Jathara

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Jathara (जठर) is name of a country, people and a mountain. [1]

Variants

Jat clans

Jathar (जठर)[2] Jathara (जाठरा)[3] Jatara (जतरा) Jatara (जतरा) Jatra (जतरा)[4] Jatarani (जतारनी) are mentioned in the list of gotra of Jats. It gets its name from people who lived in the region of Jathara Kuta Deva (जठर कूट देव)(देवकूट, महाभारत:II.82.122) mountain in north India who were known as Jathar (जठर). These people when went to Malwa region they were called Jathara (जाठरा). Jatra are originated from place called Jathara (जथरा).[5]

ठाकुर देशराज लिखते हैं[6] -

जठर - उत्तरी भारत में जठरकूट देव नाम पर्वत के अंचल में रहते थे । बेसवां (अलीगढ़) के अंगद-शास्त्री ने इनको ही सम्पूर्ण जाटों का पुरषा माना है। किन्तु अंगद शास्त्री को इनकी उत्पत्ति के सम्बन्ध में बड़ा भ्रम हुआ है। इन्हें दक्षिण की क्षत्राणियों का वंशज मानने की उसने भयंकर भूल की है । आजकल कुछ तो यह मालवा की ओर आ गए हैं और कुछ मुसलमान हो गए हैं और जाटरा कहलाते हैं। अब ये मथुरा और गुड़गांव के बीच में आबाद थे। इनका यह प्रजातंत्र मांट के आस-पास था और नवराष्ट्र कहलाता था । पीछे यह अन्य यादवों की भांति यहां से उत्तर की ओर चले गए और बहुत दिन तक वहां रहे।

History

Sandhya Jain[7] gives the list of 'Tribes With unclear Position in Kurukshetra War' which includes Jathara (जठर) - Mentioned in 'geography' (VI.10.41) and Shalya Parva (IX.44.57).

The Mahabharata Tribe - Jathara (जठर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Jathara (जठर)

Jat History

Ram Sarup Joon[8] writes that ....According to the research of Hem Chandra, Lichhavis belonged to Madrak dynasty and were called Karskar or Kakkar because of their origin from Kar. Shale, Shal, Shi, all originating from Sialkot are also Madrak. In Sanskrit Scripture they have been called Jatra or Jatrali meaning Jat.


The Jaathra theory of Lahiri Singh: This theory is contained in a small booklet entitled "The Ethnology of the Jats", written by Ch. Lahiri Singh[9], a Jat pleader of Meerut, at the request of the Census Officials in 1883. The author derives the word Jat from Jathara (जठर), but he differs from Angad Sharma, the author of the Jattharouttpatti in treating the Jaatharas (जाठर) as foreign people[10], attributing their name to the mountain Jatthara, mentioned in the Mahabharata, Vishnu and Bhagawata Puranas[11]. The first two books describe the country of the Jaatharas along with Kalinga, Kashi and Aparkashi.

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[12] writes that Lahiri Singh's theory is as untenable as that of Angad Sharma. Bare assertion is no proof of the matter asserted. The hollowness of a similar theory has already been exposed in extentio in the foregoing pages. The only difference between the theories propounded by Angad Sharma and Lahiri Singh is that whereas the former despatches the de novo created native class of the Jaathara Kshatriyas, the supposed progenitors of the Jats, from the hot region of the Deccan to the health resorts of the Devkuta (देवकूट) and the Jatthara mountains across the Himalayas, the latter has very kindly brought them down to save them from the freezing cold of these mountains, into the Indo-Gangctic plains or the 'Fertile Sapta Sindhu'. The two theories may not be relevant to the origin of the Jats but they do unmindfully point to the to-and-fro migrations[13] of the ancient Indo-Aryans.

Hathigumpha inscription

Hathigumpha inscription mentions that The King of Pandya caused to be brought here ( capital Kalinga Nagri) various pearls, jewels and precious stones hundred thousand in number. [His Majesty] brought to submission the people of Jathara.

Line 13 - ...तुं जठर लखिल गोपुरानि सिहरानि निवेसयति सत विसिकनं परिहारे हि [।।] अभुत मछरियं च हथीनाव तं परिहर [उपलभते] हय हथी रतन मानिकं [।।] पंडराजा एदानि अनेकानि मुत मनिरतनानि आहारापयति इध सतस [हसानि]

In Mahabharata

Jathara (जठर) in Mahabharata (I.48.8),(VI.10.41),(IX.44.57),(IX.44.70),

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 48 describes snake-sacrifice of the king Janamejaya of the Pandava line and the names of those who became the monarch's Ritwiks and Sadasyas. In the list of the learned old Brahmanas include Jathara (जठर) mentioned in Mahabharata (I.48.8). [14]....Asita (असित), Devala (देवल), Narada (नारद),Parvata (पर्वत),Atreya (आत्रेय),Kunda (कुण्ड),Jathara (जठर), Kutighata (कुटिघट) (I.48.8)....


