along the coast towards the south, conquering as he went. Karnāta submitted on his approach. A beautiful Karnāti lady named Ratti who ruled supreme in the south, her territories extending

[p.69]: as far as the Vindya hills, also submitted to him. The army then rested on the banks of the Kaveri beneath the palm trees, drinking the water of coconuts. Thence he marched to Chandanadri. And then the king crossed the sea passing from one Island to another ; and thence marched towards the west, the sea singing the songs of his victory. He then attacked the seven Kramuka and the seven Kongkana which suffered much thereby. His army was anxious to enter Dvaraka situated on the Western Sea. The army then crossed the Vindya hills and entered Avanti where there was an image of Shiva named Mahakala.(IV, p.69)

Lalitaditya, finding that almost all the kings had been conquered, turned towards the north, and had to fight his way with the haughty kings in that direction. He robbed the king of Kamvoja of his horses. In the mountains of Bhuskhara the horses of the king became excited at the sight of the horse-faced women of the country, 'He thrice defeated Dussuui and subdued him. He then conquered the Bouttas, and in whose naturally pale colored faces no further sign of anxiety was visible. He also conquered Darad. Here the soft wind charged with the scent of Raindeer cheered his army. Before he approached East Yotishapura, the inhabitants left that place. Here the king saw the forest in fire. His elephants then passed, through a sea of sand. Here was the kingdom of the females, and it was governed by a female and the soldiers became impatient for the women. The queen

[p.70]: submitted and came out to have an interview with the invader, and trembled before him, it is not certain whether with fear or in love. The people of North Kuru fled to the mountains for fear of Lalitaditya. (IV, p.70)

Rich with the spoils of conquest the king returned to his country. He gave Jalandhara and Lohara and other small provinces to his adherents. To mark his conquest, he obliged other kings to wear a symbol of subjection, which they bear to this day. The Turashkas commemorate the fact of their being bound by generally clasping both their hands behind their backs, and, shaving the front part of their heads. To prove the inferiority of the people of the South, he caused them to wear in their clothes a tail which touched the ground. There was not a town or village, or island, or river, or sea, where he did not raise triumphal monuments. These monuments he named according to the event or the time. When he set out on his expedition, he felt certain of conquest, and built a town named Sunishchitapura (सुनिश्चितपुर), or the " City of Certainty." When in his pride of conquest, he built another named Darpitapura (दर्पितपुर), or the " City of Pride," in which he set up an image of Keshava. And when his conquests were over, and he was enjoying the fruits of his victories, he raised another city ' which he named Phalapura (फलपुर) (phala signifying fruit or effect). He completed Parnotsa (पर्णोत्स) and built a house for amusement named Krirārāma (क्रीराराम), the name indicating the purpose of the building. In the kingdom of the females' be set up an (IV, p.70)

[p.71]: image of Nrisingha — unsupported by any thing but placed in the air between two loadstones, one above and one below. When be was out in conquest, bis viceroy built a town after the king's name, but he incurred the king's anger. In this town of Lalitapura, there was an image of the sun, to which he bestowed the city of Kanyakubja with the adjoining lands and villages. At Hushkapura he built an image of the god Muktasvami and built a large monastery with a stupa for the Buddhists. He set out on his conquest with one koti (ten millions) of current coin. On his return he bestowed eleven kotis to Bhutesha for his purification. He raised the stonehouse of Jeshtarudra and bestowed many villages and lands to it. He also planted a series of machines at Chakradhara to draw water from tho Vitasta. Also he raised a strong wall of stone round the temple of the sun. He erected a town adorned with vines, and another for the spiritual benefit of the people, and bestowed it with many villages to god Vishnu. (IV, p.71)

He built a beautiful town named Parihasapura. Here he set up a silver image of Vishnu, named Shiparihāsa-keshava, and another of gold named, Shrimuktakesuava, also an image of Mahavaraha, the mail of this last image being made of gold. He also set up a silver image of Govaidhanadhara. He planted a single piece of, stone fifty-four cubits high, on which was planted a banner, on the top of which he set up an image of Garura. He likewise built a temple of Buddha, which had a square

