Mention by Panini
V. S. Agrawala mentions Ayudhajivi Sanghas – [p.443]: Panini mentions Ayudhajivi Sanghas by name in sutra V.3.115-117 and in the three Ganas of these sutras, Dāmanayādi, Parśvādi, and Yaudheyādi. The chapter opens with a reference to such Sanghas in the Vāhīka country, the cradle land of martial tribes who cultivated military art as a way of life. Mostly they were Kshatriyas, But Sutra V.3.114 shows that some of them were Brahmans also, e.g. the Gopālavas, and others called Rājanyas, which most likely correspond to those Hill States whose ruling classes designate themselves as Ranas. The Śālaṅkayanas are stated by Kashika to have belonged to the Rajanya class, and they seem to be an ancient community, as even Patanjali mentions them by the name Trika (V.1.58; II.352), probably on account of their League of three states (on the analogy of Shashtha as applied to League of six Trigartas, V.3.116).
Tej Ram Sharma mentions 3. Gopala (गोपाल) in Dhanaidaha Copper-plate Inscription (of the time of Kumaragupta I) Gupta Year 113 (=A.D. 432) (Line-5) : Literally meaning one who tends or protects cows, is a synonym for Lord Krishna. In this case also the name is against the rules prescribed by the Dharmasastras.
Tej Ram Sharma mentions 6. Gopala (गोपाल) in Kalaikuri Sultanpur Copper-plate Inscription of the Gupta Year 120 (=A.D. 439) (Line-12) : Gopala literally meaning 'the protector or foster of the cows' is the name of Lord Visnu or Krishna.
Tej Ram Sharma  writes....The Amarakosa mentions Gopa, Gopala, Gosamkhya, Godhuk and Ballava as the synonyms for Abhira and says that the village or place where Abhiras lived is named as Ghosa or Abhirapalli.
K.P. Jayaswal writes that Gopala (730 AD) was the first ruler from the Pala Empire, who came to power in a landmark election by regional chieftains. The empire reached its peak under his successors Dharmapala and Devapala, who fought with the Rashtrakutas and the Gurjara-Pratiharas for the control of Kannauj.
दलीप सिंह अहलावत ने लिखा है: गोपाल-गोपराष्ट्र - इस जाट राज्य वंश के महाभारत काल में, भीष्मपर्व अध्याय 9 के अनुसार दो जनपद थे। इनका राज्य गोकुल-वृन्दावन क्षेत्र में था। पाण्डवों की दिग्विजय में भीमसेन ने गोपराष्ट्र को भी जीत लिया था (महाभारत सभापर्व, अध्याय 29-30)। महाभारत युद्ध में गोकुल के गोपाल सैनिक दुर्योधन की ओर होकर पाण्डवों के विरुद्ध लड़े थे (भीष्मपर्व)।
Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 27 mentions Gopalakachchha (गॊपालकच्छ) in verse (II.27.3).  ....And the exalted one then subjugated the country of Gopalakachchha and the northern Kosalas and also the king of Mallas. And the mighty one, arriving then in the moist region at the foot of the Himalayas soon brought the whole country under his sway.
- Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. 97
- Dr Pema Ram:Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.299
- Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), Bhim Singh Dahiya, p. 333
- A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/G,p.302
- Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p. 239
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.223, 409
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.77
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.443-444
- Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), Bhim Singh Dahiya, p.337
- Bhishma Parva, X, 55
- Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Names of Local Officers,p.64
- Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Names of Householders and Traders,p.79
- Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Tribes,p.126
- An Imperial History Of India/Imperial Mgadha - Gauda Dynasties,p.42
- Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III (Page 292)
- ततॊ गॊपाल कच्छं च सॊत्तमान अपि चॊत्तरान, मल्लानाम अधिपं चैव पार्दिवं वयजयत प्रभुः(II.27.3)
- कच्छा गॊपाल कच्छाश च लाङ्गलाः परवल्लकाः, किराता बर्बराः सिद्धा विदेहास ताम्रलिङ्गकाः (Mahabharata:VI.10.55)
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