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Jathara are mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.10.41). [15]....the Jatharas, the Kukkuras, the Sudasharnas O Bharata; the Kuntis, the Avantis, and the further-Kuntis; ....


Shalya Parva, Mahabharata/Book IX Chapter 44 mentions The ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo and the Kshatriyas who came on this occasion.Jatharas (जठर) are mentioned in the list of the combatants in Mahabharata (IX.44.57). [16]....Chaturdanshtra, Ashtajihva, Meghananda, Prithusravas, Vidyutaksha, Dhanurvaktra, Jathara, Marutasana,


Jatharas (जठर) are again mentioned in the list of the combatants in Mahabharata (IX.44.70). [17].... Lohavaktra, Jathara, Kumbhavaktra, Kundaka, Madgudagriva, Krishnaujas, Hansavaktra, Chandrabha,....


Maha Jatharas (महाजठर) are again mentioned in Mahabharata (IX.44.80). [18]....Mahajatharas, Tarakakshas, Paravatamukhas, Vrishamukhas....


Shanti Parva Mahabharata Book XII Chapter 29 mentions Jathara in (XII.29.75). [19]

जठर देश

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[20] ने लेख किया है ...जठर देश (AS, p.354) का उल्लेख विष्णु पुराण 2, 2, 29 में हुआ है- 'मेरोरनन्तरांगेषु जठरादिष्ववस्थिता: शंखकूटाऽथ ऋषभो हंसो नागस्तथापर: कालंजाद्याश्च तथा उत्तरकेसराचला:' अर्थात् "मेरु के अति समीप और जठर आदि देशों में स्थित शंखकूट, ऋषभ, हंस, नाग और कलंज आदि पर्वत उत्तर दिशा के केसराचल हैं। यदि मेरु या सुमेरु को उत्तरी ध्रुव का प्रदेश माना जाए तो जठर को वर्तमान साइबेरिया में स्थित मानना चाहिए। किंतु विष्णु पुराण का यह वर्णन बहुत अंशों में काल्पनिक जान पड़ता है। जठर पर्वत का भी उल्लेख विष्णु पुराण 2,2,20 में है- 'जठरो देवकूटश्च मर्यादा पर्वतावुभौ तौ दक्षिणोत्तरायामावानील निषधायतौ।'

देवकूट

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[21] ने लेख किया है ...देवकूट (AS, p.441) विष्णु पुराण के अनुसार एक मर्यादा पर्वत है- 'जठरोदेवकूटश्च मर्यादा पर्वतावुभो तो दक्षिणोत्तरायामावानीलनिषधायतो'। विष्णु पुराण 2, 2, 40. यह पर्वत उत्तर में निषध तक फैला हुआ है।

Notable persons

References

  1. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.354
  2. डॉ पेमाराम:राजस्थान के जाटों का इतिहास, 2010, पृ.301
  3. डॉ पेमाराम:राजस्थान के जाटों का इतिहास, 2010, पृ.301
  4. डॉ पेमाराम:राजस्थान के जाटों का इतिहास, 2010, पृ.301
  5. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya etc,: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998 pp. 245, 246
  6. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter V (Page 139)
  7. Sandhya Jain: Adi Deo Arya Devata - A Panoramic View of Tribal-Hindu Cultural Interface, Rupa & Co, 7/16, Ansari Road Daryaganj, New Delhi, 2004, p.133, sn.88.
  8. History of the Jats/Chapter IV ,p. 56
  9. Qanungo, op.cit. p. 17. Y.P. Shastri, op.cit., p. 40.
  10. Ibid. pp. 8-9.
  11. Ibid. Supra. p. 3.
  12. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The Jaathra theory of Lahiri Singh, pp. 31-32
  13. Cf. Calvin Kephart, Races of Mankind, Peter Owen Ltd., London, 1961, for Aryan migrations.
  14. 8 असितॊ देवलश चैव नारदः पर्वतस तथा, आत्रेयः कुण्ड जठरॊ दविजः कुटि घटस तथा (I.48.8)
  15. जठराः कुक्कुशाश चैव सुथाशार्णाश च भारत, कुन्तयॊ ऽवन्तयश चैव तदैवापरकुन्तयः (VI.10.41)
  16. चतुर्थंष्ट्रॊ ऽषट जिह्वश च मेघनाथः पृदुश्रवाः, विथ्युथ अक्षॊ धनुर वक्त्रॊ जठरॊ मारुताशनः (IX.44.57)
  17. लॊहाश वक्त्रॊ जठरः कुम्भवक्त्रश च कुण्डकः, मद्गुग्रीवश च कृष्णौजा हंसवक्त्रश च चन्द्र भाः (IX.44.70)
  18. महाजठर पादाङ्गास तारकाक्शाश च भारत, पारावत मुखाश चान्ये तदा वृषमुखाः परे (IX.44.80)
  19. संवृथ्धॊ युवनाश्वस्य जठरे यॊ महात्मनः, पृषथ आज्यॊथ्भवः शरीमांस तरिलॊकविजयी नृपः (XII.29.75)
  20. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.354
  21. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.441

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