Kashyapa Buddha

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Kashyapa Buddha (कश्यप बुद्ध) is one of the ancient Buddhas whose biography is chronicled in chapter 24[1] of the Buddhavamsa, one of the books of the Pāli Canon.



According to Theravāda Buddhist tradition, Kassapa is the twenty-seventh of the twenty-nine named Buddhas, the sixth of the Seven Buddhas of Antiquity, and the third of the five Buddhas of the present kalpa.[2]

The present kalpa is called a mahabhadrakalpa (great auspicious aeon). The five Buddhas of the present kalpa are:[3][4]

  1. Kakusandha (the first Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)
  2. Koṇāgamana (the second Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)
  3. Kassapa (the third Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)
  4. Gautama (the fourth and present Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)
  5. Maitreya (the fifth and future Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)


Kassapa was born in Isipatana Deer Park. This place is located in Varanasi, a city in the modern-day state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. His parents were the Brahmadatta and Dhanavatī, of the Kashyap Gotra.[5]

According to legend, his body was twenty cubits high, and he lived for two thousand years in three different palaces. They are Hamsa, Yasa, and Sirinanda.[6] (The BuA.217 calls the first two palaces Hamsavā and Yasavā). His chief wife was Sunandā, who bore him a son named Vijitasena.

Kassapa gave up his worldly life traveling in his palace. He practiced austerities for only seven days. Just before attaining enlightenment, he accepted a meal of milk-rice from his wife and grass for his seat from a yavapālaka named Soma. His Bodhi tree (the tree under which he attained enlightenment) was a banyan, and he preached his first sermon at Isipatana to an assembly of monks who had renounced the world in his company.

Kassapa performed the Twin Miracle at the foot of an asana tree outside Sundar Nagar. He held only one assembly of his disciples; among his most famous conversions was that of Nāradeva, a Yaksha. His chief disciples among monks were Tissa and Bhāradvāja, and among nuns were Anulā and Uruvelā, his constant attendant being Sabbamitta. Among his patrons, the most eminent were Sumangala and Ghattīkāra, Vijitasenā, and Bhaddā.

Kassapa died at the age of forty thousand years, in the city of Kashi, in the Kashi Kingdom (now known as Varanasi, in the modern-day Indian state of Uttar Pradesh). Over his relics was raised a stupa one league in height, each brick of which was worth one crore (ten million) rupees.

The Stupa of Kassapa Buddha

There was initially a great difference of opinion on what should be the size of the stupa and of what material it should be built. Construction of the stupa was begun after these issues were finally settled. But then the citizens found they lacked sufficient funds to complete the stupa. An anāgāmi devotee named Sorata travelled throughout Jambudvipa, requesting money from the people for the completion of the stupa. He sent the money as he received it, and on hearing that the work was completed, he set out to go and worship the stupa. However, he was seized by robbers and murdered in the forest, which later came to be known as the Andhavana.

Upavāna, in a previous birth, became the guardian deity of the stupa, hence his great majesty in his last life (DA.ii.580; for another story of the building of the shrine see DhA.iii.29).

Among the thirty-seven goddesses noticed by Guttila when he visited heaven was one who had offered a scented five-spray at the stupa (J.ii.256). Alāta offered āneja-flowers and obtained a happy rebirth (J.vi.227).

The cause of Mahākāśyapa's golden complexion was his gift of a golden brick to the building of Kassapa's shrine (AA.i.116).

At the same stupa, Anuruddha, who was then a householder in Varanasi, offered butter and molasses in brass bowls, which were placed without any interval around the stupa (AA.i.105).


