Nadir Shah

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Author of this article is Dayanand Deswal दयानन्द देसवाल

Nāder Šāh Afšār or Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه افشار‎‎; also known as Nāder Qoli Beg - نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khān - تهماسپ قلی خان) (November, August 6, 1698 – June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Persia (1736–47) and was one of the most powerful rulers in Iranian history. His name is also spelt as Nadershaw and Nader Shah.

Because of his military genius as evidenced in numerous martial encounters throughout the Naderian Wars, such as the battles of Herat, Mihmandust, Murche-Khort, Kirkuk Yeghevard, Khyber Pass, Karnal and Kars, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia or the Second Alexander. Nader idolized Genghis Khan and Timur, the previous conquerors from Central Asia. He imitated their military prowess and, especially later in his reign, their cruelty. His victories during the Naderian Wars briefly made him West Asia's most powerful sovereign, ruling over what was arguably the most powerful empire in the world, but his empire and the Afsharid dynasty he founded, quickly disintegrated after he was assassinated in 1747.

Nader Shah invaded north India in 1738-1739

In 1738, Nader Shah conquered Kandahar, the last outpost of the Hotaki dynasty. His thoughts now turned to the Mughal Empire based in Delhi. This once powerful Muslim state to the east was falling apart as the nobles became increasingly disobedient and the Hindu Marathas of the Maratha Empire made inroads on its territory from the south-west. Its ruler Muhammad Shah (also nick-named Mohammad Shah Rangeela) was powerless to reverse this disintegration. Nader asked for the Afghan rebels to be handed over, but the Mughal emperor refused. Nader used the pretext of his Afghan enemies taking refuge in India to cross the border and invade the militarily weak but still extremely wealthy, far eastern empire, and in a brilliant campaign against the governor of Peshawar, he took a small contingent of his forces on a daunting flank march through nearly impassable mountain passes and took the enemy forces positioned at the mouth of the Khyber Pass completely by surprise, utterly beating them despite being outnumbered two-to-one. This led to the capture Ghazni, Kabul, Peshawar, Sindh and Lahore.

As he moved into the Mughal territories, he was loyally accompanied by his Georgian subject and future king of Georgia, Erekle II, who led a Georgian contingent as a military commander as part of Nader's force. Following the defeat of Mughal forces, he then advanced deeper into India crossing the river Indus before the end of year. The news of the Persian army's swift and decisive successes against the northern vassal states of the Mughal empire caused much consternation in Delhi, prompting the Mughal ruler, Mohammad Shah, to summon an overwhelming force of some 300,000 men and march this gigantic host north towards the Persian army.

Despite being outnumbered by six to one, Nader Shah crushed the Mughal army in less than three hours at the huge Battle of Karnal on 13 February 1739. After this spectacular victory, Nader captured Mohammad Shah and entered with him into Delhi. When a rumour broke out that Nader had been assassinated, some of the Delhi citizens attacked and killed Persian troops. Nader, furious, reacted by ordering his soldiers to plunder and sack the city. During the course of one day (March 22, 1939) 20,000 to 30,000 innocent Delhites were killed by the Persian troops, forcing Mohammad Shah to beg Nader for mercy.

In response, Nader Shah agreed to withdraw, but Mohammad Shah paid the consequence in handing over the keys of his royal treasury, and losing even the Peacock Throne to the Persian emperor. The Peacock Throne thereafter served as a symbol of Persian imperial might. It is estimated that Nadir took away with him treasures worth as much as seven hundred million rupees. Among a trove of other fabulous jewels, Nader also gained the Koh-i-Noor and Darya-ye Noor diamonds. The Persian troops left Delhi at the beginning of May 1739. Nader's soldiers also took with them thousands of elephants, horses and camels, loaded with the booty they had collected. The plunder seized from India was so rich that Nader stopped taxation in Iran for a period of three years following his return. Nader attacked the empire to, perhaps, give his country some breathing space after previous turmoils. His successful campaign and replenishment of funds meant that he could continue his wars against Iran's arch rival and neighbour, the Ottoman Empire, as well as the campaigns in the North Caucasus.