[p.72]: court-yard, also a chaitya, and a monastery. The image of Muktakeshava was built of eighty-four thousand tolas of gold, that of Shriparihisakeshava was built of eighty four thousand palas of silver. The image of Buddha which he set up was built of eighty-four thousand prasthas of brass. The monastery which had a square court-yard and the chaitya, were built for eighty-four thousand pieces of the current coin. The rich king built gods of gold and silver by the side of the great gods of the country. The jewels, furniture and villages bestowed on the gods were beyond estimation. His queens, ministers and dependent kings also set up hundreds of wonderful images. His queen named Kamalavati, who was very rich, set up a silver image of Vishnu warned Kamalakeshava. His minister Mitrasharma raised an image of Shiva named Mitreshvara ; and Kayya a subordinate king of Lata, built a god named Shrikayyasvami; he also erected a vihara named Kayyavihara, where Sarvvajngamitra a Buddhist attained the purity of Buddha. Another of his ministers named Tuskhārashchangkuna raised a vihara named Changkuna, a stupa high as the mind of a king, and a golden image of Buddha. Ishānadevi, wife of tho minister just named, caused a canal to be dug, whose waters were clear and beneficial to the healthy as to the sick. Chakramardikā, a favourite queen of Lalitaditya, built a town named Chakrapura containing seven thousand houses. A Brahmana named Bhappata set up a god named Bhappateshvara, and (IV, p.72)

[p.73]: other individuals set up Karkatesha and other gods. The prime minister Changkuna built in another place a vihara with a chaitya; and Ishanachandra the physician and brother to the wife of Changkuna, having obtained wealth through the favor of Takshaka, built a Vihara.* (IV, p.73)

The king further caused a permanent asylum for the poor to be built at Parihasapura, to which he presented one lac and one plates filled with food. He also caused a town to be built in a barren place that thirsty men might find water, there. He invited prudent men from other countries, and brought Changkuna brother of Kangkanavarsha, an alchemist, from Bhuskhara. The king exchanged with this man a statue of Buddha which he brought from Magadha for certain jewels of mysterious properties. This statue Changkuna placed in the monastery which he built, and can be seen to this day, surrounded by iron railings. (IV, p.73)

The king who was a good horseman, once rode to the woods to break a new horse. There, in a solitary part of the forest, he found a beautiful woman singing, and another dancing. When they had finished their works, they bowed and went away. The king for some days continually went to the same place, riding on the same horse, and saw the same sight. One day, being questioned by the astonished king, the girls replied, that they served, in a temple, and lived in the village of Shukhavardhamana, (IV, p.73)

* See Appendix J

† See Appendix K

[p.74]: and according to the instructions of the matrons of the place, they danced there. " Tradition speaks of a temple in this place, nor can we, nor any one else say more as to why the temple is invisible." The king heard this and caused the place, pointed out by them, to be dug. After an excavation had been made, the king on being informed by the diggers, came there and saw a dilapidated temple with closed doors. And when, the doors were opened, he found two old images of Keshava, and an inscription to the effect that they were built by Rama and Lakshmana. By the side of the temple of Parihasakeshava, the king built a separate house of stone where he placed Ramasvami, one of those two statues. His queen Chakramardiki asked for the other statue Lakshmanasvami from the king, and placed it beside Chakreshvara.(IV, p.74)

We know from Rajatarangini[10] that the Kashmira, intersected with many rivers and lakes, was never a very productive country. It was owing to the vigorous efforts of Lalitaditya that the country was drained in some place and the produce of the land had been a little increased.


Kalhana designates the region by the name Aryanaka where king Lalitaditya Muktapida was said to have met his death as a result of excessive snowfall.[11]

ललितादित्य के नेतृत्व में मध्य एशिया तक विजय

Ref - Shankhnaad Website

विजीयते पुण्यबलैर्बर्यत्तु न शस्त्रिणम
परलोकात ततो भीतिर्यस्मिन् निवसतां परम्।।

वहां (कश्मीर) पर शस्त्रों से नहीं केवल पुण्य बल द्वारा ही विजय प्राप्त की जा सकती है। वहां के निवासी केवल परलोक से भयभीत होते हैं न कि शस्त्रधारियों से। - (कल्हणकृत राजतरंगिणी, प्रथम तरंग, श्लोक 39)

इतिहासकार कल्हण ने मां भारती के शीर्ष कश्मीर की गौरवमयी क्षात्र परंपरा और अजेयशक्ति पर गर्व किया है। विश्व में मस्तक ऊंचा करके चार हजार वर्षों तक स्वाभिमानपूर्वक स्वतंत्रता का भोग कश्मीर ने अपने बाहुबल पर किया है। इस धरती के शूरवीरों ने कभी विदेशी आक्रमणकारियों और उनके शस्त्रों के सम्मुख मस्तक नहीं झुकाए थे। इस पुण्य धरती के रणघोष सारे संसार ने सुने हैं। यहां के विश्वविजेता सेनानायकों के युद्धाभिमानों का लोहा समस्त विश्व ने माना है।

