|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)|
- 1 Location
- 2 Etymology
- 3 World Heritage Sites
- 4 Important Sites
- 5 History
- 6 Prehistory
- 7 Roman London
- 8 Anglo-Saxon London (and Viking period)
- 9 Middle Ages
- 10 The grave of Maharaja Dalip Singh of Lahore
- 11 लंदन
- 12 मेघंकर = मेहकर
- 13 बसौली
- 14 Notable persons
- 15 Gallery
- 16 External links
- 17 References
It is an ancient name, attested already in the first century AD, usually in the Latinised form Londinium; for example, handwritten Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio ("in London").
Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations. The earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin (usually Londinium), Old English (usually Lunden), and Welsh (usually Llundein), with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed that the name came into these languages from Common Brythonic; recent work tends to reconstruct the lost Celtic form of the name as *Londonjon or something similar. This was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into West Germanic, the ancestor-language of English, before English had become widely spoken in what later became England.
The etymology and original meaning of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *(p)lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London; from this, the settlement gained the Celtic form of its name, *Lowonidonjon. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, and recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of an proto-Indo-European root *lendh- ('sink, cause to sink'), combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo- (used to form place-names). Peter Schrijver has specifically suggested, on these grounds, that the name originally meant 'place that floods (periodically, tidally)'.
World Heritage Sites
London contains four World Heritage Sites:
- The Tower of London: Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, separated from the eastern edge of the square mile of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill. It was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The White Tower, which gives the entire castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078.
- Kew Gardens:Kew Gardens is a botanical garden in southwest London that houses the "largest and most diverse botanical and mycological collections in the world"
- The site comprising the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, and St Margaret's Church:
- The historic settlement of Greenwich (in which the Royal Observatory, Greenwich defines the Prime Meridian, 0° longitude, and GMT). Royal Museums Greenwich is an organisation comprising four existing museums in Greenwich, London. The Royal Museums Greenwich Foundation is a Private Limited Company by guarantee without share capital use of 'Limited' exemption, company number 08002287, incorporated on 22 March 2012. It is registered as charity number 114727. National Maritime Museum, Queen's House, Royal Observatory, Greenwich, Cutty Sark
Westminster :Westminster is an area of central London in England within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames. Westminster's concentration of visitor attractions and historic landmarks, one of the highest in London, includes the Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Cathedral.
Westminster Bridge is a road-and-foot-traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, linking Westminster on the west side and Lambeth on the east side. The bridge is painted predominantly green, the same colour as the leather seats in the House of Commons which is on the side of the Palace of Westminster nearest to the bridge.
London Eye: The London Eye, or the Millennium Wheel, is a cantilevered observation wheel on the South Bank of the River Thames in London. It is Europe's tallest cantilevered observation wheel, and is the most popular paid tourist attraction in the United Kingdom with over 3 million visitors annually. It has made many appearances in popular culture. The London Eye is a giant Ferris wheel on the South Bank of the River Thames in London. It is Europe's tallest Ferris wheel. The London Eye offered the highest public viewing point in London.
Elizabeth Tower/Big Ben: Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of the striking clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London, England, and the name is frequently extended to refer also to the clock and the clock tower. The official name of the tower in which Big Ben is located was originally the Clock Tower, but it was renamed Elizabeth Tower in 2012 to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.
Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Commonly known as the Houses of Parliament after its occupants, the Palace lies on the north bank of the River Thames in the City of Westminster, in central London.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
Westminster Central Hall - The Methodist Central Hall (also known as Central Hall Westminster) is a multi-purpose venue in the City of Westminster, London, serving primarily as a Methodist church and a conference centre. The building, which is a tourist attraction, also houses an art gallery, a restaurant, and an office building (formerly as the headquarters of the Methodist Church of Great Britain until 2000).
Queen Elizabeth II Centre: The Queen Elizabeth II Centre is a conference facility located in the City of Westminster, London, close to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, One Great George Street, Central Hall Westminster and Parliament Square.
Horse Guards Parade - Horse Guards Parade is a large parade ground off Whitehall in central London. It is the site of the annual ceremonies of Trooping the Colour, which commemorates the monarch's official birthday, and Beating Retreat. Horse Guards Parade was formerly the site of the Palace of Whitehall's tiltyard, where tournaments (including jousting) were held in the time of Henry VIII. It was also the scene of annual celebrations of the birthday of Queen Elizabeth I. The area has been used for a variety of reviews, parades and other ceremonies since the 17th century. The adjacent Horse Guards building was once the Headquarters of the British Army. The Duke of Wellington was based in Horse Guards when he was Commander-in-Chief of the British Army. The current General Officer Commanding London District still occupies the same office and uses the same desk. Wellington also had living quarters within the building, which today are used as offices.
