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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Mainaka (मैनाक) is a mountain mentioned in Mahabharata and Ramayana. It is also known as Mayanaka (मयनाक) and probably gets name from Mayasura. [1] Mainaka is also the brother-in-law of Lord Shiva and brother of Goddess Parvati.


Jat clans


Mainākaparvata (मैनाकपर्वत) or simply Maināka is the name of a mountain situated on the island Nārikela, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 54. Accordingly, as four heavenly figures said to Naravāhanadatta: “... there is in the midst of the great sea a great, prosperous and splendid island, which is called the island of Nārikela, and is renowned in the world for its beauty. And in it there are four mountains with splendid expanses of land, named Maināka, Vṛṣabha, Cakra and Balāhaka; in those four we four live”.[2]

Maināka (मैनाक).—Name of a minor mountain (kṣudraparvata) situated in Bhārata, a region south of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. In the settlements (janapada) along these mountains dwell Āryas and Mlecchas who drink water from the rivers flowing there. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.[3]

1) Maināka (मैनाक).—General information. A mountain. This mountain was the son of Himavān and father of Krauñca. (Śloka 13, Chapter 18, Harivaṃśa). How the mountain helped Hanūmān. There is an unbreakable tie between Maināka and the Kings of Ikṣvāku family. There is a story in Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa that the sāgara (ocean) was constructed by the sixty thousand sons of the King Sagara of Ikṣvāku family. This sāgara once gave refuge to Maināka and brought it up. There is a reason for that:—In the early yugas mountains had wings and they used to fly and drop to the ground as they liked. People used to live in fright always and at the request of the people Indra made the mountains stand in a row and cut off their wings. At that time the god Vāyu (wind) took away his friend Maināka and put him in the ocean. From that day onwards Maināka and the ocean developed an intimacy which even death could not wipe off. Hanūmān was the son of Vāyu, the friend and saviour of Maināka. It was because of that that Maināka gave refuge for Hanūmān on his way to Laṅkā. Because the ocean gave refuge to Maināka after its escape from the sword of Indra and because the ocean (Sāgara) was the creation of the sons of Sagara, a King of the Ikṣvāku race, Maināka felt indebted to Sagara and the entire race to which he belonged. Maināka thus had great respect for Śrī Rāma who belonged to the Ikṣvāku race. This was also responsible for Maināka giving relief to Hanūmān on his way to Laṅkā. (See under Parvata). Other details.[4]

(i) This mountain is situated near the lake Bindusarovara which was to the north of Kailāsa. Bhagīratha did penance to bring Gaṅgā to the earth on this mountain. (Chapter 3, Sabhā Parva).

(ii) Pāṇḍavas who went to the north crossed the mountain Maināka and went further. (Śloka 1, Chapter 139, Vana Parva).

(iii) The mountain Maināka shines with golden peaks. (Śloka 44, Chapter 145, Vana Parva). (See full article at Story of Maināka from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Maināka (मैनाक).—A holy place on the west coast on the banks of the river Narmadā. This is also on a mountain. (Śloka 11, Chapter 89, Vana Parva).

3) Maināka (मैनाक).—Another mountain. (This is in Krauñcadyīpa. (Śloka 18, Chapter 12, Bhīṣma Parva).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Maināka (मैनाक).—(Mt.) in Bhāratavarṣa; son of Himavān and Menā; father of Krauñca hill; sacred for śrāddha and to Pitṛs; of Indra; famous for medicinal herbs.*

1b) The continent about the Āmbikeya hill.*


In Mahabharata

Mainaka Parvata (मैनाक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.3.2), (II.3.9), (III.87.9), (XIII.26.56),