रणबांकुरों की भूमि अनेक शताब्दियों तक इस वीरभूमि के रणबांकुरों ने विदेशों से आने वाली घोर रक्तपिपासु एवं अजेय कहलाने वाली जातियों और कबीलों के जबरदस्त हमलों को अपनी तलवारों की नोक पर रोका है। इस भूमि पर जहां अध्यात्म के ऊंचे शिखरों का निर्माण हुआ, वहीं इसके पुत्रों ने वीरभोग्या वसुंधरा जैसे क्षात्रभाव को अपने जीवन का आवश्यक अंग भी बनाया। संस्कृत के अनेक प्राचीन ग्रंथों में कश्मीर के इस वैभव के दर्शन किए जा सकते हैं।

आधुनिक इतिहासवेत्ताओं को भी एक दिन यह लिखना ही होगा कि कश्मीर ने एक ओर संसार की सुख शांति के लिए शैव दर्शन जैसे अतुलनीय सिद्धांत मानव को दिए, वहीं अत्याचार एवं अमानवीय वृत्तियों के दमन हेतु त्रिशूल दर्शन भी प्रस्तुत किया। आधुनिक इतिहास के पन्ने भी साक्षी हैं कि कश्मीरी खड्ग के वार मध्य एशिया के सुदूर क्षेत्रों तक हुए थे। कश्मीर की इस दिग्विजयी विरासत को झुठलाया नहीं जा सकता।

कश्मीर का सर्वत्र बोलबाला महाभारत युद्ध से प्रारंभ हुआ कश्मीर का ज्ञात इतिहास संस्कृत के राजतरंगिणी नामक महाग्रंथ में आज भी उपलब्ध है। सम्राट अशोक, शिव उपासक जालौक, मेघवाहन, दुर्लभ वर्धन, चन्द्रापीड़, ललितादित्य, अवंति वर्मन, शंकर वर्मन, संग्राम राज, त्रिलोचन पाल, जय सिंह, महारानी दिद्दा एवं कोटारसी इत्यादि सैंकड़ों राजा-महाराजा हुए हैं, जिन्होंने कश्मीर की दिग्विजयी सांस्कृतिक और मानवीय धरोहर को अक्षुण्ण बनाए रखा। आठवीं शताब्दी के सबसे शक्तिशाली भारतीय सम्राट ललितादित्य के समय कश्मीर और कश्मीरियत का बोलबाला पूरे भारत सहित आज के मध्य एशिया तक था।

ललितादित्य जब अपनी सेना के साथ पंजाब के कूच पर निकला तो पंजाब की जनता ने उसके स्वागत में पलक पांवड़े बिछा दिए। पंजाब के शासक यशोवर्मन को पदच्युत करके पंजाब को कश्मीर राज्य की सीमाओं में मिलाया गया। ललितादित्य ने अपने सैन्य अभियान से बंगाल, बिहार, उड़ीसा तक अपने साम्राज्य का विस्तार किया। यह सैनिक कूच गुजरात, मालवा और मेवाड़ तक सफलतापूर्वक आगे ही आगे बढ़ता गया। ललितादित्य के इन सफल युद्ध अभियानों के कारण भारत ही नहीं समूचे विश्व में कश्मीर की धरती के पराक्रमी पुत्रों का नाम यशस्वी हुआ। कश्मीरी लोगों के क्षात्र तेज के आगे बड़े-बड़े साम्राज्य नतमस्तक हुए।