Imperial war Museum: Imperial War Museums (IWM) is a British national museum organisation with branches at five locations in England, three of which are in London. Founded as the Imperial War Museum in 1917, the museum was intended to record the civil and military war effort and sacrifice of Britain and its Empire during the First World War. The museum's remit has since expanded to include all conflicts in which British or Commonwealth forces have been involved since 1914. As of 2012, the museum aims "to provide for, and to encourage, the study and understanding of the history of modern war and 'wartime experience'." The museum's collections include archives of personal and official documents, photographs, film and video material, and oral history recordings, an extensive library, a large art collection, and examples of military vehicles and aircraft, equipment, and other artefacts.
Portcullis House - Portcullis House is an office building in Westminster to provide offices for 213 members of parliament and their staff. Part of the Parliamentary Estate, the building augments limited space in the Palace of Westminster and surroundings.
Parliament Square: Parliament Square is a square at the northwest end of the Palace of Westminster in central London. It features a large open green area in the centre with trees to its west, and it contains twelve statues of statesmen and other notable individuals. Buildings looking upon the square include the churches Westminster Abbey and St Margaret's, Westminster, the Middlesex Guildhall which is the seat of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, Government Offices Great George Street serving HM Treasury and HM Revenue and Customs, and Portcullis House. Roads that branch off the Parliament Square are St Margaret Street (towards Millbank), Broad Sanctuary (towards Victoria Street), Great George Street (towards Birdcage Walk), Parliament Street (leading into Whitehall) and Bridge Street (leading onto Westminster Bridge).
St Margaret Church: Church of St Margaret, Westminster Abbey, is situated in the grounds of Westminster Abbey on Parliament Square.
Buckingham Palace: Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the monarch of the United Kingdom. Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is often at the centre of state occasions and royal hospitality. It has been a focal point for the British people at times of national rejoicing and mourning. Originally known as Buckingham House, the building at the core of today's palace was a large townhouse built for the Duke of Buckingham in 1703 on a site that had been in private ownership for at least 150 years. It was acquired by King George III in 1761 as a private residence for Queen Charlotte and became known as The Queen's House.
It was acquired by King George III in 1761 as a private residence for Queen Charlotte and became known as The Queen's House. During the 19th century it was enlarged, principally by architects John Nash and Edward Blore, who constructed three wings around a central courtyard. Buckingham Palace became the London residence of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837.
The last major structural additions were made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including the East Front, which contains the well-known balcony on which the British royal family traditionally congregates to greet crowds. A German bomb destroyed the palace chapel during the Second World War; the Queen's Gallery was built on the site and opened to the public in 1962 to exhibit works of art from the Royal Collection.
The original early-19th-century interior designs, many of which survive, include widespread use of brightly coloured scagliola and blue and pink lapis, on the advice of Sir Charles Long. King Edward VII oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle Époque cream and gold colour scheme. Many smaller reception rooms are furnished in the Chinese regency style with furniture and fittings brought from the Royal Pavilion at Brighton and from Carlton House. The palace has 775 rooms, and the garden is the largest private garden in London. The state rooms, used for official and state entertaining, are open to the public each year for most of August and September and on some days in winter and spring.
At the rear of the palace is the large and park-like garden, which together with its lake is the largest private garden in London. The Mall, a ceremonial approach route to the palace, was designed by Sir Aston Webb and completed in 1911 as part of a grand memorial to Queen Victoria. It extends from Admiralty Arch, across St James's Park to the Victoria Memorial.
Victoria Memorial: The Victoria Memorial is a monument to Queen Victoria, located at the end of The Mall in London, and designed and executed by the sculptor (Sir) Thomas Brock. Designed in 1901, it was unveiled on 16 May 1911, though it was not completed until 1924. It was the centrepiece of an ambitious urban planning scheme, which included the creation of the Queen’s Gardens to a design by Sir Aston Webb, and the refacing of Buckingham Palace (which stands behind the memorial) by the same architect.
Like the earlier Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens, commemorating Victoria's consort, the Victoria Memorial has an elaborate scheme of iconographic sculpture. The central pylon of the memorial is of Pentelic marble, and individual statues are in Lasa marble and gilt bronze.