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 3 describes Mainaka Parvata, north of Kailasa near Bindusara lake and Mayadanava's obtaining Devadatta vanda material, shankha and Gandiva from Vrishaparva. Mainaka Parvata (मैनाक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.3.2).[5]....Then Maya Danava addressed Arjuna, --'I now go with thy leave, but shall come back soon. On the north of the Kailasa peak near the mountains of Mainaka, while the Danavas were engaged in a sacrifice on the banks of lake Bindusara, I gathered a huge quantity of delightful and variegated vanda (a kind of rough materials) composed of jewels and gems. This was placed in the mansion of Vrishaparva ever devoted to truth. ....There is also a fierce club placed in the lake Bindusara by the King (of the Danavas) after slaughtering therewith all his foes in battle. Besides being heavy and strong and variegated with golden knobs, it is capable of bearing great weight, and of slaying all foes, and is equal in strength unto an hundred thousand clubs. It is a fit weapon for Bhima, even as the Gandiva is for thee. There is also (in that lake) a large conch-shell called Devadatta of loud sound, that came from Varuna. I shall no doubt give all these to thee. Having spoken thus unto Partha, the Asura went away in a north-easterly direction. On the north of Kailasa in the mountains of Mainaka, there is a huge peak of gems and jewels called Hiranya-sringa.

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 3 describes Mainaka Parvata, near Bindusara lake and dwelling of Bhagiratha. Mainaka Parvata (मैनाक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.3.9).[6].....Near that peak (Mainaka Parvata) is a delightful lake of the name of Bindusara. There, on its banks, previously dwelt king Bhagiratha for many years, desiring to behold the goddess Ganga, since called Bhagirathi after that king's name.

Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 87 mentions names of Sacred spots in the west. Mainaka (मैनाक) (Mountain) is mentioned in Mahabharata (III.87.9). [7]....Here also are the well-known lake called Punya-hrada (पुण्यह्रद) (III.87.9), the mountain called Mainaka (मैनाक) (3.87.9), and that other mountain called Asita (असित) (III.87.9) abounding in fruits and roots

Anusasana Parva/Book XIII Chapter 26 mentions the sacred waters on the earth. Mainaka Parvata (मैनाक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (XIII.26.56).[8]..... Bathing in the waters of the Mainaka (XIII.26.56) mountain and saying one's morning and evening prayers there and living at the spot for a month, restraining desire, one attains to the merit of all the sacrifices.

मैनाक पर्वत

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[9] ने लेख किया है .... मैनाक पर्वत (AS, p.760): 1. कैलाश पर्वत (तिब्बत) के उत्तर में स्थित एक पर्वत--'उत्तरेण तु कैलासं मैनाकं पर्वतं प्रति, यियक्ष्यमाणेषु पुरा दानवेषु मयाकृतम्' महाभारत सभापर्व 3,2. इस पर्वत पर दैत्यों द्वारा किए जाने वाले यज्ञ का वर्णन है. युधिष्ठिर के राजसूय यज्ञ के लिए, मयदानव मैनाक पर्वत पर से (बिंदुसर के पास से) एक विचित्र रत्न-भांड, देवदत्त नामक शंख तथा एक गदा लेकर आया था, 'इत्य उक्त्वा सॊ ऽसुरः पार्थं प्राग उदीचीम् दिशंगत:, आथो उत्तरेण तु कैलासं मैनाकं पर्वतं प्रति'. सभापर्व 3,9. इस ररत्न-भांड के द्रव्य से ही उसने युधिष्ठिर का अद्भुत सभाभवन निर्मित किया था. मैनाक पर्वत पर असुरों के राजा वृषपर्वा का अधिकार था. महाभारत वनपर्व 139,1 में मैनाक का उशीरबीज, श्वेत तथा कालबीज नामक पर्वतों के साथ उल्लेख है--'उशीरबीजं मैनाकं गिरिं शवेतं च भारत, समतीतॊ ऽसि कौन्तेय कालशैलं च पार्थिव'.