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[7] ने लेख किया है ...टंडवा (AS, p.379) गोंडा ज़िला, उत्तर प्रदेश का ऐतिहासिक स्थान है। यह स्थान सहेतमहेत (श्रावस्ती) से 8 मील (लगभग 12.8 कि.मी.) की दूरी पर पश्चिम की ओर स्थित है। किंवदंती के अनुसार यह माना जाता है कि अंतिम कश्यप बुद्ध ने यहीं जन्म लिया था। टंडवा में एक प्राचीन स्तूप के चिन्ह भी दिखाई देते हैं। यात्री फ़ाह्यान ने इसी स्थान पर एक बड़े स्तंभ का वर्णन किया है, संभवत: जिसके खंडहर भी यहाँ मिले हैं। यहाँ एक ढूह (मिट्टी का ढेर या छोटा टीला) के उत्तर में एक मील लम्बा ताल है, जिसे 'सीता दोहर' कहते हैं। (दे. सीता दोहर)


महासागर (AS, p.726): महावंश 15,152 में उल्लिखित माहामेघवनाराम का ही एक नाम है. इस उद्यान को लंका के राजा जयंत ने कश्यप बुद्ध को समर्पित किया था. यहीं बोधिवृक्ष की एक शाखा भी जयंत ने लगाई थी. [8]


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[9] ने लेख किया है ...दोहरताल (AS, p.454) प्राचीन श्रावस्ती के खंडहरों (सहेतमहेत, गोंडा ज़िला, उत्तर प्रदेश) से एक मील (लगभग 1.6 कि.मी.) की दूरी पर स्थित एक ऐतिहासिक स्थान है, जो टंडवा नामक ग्राम के समीप है। टंडवा में बौद्ध कालीन कश्यप बुद्ध के स्तूप के भग्नावशेष प्राप्त हुए हैं। भग्नावशेषों के उत्तर में दोहरताल या सीतादोहर नामक एक मील लम्बा ताल है, जिसके साथ कई प्राचीन किंवदंतियों का सम्बन्ध है।

अशोकमाल - नागमाल

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[10] ने लेख किया है ...नागमाल (AS, p.48) नागमाल का उल्लेख बौद्ध ग्रंथ महावंश में हुआ है, जिसके अनुसार यह लंका में स्थित बताया गया है। महावंश (15,153) में वर्णित यह स्थान अनुराधापुर से संबंधित था। सिंहल नरेश जयंत को स्थविर कश्यप बुद्ध ने इसी स्थान के उत्तर में अशोकमाल पर जाकर धर्मोपदेश दिया था, जिससे सिंहल के चार सहस्र लोग बौद्ध धर्म में दीक्षित हुए थे।

External links


  1. Vicittasarabivamsa, U (1992). "Chapter 24: Kassapa Buddhavamsa". In Ko Lay, U; Tin Lwin, U (eds.). The great chronicle of Buddhas, Volume One, Part Two (1st ed.). Yangon, Myanmar: Ti=Ni Publishing Center. pp. 285–92.
  2. Gärtner, Uta; Jens Lorenz (1994). Tradition and modernity in Myanmar. LIT Verlag. p. 281. ISBN 978-3-8258-2186-9.
  3. Buswell Jr., RE; Lopez Jr., DS (2014). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism (1st ed.). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-691-15786-3.
  4. "Chapter 36: The Buddhas in the three periods of time". Buddhism in a Nutshell Archives. Hong Kong: Buddhistdoor International.
  5. Vicittasarabivamsa, U (1992). "Chapter 24: Kassapa Buddhavamsa". In Ko Lay, U; Tin Lwin, U (eds.). The great chronicle of Buddhas, Volume One, Part Two (1st ed.). Yangon, Myanmar: Ti=Ni Publishing Center. pp. 285–92.
  6. Vicittasarabivamsa, U (1992). "Chapter 24: Kassapa Buddhavamsa". In Ko Lay, U; Tin Lwin, U (eds.). The great chronicle of Buddhas, Volume One, Part Two (1st ed.). Yangon, Myanmar: Ti=Ni Publishing Center. pp. 285–92.
  7. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.379
  8. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.726
  9. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.454
  10. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, pp.48, 487