St James's Park is a 23-hectare park in the City of Westminster, central London. The park lies at the southernmost tip of the St James's area, which was named after a leper hospital dedicated to St James the Less. It is the most easterly of a near-continuous chain of parks that also includes (moving westward) Green Park, Hyde Park, and Kensington Gardens. The park is bounded by Buckingham Palace to the west, the Mall to the north, Horse Guards to the east, and Birdcage Walk to the south. It meets Green Park at Queen's Gardens with the Victoria Memorial at its centre, opposite the entrance to Buckingham Palace. St James's Palace is on the opposite side of The Mall. The closest London Underground stations are St James's Park, Green Park, Victoria, and Westminster.
Natural History Museum in London exhibits a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history. It is one of three major museums on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, the others being the Science Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum. The Natural History Museum's main frontage, however, is on Cromwell Road.
The museum is home to life and earth science specimens comprising some 80 million items within five main collections: botany, entomology, mineralogy, palaeontology and zoology. The museum is a centre of research specialising in taxonomy, identification and conservation. Given the age of the institution, many of the collections have great historical as well as scientific value, such as specimens collected by Charles Darwin. The museum is particularly famous for its exhibition of dinosaur skeletons and ornate architecture—sometimes dubbed a cathedral of nature—both exemplified by the large Diplodocus cast that dominated the vaulted central hall before it was replaced in 2017 with the skeleton of a blue whale hanging from the ceiling. The Natural History Museum Library contains extensive books, journals, manuscripts, and artwork collections linked to the work and research of the scientific departments; access to the library is by appointment only. The museum is recognised as the pre-eminent centre of natural history and research of related fields in the world.
Science Museum, London: The Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, London. It was founded in 1857 and is one of the city's major tourist attractions, attracting 3.3 million visitors annually. Like other publicly funded national museums in the United Kingdom, the Science Museum does not charge visitors for admission, although visitors are requested to make a donation if they are able. Temporary exhibitions may incur an admission fee. It is one of the five museums in the Science Museum Group.
Imperial College London: Imperial College London, legally the Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, is a public research university in London. Imperial focuses exclusively on science, technology, medicine, and business, although students can take humanities courses through their "Horizons" programme. The main campus is located in South Kensington. Imperial has a highly international community with more than 59% of students from outside the UK, and 140 countries represented on campus.
Prince Consort Road: Prince Consort Road is a street in London, United Kingdom. It is named after Prince Albert, consort to Queen Victoria. It is located between Queen's Gate to the west and Exhibition Road to the east, running parallel to Kensington Gore. Several landmark buildings have entrances on Prince Consort Road, including: 1. Royal Albert Hall, which has steps leading down from its south side to Prince Consort Road; 2. Royal School of Mines (now part of Imperial College London); 3. Holy Trinity Church; 4. Royal College of Music; 5. Beit Hall; 6. Jamaican High Commission.
The average residential property price on the street in 2013 was around £5.5 million, making Prince Consort Road the fourth-most expensive street in the UK.
London Buses route 360 starts and ends on Prince Consort Road. The nearest London Underground stations are South Kensington, Gloucester Road, Knightsbridge and High Street Kensington.
High Commission of Jamaica, London - The High Commission of Jamaica in London is the diplomatic mission of Jamaica in the United Kingdom. The High Commission had its beginnings in 1962. Among the first diplomatic missions to be established after the attainment of independence from Britain, the office was initially located at Bruton and Grosvenor Streets, then on St James's Street, before eventually moving to its current location Prince Consort Road.
For many decades, Jamaicans have been travelling to England to work and study. In the 1940s many Jamaicans volunteered and fought alongside the British in World War II. In the post-war era, there was mass migration from Jamaica due labour shortages in the 'motherland', with the first arrivals aboard HMT Empire Windrush, bringing almost 500 Jamaicans to Britain. Waves of Jamaicans later emigrated to the United Kingdom for economic and educational reasons.
Institution of Mechanical Engineers: The Institution of Mechanical Engineers is an independent professional association and learned society headquartered in London, United Kingdom, that represents mechanical engineers and the engineering profession. With over 120,000 members in 140 countries, working across industries such as railways, automotive, aerospace, manufacturing, energy, biomedical and construction, the Institution is licensed by the Engineering Council to assess candidates for inclusion on its Register of Chartered Engineers, Incorporated Engineers and Engineering Technicians. The Institution was founded at the Queen's Hotel, Birmingham, by George Stephenson in 1847. It received a Royal Charter in 1930. The Institution's headquarters, purpose-built for the Institution in 1899, is situated at No. 1 Birdcage Walk in central London.
Royal Albert Hall: The Royal Albert Hall is a concert hall on the northern edge of South Kensington, London. One of the UK's most treasured and distinctive buildings, it is held in trust for the nation and managed by a registered charity which receives no government funding. It can seat 5,272.
