|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)|
Kalaka (कालक) is name of a town and country mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi and in Mahabharata. Kalaka (कालक) was a Nagavanshi King. Kalaka was a Madraka town in district Sheikhupura, Pakistan. Kalika River (कालिका) is mentioned in Mahabharata.
Mention by Panini
Tej Ram Sharma mentions 9. Kalaka (कालक) (Kalaikuri Sultanpur Copper-plate Inscription of the Gupta Year 120 (=A.D. 439), L. 11): It means dark-blue or black. It is a name based on colour. We have several cases of names with the word Kalaka, for example, 'Kalakaksha' black-eyed, the name of an Asura; 'Kalakacarya' a Jain teacher and astronomer; 'Kalakendra' name of a prince of the Dhanavas. It is a name with the suffix 'ka'
Tej Ram Sharma mentions 2. Kalaka-ksetra (कालाक-क्षेत्र) (Gunaighar Copper-plate Inscription of Vainyagupta Gupta Year 188 (=A. D. 507) (L.25) : It is a Prakritic form of Sanskrit Kalarka (कालार्क) ,  i.e. the dreadful Sun at the time of the destruction of the whole world. The field may be connected with Sun-worship. Another alternative is that it was the property of a man with this name.
Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria) writes.... After a long span of time, it was in the 9th, 7th and 2nd centuries B.C. that powerful hordes of the Scythians, known as Yueh-Chih (Gat or Gut or Gutian in archaic Chinese) uprooted the Sakas from the Jaxartes and they moved to Seistan in the South-West. It was in Seistan that the Sakas received an invitation from an Indian Jain Patnarch, Acharya Kalak to invade India, for he wanted to avenge himself on Gardabhilla, the king of Ujjayini, who had seduced his sister, a pretty nun. With the Yueh-chih on their heels and fresh encounters with their Parthian kings from north eastern Iran, the Sakas, sensing their stay in Seistan becoming hazardous, readily accepted the invitation of Kalaka.
Ram Sarup Joon  writes ...Bahik, Bahi, Bahin or Bahela: Bahik Jats is found both among the Hindu and Sikhs. In Pakistan there are Muslim Bahele Jats-, Bahiks are mentioned in Mahabharat also. According to "Karna Parva", chapter of the Mahabharat) King Shalya paid l/6th part of his income to the Bahiks. According to Nandlal Dey, Bahik are a sub branch of the Madraks. Arat in district Sheikhupura was their capital. Hashak, Karmabh Kalak and Karkar were their important towns. In Daurala (District Meerut, U.P.) the Bahiyan Jats have six villages.
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...कालिका (AS, p.182) - महाभारत में उल्लिखित संभवत: पंजाब की कोई नदी. इसकी कौशिकी और अरुणा में मिलने वाली नदी बताया गया है. -- 'कालिका संगमे स्नातवा कौशिक्यवरूणयोर्गत:' - महाभारत वनपरवा 84,156.
In Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 170, Matali describes about Daitya's daughter, named Pulama and a mighty female of the Asura order, Kalaka by name, who practised severe austerities for a thousand celestial years. And at the end of their austerities, the self-create conferred on them boons --that their offspring might never suffer misfortune; that they might be incapable of being destroyed even by the gods, the Rakshasas and the [Pannaga]]s; and that they might obtain a highly effulgent and surprisingly fair aerial city, furnished with all manner of gems and invincible even by the celestials, the Maharshis, the Yakshas, the Gandharvas, the Pannagas, the Asuras and the Rakshasas.
Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 170 mentions about the Destruction of Hiranyapura, the city inhabited by Pulamas Kalakas and the Kalakeyas, Arjuna's terrible encounter with the Nivatakavachas dwelling in Hiranyaparva. Verse-(III.170.11)  mentions that Hiranyapura, the mighty city is inhabited by the Paulamas and the Kalakanjas; and it is also guarded by those mighty Asuras.
Shalya Parva, Mahabharata/Book IX Chapter 44 describes the Kings and clans who joined the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo. Mahamaya (महामाया) is mentioned in Mahabharata (IX.44.39). ....Pushan gave him, O Bharata, two companions, Palitaka and Kalika, both endued with great powers of illusion (Mahamaya).
Anusasana Parva/Book XIII Chapter 26 mentions the sacred waters on the earth. Kalika (कालिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (XIII.26.22). .... If a person, subduing his wrath and observing the vow of Brahmacharyya for three days, bathes in the river Vipasha at the retreat called Kalika, he is sure to succeed in transcending the obligation of rebirth.
- Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V, p.71-72
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.230
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.119
- Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Names of Householders and Traders,p.80
- Sanskrit-English Dictionary by Monier Williams. p. 1289, col. 3.
- अन्गविज्जा, पृ.153 , भूमिका पृ.47
- Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Place-Names and their Suffixes, p.250-51
- We also find a kind of 'Sun' known as Lolārka.
- The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations:p. 317
- CHI., vol. I. Ch. XXIII. Upadhyaya, op.cit., p. 61. within brackets mine S.Chattopadhyaya. Sakas in Ind .. Santiniketan, 1955. preface. CL Yu. V. Gannkovsky, M.R. Arunova et al. His. of Afghanistan, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1985, p. 42.
- Upadhyaya, op.cit.. pp. 61f. CHI, Vol. I, pp. 149f, 479.
- Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V, p.71-72
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.182
- हिरण्यपुरम इत्य एतत खयायते नगरं महत, रक्षितं कालकेयैश च पौलॊमैश च महासुरैः (III.170.11)
- पालितकं कालिकं च महामायाविनाव उभौ, पूषा च पार्षथौ पराथात कार्त्तिकेयाय भारत (IX.44.39)
- कालिकाश्रमम आसाद्य विपाशायां कृतॊदकः, बरह्म चारी जितक्रॊधस तरिरात्रान मुच्यते भवात (XIII.26.22)