दिग्विजयी कश्मीरी प्रतिभा सुदूर दक्षिण तक विजय प्राप्त करके सम्राट ललितादित्य अब और भी ऊंचे शिखरों को नापने के लिए लालायित हो उठे। इतिहासकार मजूमदार के शब्दों में, 'दक्षिण की इन महत्वपूर्ण विजयों के बाद ललितादित्य ने कश्मीर की उत्तरी सीमाओं पर स्थित क्षेत्रों का ध्यान दिया। उस समय भारत से चीन तक के कारवां मार्गों को नियंत्रित करने वाली कराकोरम पर्वत श्रृंखला के सबसे अगले स्थल तक उसका साम्राज्य फैला था। उल्लेखनीय है कि आठवीं सदी के शुरू होते ही अरबों का आक्रमण काबुल घाटी को चुनौती दे रहा था। इसी दौरान सिंध के रास्ते से मुस्लिम शक्ति उत्तर की ओर बढ़ने का प्रयास कर रही थी। जिस समय काबुल और गांधार का शाही साम्राज्य इन आक्रमणों में व्यस्त था, ललितादित्य के लिए उत्तर दिशा में पांव जमाने का एक सुंदर अवसर था। अपनी विजयी सेना के साथ वह दर्द देश (दर्दिस्तान) में से तुर्किस्तान (तुर्की) की ओर बढ़ा। असंख्य कश्मीरी भिक्षुओं तथा मध्य एशियाई नगरों के कश्मीरी लोगों के प्रयासों के फलस्वरूप पूरा क्षेत्र कश्मीरी परंपराओं तथा शिक्षा से समृद्ध था। अतएव यह समझना कठिन नहीं है कि ललितादित्य के मार्गदर्शन में कश्मीरी सेना ने वहां सरलता से विजय प्राप्त कर ली। टैंग शासन की समाप्ति तथा भीतरी असैनिक युद्धों आदि के कारण जिस चीनी साम्राज्य के अधीन वह आए थे वह पहले ही खंड खंड हो रहा था।'

(आर.सी.मजूमदार, एशिएंट इंडिया पृ.383)

सार्वजनिक आदर्शों की नींव ललितादित्य ने अपने सैनिक जीवन के अतिरिक्त भी अनेक क्षेत्रों में रुचि दिखाई। उनके शासनकाल में व्यापार एवं कला को महत्व दिया गया। धार्मिक उत्सवों के आयोजन होते थे। चित्रकला, मूर्तिकला के क्षेत्रों में ललितादित्य ने विशेष प्रोत्साहन एवं सुविधाएं प्रदान कीं। ललितादित्य एक सफल लेखक और वीणावादक भी थे। इतिहासकार बामजाई लिखते हैं- 'ललितादित्य की सैनिक विजयों को उसके विभिन्न शासनकालीन वर्णनों में महत्वपूर्ण स्थान मिला है। बाद के समय में भी उसे कश्मीरियों का हीरो बताया गया है। निर्माण कला व जनकल्याण के उसके महान कार्यों, शिक्षा के प्रति प्रेम, विद्वानों के संरक्षण और दयालु विजेता रूपी गुणों के कारण उसकी गणना कश्मीर के बड़े-बड़े शासकों में होती है।'

उस समय का भारतीय कश्मीर सार्वजनिक जीवन के प्राय: सभी क्षेत्रों में विकास का मुख्य केन्द्र था। प्रत्येक नागरिक को उन्नति के समान अवसर उपलब्ध थे। सम्राट ललितादित्य ने जहां एक ओर धर्म की स्थापना तथा संरक्षण के लिए शक्ति की उपासना की, वहीं दूसरी ओर उसने सह अस्तित्व, सत्य, अहिंसा जैसे सिद्धांतों की रक्षा के भी अनेक प्रयास किए।

सर्वश्रेष्ठ हिन्दू निर्माण कला सम्राट ललितादित्य का अत्यंत सुंदर एवं चिरस्मरणीय कार्य है उनके द्वारा निर्मित विशाल मार्तण्ड मंदिर जिसे सम्राट ने भगवान भास्कर सूर्यदेव (आदित्य) के सम्मान में बनवाया था। उल्लेखनीय है कि सम्राट ललितादित्य स्वयं भी सूर्यवंशीय क्षत्रिय थे। मंदिर निर्माण की अतुलनीय शैली और इसे बनाने की अतुलनीय क्षमता विश्व के इतिहास में दुर्लभ है।

इतिहासकार स्टैंन कहता है 'ललितादित्य कालीन नगरों, कस्बों तथा भग्नावशेषों को पूरे विश्वास के साथ ढूंढ निकालना संभव नहीं है। परंतु इनमें से जो जो पाए गए हैं उनके भव्य भग्नावशेषों से उस प्रसिद्धि का पता चलता है जो निर्माता के रूप में ललितादित्य को प्राप्त थी। मार्तण्ड के भव्य मंदिर के अवशेष जिसे सम्राट ने इसी नाम के तीर्थ स्थल पर बनवाया था, आज भी प्राचीन हिन्दू निर्माण कला का सबसे अनूठा उदाहरण है। अपनी वर्तमान क्षत-विक्षत अवस्था में इन भग्नावशेषों को उनके आकार-प्रकार तथा निर्माण कला संबंधी डिजाइन व सुंदरता के कारण सराहा जाता है।'