Since the hall's opening by Queen Victoria in 1871, the world's leading artists from many performance genres have appeared on its stage. It is the venue for the Proms concerts, which have been held there every summer since 1941. It is host to more than 390 shows in the main auditorium annually, including classical, rock and pop concerts, ballet, opera, film screenings with live orchestral accompaniment, sports, awards ceremonies, school and community events, and charity performances and banquets. A further 400 events are held each year in the non-auditorium spaces. Over its 150 year history the hall has hosted people from various fields, including meetings by Suffragettes, speeches from Winston Churchill and Albert Einstein, fights by Frank Bruno, exhibition bouts by Muhammad Ali, and concerts from performers such as Eric Clapton and Shirley Bassey.
The hall was originally supposed to have been called the Central Hall of Arts and Sciences, but the name was changed to the Royal Albert Hall of Arts and Sciences by Queen Victoria upon laying the Hall's foundation stone in 1867, in memory of her husband, Prince Albert, who had died six years earlier. It forms the practical part of a memorial to the Prince Consort; the decorative part is the Albert Memorial directly to the north in Kensington Gardens, now separated from the Hall by Kensington Gore.
Albert Memorial is situated in Kensington Gardens, London, directly to the north of the Royal Albert Hall. It was commissioned by Queen Victoria in memory of her beloved husband Prince Albert, who died in 1861. The memorial was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott in the Gothic Revival style. It takes the form of an ornate canopy or pavilion 176 feet tall, in the style of a Gothic ciborium over the high altar of a church, sheltering a statue of the prince facing south. The memorial was opened in July 1872 by Queen Victoria, with the statue of Albert ceremonially "seated" in 1876.
Kensington Gardens, once the private gardens of Kensington Palace, are among the Royal Parks of London. The gardens are shared by the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and sit immediately to the west of Hyde Park, in western central London. The gardens cover an area of 270 acres. The open spaces of Kensington Gardens, Hyde Park, Green Park, and St. James's Park together form an almost continuous "green lung" in the heart of London.
Kensington Gardens are generally regarded as being the western extent of the neighbouring Hyde Park from which they were originally taken, with West Carriage Drive (The Ring) and the Serpentine Bridge forming the boundary between them. The Gardens are fenced and more formal than Hyde Park. Kensington Gardens are open only during the hours of daylight, whereas Hyde Park is open from 5 am until midnight all year round.
Statue of Queen Victoria, Kensington Palace: In 1873, Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll resided in the apartment with her husband, the Marquess of Lorne, departing after he was appointed Governor-General of Canada for Rideau Hall. The couple returned after his tenure, and Louise used her art studio at the apartments to design and sculpt the Statue of Queen Victoria, Kensington Palace.
Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. It has been a residence of the British Royal Family since the 17th century, and is currently the official London residence of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, the Duke and Duchess of Sussex, Princess Eugenie of York, the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, the Duke and Duchess of Kent, and Prince and Princess Michael of Kent.
Today, the State Rooms are open to the public and managed by the independent charity Historic Royal Palaces, a nonprofit organisation that does not receive public funds. The offices and private accommodation areas of the Palace remain the responsibility of the Royal Household and are maintained by the Royal Household Property Section. The palace also displays many paintings and other objects from the Royal Collection.
Hyde Park is a Grade I-listed major park in Central London. It is the largest of four Royal Parks that form a chain from the entrance of Kensington Palace through Kensington Gardens and Hyde Park, via Hyde Park Corner and Green Park past the main entrance to Buckingham Palace. The park is divided by the Serpentine and the Long Water.
- Piccadilly Circus,
- St Paul's Cathedral,
- Tower Bridge,
- Trafalgar Square
The Shard, which opened to the public on 1 February 2013. The London Eye adjoins the western end of Jubilee Gardens (previously the site of the former Dome of Discovery), on the South Bank of the River Thames between Westminster Bridge and Hungerford Bridge beside County Hall, in the London Borough of Lambeth.
British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture. Its permanent collection numbers some 8 million works.
National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London. Founded in 1824, it houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900.
Southbank Centre is a complex of artistic venues in London, England, on the South Bank of the River Thames (between Hungerford Bridge and Waterloo Bridge). It comprises three main performance venues (the Royal Festival Hall including the Saison Poetry Library, the Queen Elizabeth Hall and the Purcell Room), together with the Hayward Gallery, and is Europe’s largest centre for the arts.
Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London. It is Britain's national gallery of international modern art and forms part of the Tate group (together with Tate Britain, Tate Liverpool, Tate St Ives and Tate Online). It is based in the former Bankside Power Station, in the Bankside area of the London Borough of Southwark.