बादशाह नसीरउद्दीन मुहम्मदशाह और जाट

(सन् 1719-1748 ई०)

(1) मुहम्मदशाह के शासनकाल में सन् 1739 ई० में नादिरशाह का हमला - नादिरशाह खुरासान की पहाड़ियों में भेड़ों को चरानेवाला अपनी वीरता से ईरान का बादशाह बन बैठा था। उसने सन् 1739 ई० में भारत पर आक्रमण कर दिया। उस समय दिल्ली पर मुहम्मदशाह रंगीले का शासन था।

नादिरशाह ने दो करोड़ की मांग का सन्देश लेकर अपना दूत जब दिल्ली भेजा तब सम्राट् रंगीन शायरियां (कवितायें) सुन रहे थे और शराब के दौर में झूम रहे थे। नादिरशाह के खत को शराब की सुराही में डुबो दिया गया। नादिरशाह की सेना पर दिल्ली के नागरिकों ने पत्थर बरसाने शुरु किये तब उसने क्रोधित होकर अपने सैनिकों को कत्ले-आम और खुली लूटमार की आज्ञा दे दी। लाखों लोगों को मौत के घाट उतार दिया गया तथा उनका अपार धन लूट लिया गया। उसने बेगमों, दरबारियों, व्यापारियों के भी रत्न, आभूषण, हीरे-जवाहरात और बहुमूल्य वस्त्र तक भी बलपूर्वक उतरवा लिए। नादिरशाह ने 30 करोड़ की नकदी तथा सोना चांदी, 25 करोड़ के जवाहरात, 9 करोड़ का शाहजहां का रत्नजड़ित सिंहासन तख्तेताऊस, कोहनूर हीरा और 6 करोड़ का कारीगरी व लड़ाई का सामान लूटकर सैंकड़ों ऊंटों पर लादकर अफगानिस्तान की ओर कूच किया। पंजाब में घुसते ही बहुत से सामान को ढिल्लों, वैस, धारीवाल, मान, पूनिया, सिंधु गोत्र के सिक्ख जाटों ने लूटकर खेतों में दबा दिया। कुछ भी भेद न मिलने पर नादिरशाह विवश होकर चलता बना। इस आक्रमण से मुग़ल शक्ति का भीषण ह्रास और पंजाब में जाट सिक्खों के उत्कर्ष का पूर्ण परिचय मिलता है। (जाटों का उत्कर्ष, पृ० 128-129, लेखक योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री)।

जाटों का नवीन इतिहास, पृ० 333 पर उपेन्द्रनाथ शर्मा ने बलदेवसिंह पृ० 23, के हवाले से लिखा है कि “मार्च 1739 ई० में नादिरशाह के आक्रमण से दिल्ली तथा इसके दक्षिणी भूखण्ड के नागरिकों ने भरतपुर जाटराज्य में आकर शरण ली थी। इस विशाल जनसमुदाय को यहीं आबाद किया गया।”

(2) बादशाह मुहम्मद शाह ने 1157 हिजरी (सन् 1748 ई०) को एक शाही फरमान सर्वखाप पंचायत के मन्त्री चौ० श्योलाल को भेजा जिसका लेख निम्नलिखित है -

“चौधरी साहेब श्योलाल, मन्त्री सर्वखाप पंचायत। आप अपनी खापों से एक सेना खड़ी करें, जो बादशाह के विरुद्ध विद्रोह करने वालों को देश से बाहर निकालने में सहायता करे और खापों के क्षेत्रों में शान्ति स्थापित रखे। आपको सूचित किया जाता है कि खापों के किसी भी भाग से विद्रोह होने पर शाही अधिकारी उसका दृढ़ता से मुकाबला करेंगे।” (शाही फरमान-2, मोहर बादशाह मुहम्मदशाह, सर्वखाप पंचायत रिकार्ड)।

मुस्लिम शासनकाल में खाप और सर्वखाप सभाओं ने हिन्दूधर्म की रक्षा करके प्रसिद्धि प्राप्त की। हिन्दूधर्म की रक्षा के लिए सब हिन्दू जातियां इस पंचायती सभा के झण्डे के नीचे एकत्र हो गईं। इस संगठन से सर्वखाप पंचायत ने बड़ी-बड़ी सेनायें खड़ी कीं जिन्होंने अपने क्षेत्रों की रक्षा की और मुसलमान आक्रमणों को असफल किया।[1]

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