(स्टैंन ट्राशलेशल आफ राजतरंगिणी पृ.60)

सुखी सम्पन्न समाज रचना इतिहासकार यंगहस्बैंड के अनुसार 'विश्व के महान निर्माण कला नमूनों में मार्तण्ड का बहुत ऊंचा स्थान है। यह केवल कश्मीरी निर्माण कला का सर्वश्रेष्ठ उदाहरण ही नहीं है, बल्कि इसे विश्व के सबसे बढ़िया स्थल पर बनने का गौरव प्राप्त है। पॉर्थीनान, ताजमहल, सेंटपीटर्स, एक्सक्यूरियल भवनों से भी उमदा स्थलों पर। हम इसे शेष सभी महान भवनों का प्रतिनिधि या इनके सभी गुणों का जोड़ मान सकते हैं। इसी से हमें कश्मीरी लोगों की सर्वश्रेष्ठता का ज्ञान हो सकता है।

'ललितादित्य के शासनकाल में समाज बहुत सुखी एवं सम्पन्न था। एशिया के प्राय: सभी देशों के साथ खुली व्यापार व्यवस्था थी। खेती के लिए अनेक सुविधाएं थीं और अनेक नवीन खोजें की गईं। जलसंचार योजना को महत्व दिया गया। ललितादित्य ने विदेशों में अपने विजय स्मृति स्थल बनवाए। सुनिश्चितपुर और दर्पितपुर नामक दो महानगरों का वर्णन राजतरंगिणी में आता है, यद्यपि इन नगरों के खंडहर तक भी मुस्लिम हमलावरों ने समाप्त कर दिए हैं। उसने फलपुर और पर्णोत्सव नाम के भी दो नगर बसाए। फलपुर आजकल शादीपुर गांव है और पर्णोत्सव नगर आजकल का पुंछ है। ललितादित्य ने ललितपुर में जो आजकल का लेतापुर है एक बड़ा मंदिर बनवाया। हुष्कपुर में जो आजकल उशकुर है, सम्राट ने एक बड़ा विहार एवं बौद्ध मंदिर का निर्माण करवाया। कश्मीर के इतिहास में मार्तण्ड का मंदिर और परिहासपुर शहर अमर है। आजकल के शादीपुर के पास ही परिहासपुर नगर था।' (कश्मीर, गोपीनाथ श्रीवास्तव, पृ.25)

आतंकी जिहाद की कालिमा ललितादित्य ने विदेश के अनेक प्रतिभाशाली लोगों को कश्मीर आने का निमंत्रण दिया। विदेशी इतिहासकार अलबरूनी के लेखन से पता चलता है कि सम्राट ने एक तुर्क सरदार कान्यकुन्य को अपना मंत्री बनाया। बाद में इस सरदार ने बौद्ध मत को स्वीकार कर लिया। इसी समय से कश्मीर में एक वार्षिक उत्सव की प्रथा चली। यह विजयोत्सव सम्राट ललितादित्य की तुर्किस्तान पर हुई विजय की स्मृति में अनेक शताब्दियों तक मनाया जाता रहा। ललितादित्य के साथ कश्मीर में हिन्दू स्वाभिमान का स्वर्ण युग प्रारंभ हुआ। हिन्दू धर्म की विशालता, सहिष्णुता का प्रतीक बन गया था सम्राट ललितादित्य। इस आभा को बाद के मुस्लिम आक्रांता शासकों ने बर्बाद कर दिया।


  1. Tarangini 4 of Rajatarangini by Kalhan
  2. Profile of Lalitāditya Muktapīḍa at
  3. Exploits of Lalitāditya Muktapīḍa
  4. M.A. Stein. Kalhana's Rajtarangini A chronicle Of The Kings Of Kas`mir (Reprint 1979), Motilal Banarsidass 41-U.A, Bungalow Road, Delhi 110 007.
  5. Full text of "Rajatarangini of Kalhana - English - Jogesh Chunder Dutt Volumes 1 & 2"
  6. Kalhana (1147-1149); Rajatarangini.
  7. Sheldon Pollock (2006). The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India, pp. 241-242.
  8. Sunil Fotedar (June 1984). The Kashmir Series: Glimpses of Kashmiri Culture - Vivekananda Kendra, Kanyakumari (p. 57).
  9. Book IV (p.67-74)
  10. Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book V,p.111
  11. Kalhana, Rajatarangini, IV.367