Victoria and Albert Museum in London is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 2.27 million objects. It was founded in 1852 and named after Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Located in the Brompton district of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, in an area that has become known as "Albertopolis" because of its association with Prince Albert, the Albert Memorial and the major cultural institutions with which he was associated. These include the Natural History Museum, the Science Museum and the Royal Albert Hall. Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road in South Kensington.
Somerset House is a large Neoclassical building situated on the south side of the Strand in central London, overlooking the River Thames, just east of Waterloo Bridge. The building, on the site of a Tudor palace, was designed by Sir William Chambers in 1776, and further extended with Victorian wings to the east and west in 1831 and 1856 respectively. The East Wing forms part of the adjacent Strand campus of King's College London.
National Portrait Gallery (NPG) is an art gallery in London housing a collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people. It was the first portrait gallery in the world when it opened in 1856. The gallery moved in 1896 to its current site at St Martin's Place, off Trafalgar Square, and adjoining the National Gallery.
London is home to numerous museums, galleries, libraries, sporting events and other cultural institutions, including the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres.
The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world.
London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent and Hertfordshire,which today largely makes up Greater London, a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
Two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area. In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge. This bridge either crossed the Thames or reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC.
In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge. The function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank, at a natural crossing point where the River Effra flows into the Thames.
Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion of AD 43. This lasted only until around AD 61, when the Iceni tribe led by Queen Boudica stormed it, burning it to the ground. The next, heavily planned, incarnation of Londinium prospered, and it superseded Colchester as the capital of the Roman province of Britannia in 100. At its height in the 2nd century, Roman London had a population of around 60,000.
Anglo-Saxon London (and Viking period)
With the collapse of Roman rule in the early 5th century, London ceased to be a capital, and the walled city of Londinium was effectively abandoned, although Roman civilisation continued in the area of St Martin-in-the-Fields until around 450. From around 500, an Anglo-Saxon settlement known as Lundenwic developed slightly west of the old Roman city. By about 680, the city had regrown into a major port, although there is little evidence of large-scale production. From the 820s repeated Viking assaults brought decline. Three are recorded; those in 851 and 886 succeeded, while the last, in 994, was rebuffed.
The Vikings established Danelaw over much of eastern and northern England; its boundary stretched roughly from London to Chester. It was an area of political and geographical control imposed by the Viking incursions which was formally agreed by the Danish warlord, Guthrum and the West Saxon king Alfred the Great in 886. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that Alfred "refounded" London in 886. Archaeological research shows that this involved abandonment of Lundenwic and a revival of life and trade within the old Roman walls. London then grew slowly until about 950, after which activity increased dramatically.
By the 11th century, London was beyond all comparison the largest town in England. Westminster Abbey, rebuilt in the Romanesque style by King Edward the Confessor, was one of the grandest churches in Europe. Winchester had previously been the capital of Anglo-Saxon England, but from this time on, London became the main forum for foreign traders and the base for defence in time of war. In the view of Frank Stenton: "It had the resources, and it was rapidly developing the dignity and the political self-consciousness appropriate to a national capital."
Westminster Abbey, as seen in this painting (by Canaletto, 1749), is a World Heritage Site and one of London's oldest and most important buildings
After winning the Battle of Hastings, William, Duke of Normandy was crowned King of England in the newly completed Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066. William constructed the Tower of London, the first of the many Norman castles in England to be rebuilt in stone, in the southeastern corner of the city, to intimidate the native inhabitants. In 1097, William II began the building of Westminster Hall, close by the abbey of the same name. The hall became the basis of a new Palace of Westminster.
In the 12th century, the institutions of central government, which had hitherto accompanied the royal English court as it moved around the country, grew in size and sophistication and became increasingly fixed in one place. For most purposes this was Westminster, although the royal treasury, having been moved from Winchester, came to rest in the Tower. While the City of Westminster developed into a true capital in governmental terms, its distinct neighbour, the City of London, remained England's largest city and principal commercial centre, and it flourished under its own unique administration, the Corporation of London. In 1100, its population was around 18,000; by 1300 it had grown to nearly 100,000. Disaster struck in the form of the Black Death in the mid-14th century, when London lost nearly a third of its population. London was the focus of the Peasants' Revolt in 1381.
London was also a centre of England's Jewish population before their expulsion by Edward I in 1290. Violence against Jews took place in 1190, after it was rumoured that the new King had ordered their massacre after they had presented themselves at his coronation. In 1264 during the Second Barons' War, Simon de Montfort's rebels killed 500 Jews while attempting to seize records of debts.
The grave of Maharaja Dalip Singh of Lahore
The grave of Maharaja Dalip Singh of Lahore. (Elveden , London). On this day, the last king of the greatest empire of India died in Paris.He was the youngest son Sher E Punjab Maharaja Ranjit Singh.By the way, the Maharaja's entire life was spent in struggle.After his death according to his last wish, he should be cremated as per Sikh customs.But the British did not allow this to happen and according to the custom of the British, they were buried.But Kunwar Beant Singh Sandhawalia ji of Lahore from his family raised his voice many times in this regard, That their rites should be in accordance with Sikh customs.Even today, Kunwar Sukhdev Singh Sandhawalia, son of Kunwar Beant Singh Sandhawalia, is raising voice in this context. We sincerely hope that our Indian government takes some drastic step in this context.May the Maharaja's soul be at peace.
लाहौर रियासत के महाराजा दलीप सिंह की कब्र। (एल्वेडन , लंदन): इस दिन, भारत के सबसे बड़े साम्राज्य के अंतिम राजा की पेरिस में मृत्यु हो गई थी। वह सबसे छोटे बेटे शेर ई पंजाब महाराजा रणजीत सिंह थे। वैसे, महाराजा का पूरा जीवन संघर्ष में बीता। उनकी मृत्यु के बाद उनकी अंतिम इच्छा के अनुसार , उनका सिख रीति रिवाजों के अनुसार अंतिम संस्कार किया जाना चाहिए। लेकिन अंग्रेजों ने ऐसा नहीं होने दिया और अंग्रेजों के रिवाज के अनुसार उन्हें दफनाया गया। लेकिन कुंवर बेअंत सिंह संधवलिया जी (जो लाहौर राजपरिवार से है)ने अपने परिवार से इस संबंध में कई बार आवाज उठाई थी, कि उनके संस्कार सिख रीति रिवाजों के अनुसार होने चाहिए। आज कुंवर बेअंत सिंह संधावलिया के पुत्र कुंवर सुखदेव सिंह संधावालिया इस संबंध में आवाज उठा रहे हैं। हमें पूरी उम्मीद है कि हमारी भारत सरकार इस संदर्भ में कुछ कठोर कदम उठाएगी। महाराजा की आत्मा को शांति मिले ।
लंदन यूनाइटेड किंगडम और इंग्लैंड की राजधानी और सबसे अधिक आबादी वाला शहर है। ग्रेट ब्रिटेन द्वीप के दक्षिण पूर्व में थेम्स नदी के किनारे स्थित, लंदन पिछली दो सदियों से एक बड़ा व्यवस्थापन रहा है। लंदन राजनीति, शिक्षा, मनोरंजन, मीडिया, फ़ैशन और शिल्पी के क्षेत्र में वैश्विक शहर की स्थिति रखता है।
इसे रोमनों ने लोंड़िनियम के नाम से बसाया था। लंदन का प्राचीन अंदरुनी केंद्र, लंदन शहर, का परिक्षेत्र 1.12 वर्ग मीटर (2.9 किमी2) है। 19वीं शताब्दी के बाद से "लंदन", इस अंदरुनी केंद्र के आसपास के क्षेत्रों को मिला कर एक महानगर के रूप में संदर्भित किया जाने लगा, जिनमें मिडलसेक्स, एसेक्स, सरे, केंट, और हर्टफोर्डशायर आदि शमिल है। जिसे आज ग्रेटर लंदन नाम से जानते है, एवं लंदन महापौर और लंदन विधानसभा द्वारा शासित किया जाता हैं।
कला, वाणिज्य, शिक्षा, मनोरंजन, फैशन, वित्त, स्वास्थ्य देखभाल, मीडिया, पेशेवर सेवाओं, अनुसंधान और विकास, पर्यटन और परिवहन में लंदन एक प्रमुख वैश्विक शहर है। यह दुनिया का सबसे बड़ा वित्तीय केंद्र के रूप में ताज पहनाया गया है और दुनिया में पांचवां या छठा सबसे बड़ा महानगरीय क्षेत्र जीडीपी है।
लंदन एक है विश्व सांस्कृतिक राजधानी। यह दुनिया का सबसे अधिक का दौरा किया जाने वाला शहर है, जो अंतरराष्ट्रीय आगमन द्वारा मापा जाता है और यात्री ट्रैफिक द्वारा मापा जाने वाला विश्व का सबसे बड़ा शहर हवाई अड्डा है। लंदन विश्व के अग्रणी निवेश गंतव्य है, किसी भी अन्य शहर की तुलना में अधिक अंतरराष्ट्रीय खुदरा विक्रेताओं और अल्ट्रा हाई-नेट-वर्थ वाले लोगों की मेजबानी यूरोप में लंदन के विश्वविद्यालय उच्च शिक्षा संस्थानों का सबसे बड़ा केंद्र बनते हैं। लंदन तीन बार आधुनिक ग्रीष्मकालीन ओलंपिक खेलों की मेजबानी करने वाला पहला शहर बन गया।
लंदन में लोगों और संस्कृतियों की विविधता है, और इस क्षेत्र में 300 से अधिक भाषाएं बोली जाती हैं। इसकी 2015 कि अनुमानित नगरपालिका जनसंख्या (ग्रेटर लंदन के समरूपी) 8,673,713 थी, जो कि यूरोपीय संघ के किसी भी शहर से सबसे बड़ा, और यूनाइटेड किंगडम की आबादी का 12.5% हिस्सा है। 2011 की जनगणना के अनुसार 9,787,426 की आबादी के साथ, लंदन का शहरी क्षेत्र, पेरिस के बाद यूरोपीय संघ में दूसरा सबसे अधिक आबादी वाला है। शहर का महानगरीय क्षेत्र यूरोपीय संघ में 13,879,757 जनसंख्या के साथ सबसे अधिक आबादी वाला है, जबकि ग्रेटर लंदन प्राधिकरण के अनुसार शहरी-क्षेत्र की आबादी के रूप में 22.7 मिलियन है। 1831 से 1925 तक लंदन विश्व के सबसे अधिक आबादी वाला शहर था।
लंदन में चार विश्व धरोहर स्थल हैं: टॉवर ऑफ़ लंदन; किऊ गार्डन; वेस्टमिंस्टर पैलेस, वेस्ट्मिन्स्टर ऍबी और सेंट मार्गरेट्स चर्च क्षेत्र; और ग्रीनविच ग्रीनविच वेधशाला (जिसमें रॉयल वेधशाला, ग्रीनविच प्राइम मेरिडियन, 0 डिग्री रेखांकित, और जीएमटी को चिह्नित करता है)। अन्य प्रसिद्ध स्थलों में बकिंघम पैलेस, लंदन आई, पिकैडिली सर्कस, सेंट पॉल कैथेड्रल, टावर ब्रिज, ट्राफलगर स्क्वायर, और द शर्ड आदि शामिल हैं। लंदन में ब्रिटिश संग्रहालय, नेशनल गैलरी, प्राकृतिक इतिहास संग्रहालय, टेट मॉडर्न, ब्रिटिश पुस्तकालय और वेस्ट एंड थिएटर सहित कई संग्रहालयों, दीर्घाओं, पुस्तकालयों, खेल आयोजनों और अन्य सांस्कृतिक संस्थानों का घर है। लंदन अंडरग्राउंड, दुनिया का सबसे पुराना भूमिगत रेलवे नेटवर्क है।
व्युत्पत्ति: लंदन नाम की व्युत्पत्ति अनिश्चित है। यह एक प्राचीन नाम है, जिसे दुसरी शताब्दी के स्रोतों में पाया गया है। यह लोंड़िनियम के नाम से 121 ई में पाया गया है, जो रोमानो-ब्रिटिश मूल को इंगित करता है। और शहर में पाये गये 65/70-80 ईस्वी के कई हस्त-लिखित रोमन सिलालेखों में लोंड़िनियम (अर्थात: "लंदन में") शब्द शामिल है।
स्थिति: लंदन के भीतर, लंदन शहर और वेस्टमिंस्टर शहर दोनों को नगर का दर्जा हसिल है। ग्रेटर लंदन में उन क्षेत्रों को भी शामिल किया गया है जो मिडलसेक्स, केंट, सरे, एसेक्स और हर्टफोर्डशायर काउंटियों का हिस्सा हैं। इंग्लैंड और बाद में यूनाइटेड किंगडम की राजधानी के रूप में लंदन का दर्जा, क़ानून या लिखित रूप में आधिकारिक तौर पर कभी भी स्वीकृति या पुष्टि नहीं हुई है।
मेघंकर = मेहकर
मेहकर (AS, p.757): जिला बुलढाणा, महाराष्ट्र में खामगांव से 50 मील दूर स्थित है. यह प्राचीन तीर्थ गंगा (पेनगंगा नदी) के तट पर है इसका वर्णन मत्स्य पुराण 22,40; ब्रह्मपुराण 93,46 तथा पद्मपुराण उत्तर. 175, 181,4,1 आदि ने है. यहां के खंडहरों से प्राप्त हुई कई मूर्तियां लंदन के संग्रहालय में सुरक्षित हैं.
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है .....बसौली (AS, p.613) भारत के पहाड़ी प्रदेशों में जिला कठुवा (जम्मू-कश्मीर) में स्थित है। यह भारतीय चित्रकला की एक विशेष शैली के लिए प्रसिद्ध है। बसौली नरेश राजा कृपाल (1678-1693 ई.) ने चित्रकला के एक नए 'स्कूल' को जन्म दिया था। इसकी विशेषता है अभिव्यक्ति की कर्कशता तथा कठोरता। [p.613]: विलियम आर्चर (भारतीय विभाग, विक्टोरिया-एलबर्ट संग्राहालय, लंदन) के अनुसार बसौली की चित्रकला के मानव चित्रों में नेत्रों का अभिव्यंजन गहरी रेखाओं और प्रकृति का चित्रण आयताकार अथवा वर्तुल रेखाओं द्वारा किया गया है। बसौली की इस शैली में प्रेम के विषयों का आलेखन काव्यमय न होकर कर्कशतापूर्ण है। (दे. गुलेर)
- Rohit Ahlawat - From Dhandhlaan village in Jhajjar, Haryana won Council Election in London. Isleworth, England, United Kingdom. President London Youth federation (Indian community)
- Mills, David (2001). Dictionary of London Place Names. Oxford Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-19-280106-7. OCLC 45406491. p. 139
- "UK's oldest hand-written document 'at Roman London dig'". BBC News. 1 June 2016.
- Mills 2001, p. 139
- Ackroyd, Peter (2 December 2001). "London". The New York Times. ISBN 978-0-7011-7279-4.
- Theodora Bynon, 'London's Name', Transactions of the Philological Society, 114:3 (2016), 281–97, doi: 10.1111/1467-968X.12064.
- Coates, Richard (1998). "A new explanation of the name of London". Transactions of the Philological Society. 96 (2): 203–229. doi:10.1111/1467-968X.00027
- Peter Schrijver, Language Contact and the Origins of the Germanic Languages, Routledge Studies in Linguistics, 13 (New York: Routledge, 2014), p. 57.
- Theodora Bynon, 'London's Name', Transactions of the Philological Society, 114:3 (2016), 281–97, doi: 10.1111/1467-968X.12064.
- "Lists: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". UNESCO.
- "London's Places" (PDF). London Plan. Greater London Authority. 2011. p. 46.
- "West End Must Innovate to Renovate, Says Report". What's On Stage. London. 25 January 2008.
- Joshua Fowler (5 July 2013). "London Government Act: Essex, Kent, Surrey and Middlesex 50 years on". BBC News.
- Elcock, Howard (1994). Local Government: Policy and Management in Local Authorities. London: Routledge. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-415-10167-7.
- Denison, Simon (July 1999). "First 'London Bridge' in River Thames at Vauxhall". British Archaeology (46).
- Denison, Simon (July 1999). "First 'London Bridge' in River Thames at Vauxhall". British Archaeology (46).
- "London's Oldest Prehistoric Structure". BAJR.
- Milne, Gustav. "London's Oldest Foreshore Structure!". Frog Blog. Thames Discovery Programme.
- "London's Oldest Prehistoric Structure". BAJR.
- [http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archives/view/no1poultry_molas_2007/ Number 1 Poultry (ONE 94) Museum of London Archaeology, 2013 ]
- Perring, Dominic (1991). Roman London. London: Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-203-23133-3.
- "British History Timeline —Roman Britain". BBC.
- Anne Lancashire (2002). London Civic Theatre: City Drama and Pageantry from Roman Times to 1558. Cambridge University Press. p. 19.
- "The last days of Londinium". Museum of London.
- "The early years of Lundenwic". The Museum of London.
- Wheeler, Kip. "Viking Attacks"
- Vince, Alan (2001). "London". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1.
- 1. Stenton, Frank (1971). Anglo-Saxon England (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 538–539. ISBN 978-0-19-280139-5. 2. Blair, John (2001). "Westminster". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1.
- "History – 1066 – King William". BBC.
- Tinniswood, Adrian. "A History of British Architecture — White Tower". BBC.
- "Richard II (1367–1400)". BBC.
- Jacobs, Joseph (1906). "England". Jewish Encyclopedia. JewishEncyclopedia.com.
- Robin R. Mundill (2010), The King's Jews, London: Continuum, ISBN 9781847251862, LCCN 2010282921, OCLC 466343661, OL 24816680M; see p88-99
- Jat Kshatriya Culture
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.757
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.613-614