[p.761]: वाल्मीकि रामायण किष्किंधा कांड में भी इसी में मैनाक का वर्णन है. जहाँ इसे क्रौंच पर्वत के पार बताया गया है. इसी प्रसंग में कैलाश का उल्लेख है--'तत् तु शीघ्रम् अतिक्रम्य कांतारम् रोम हर्षणम्। कैलासम् पाण्डुरम् प्राप्य हृष्टा यूयम् भविष्यथ ॥४-४३-२०॥ क्रौन्चम् तु गिरिम् आसाद्य बिलम् तस्य सुदुर्गमम् । अप्रमत्तैः प्रवेष्टव्यम् दुष्प्रवेशम् हि तत् स्मृतम् ॥४-४३-२५॥ अवृक्षम् काम शैलम् च मानसम् विहग आलयम् । न गतिः तत्र भूतानाम् देवानाम् न च रक्षसाम् ॥४-४३-२८॥ स च सर्वैः विचेतव्यः स सानु प्रस्थ भूधरः । क्रौन्चम् गिरिम् अतिक्रम्य मैनाको नाम पर्वतः ॥४-४३-२९॥' किष्किंधा 43, 20-25-28-29. महाभारत की कथा के अनुसार ही वाल्मीकि रामायण में मयदानव का भवन बताया गया है--'मयस्य भवनम् तत्र दानवस्य स्वयम् कृतम् । मैनाकः तु विचेतव्यः स सानु प्रस्थ कंदरः ॥४-४३-३०॥' किष्किंधा 43,30 बाल्मीकि ने इस पर्वत पर अश्वमुखी स्त्रियों का निवास बताया है--'स्त्रीणाम् अश्व मुखीनाम् च निकेताः तत्र तत्र तु । तम् देशम् समतिक्रम्य आश्रमम् सिद्ध सेवितम् ॥४-४३-३१॥' किष्किंधा 43,31 संभव है मय से संबंध होने के कारण ही इस पर्वत को मयनाक या मैनाक कहा गया हो (मय+नाक, उच्चलोक)

2. वाल्मीकि रामायण सुंदरकांड 1,90 के अनुसार भारत और लंका के मध्यवर्ती समुद्र में स्थित एक पर्वत. यह समुद्र के अंदर डूबा हुआ था किंतु लंका के लिए समुद्र पार करते हुए हनुमान के विश्राम करने के लिए समुद्र ने इस पर्वत को जल से ऊपर उठा दिया था--'इति कृत्वा मतिं साध्वीं समुद्रश्चन्नमम्भसि ॥५-१-९१॥ हिरण्यनाभं मैनाकमुवाच गिरिसत्तमम् ।' इस वर्णन से जान पड़ता है कि मैनाक उसी पर्वतमाला का भाग है जो भारत के दक्षिणी भूछोर से लेकर समुद्र के अंदर होती हुई लंका तक चली गई है. प्रागैतिहासिक काल में लंका और दक्षिण भारत एक ही स्थल-खंड के भाग थे और दक्षिण की मलय पर्वत माला लंका तक फैली हुई थी. कालांतर में बंगाल की खाड़ी और अरब सागर ने लंका और भारत के बीच का संकीर्ण स्थल मार्ग काट दिया और इस पर्वत श्रेणी का अधिकांश भाग विशेषकर निचला भाग, जल मग्न हो गया. इसी कारण पौराणिक दंतकथा में भी मैनाक को पर्वतों के पक्षच्छेदन करने वाले इंद्र के भय से समुद्र में छिपा हुआ कहा गया है. अध्यात्म रामायण, सुंदर. 1,26 में बाल्मीकि रामायण के अनुरूप ही मैनाक का इसी प्रसंग में वर्णन है--'समुद्रोअप्याह मैनाकं मणिकांचनपर्वतम्, गच्छत्येष महासत्वो हनुमान् मारुतात्मज:' श्रीमद्भागवत 5,19,16 में मैनाक का त्रिकूटादि पर्वतों के साथ उल्लेख है--'मैनाकस्त्रिकूट ऋषभ: कूटक:' तुलसीदास ने (रामचरितमानस, सुंदरकांड) भी हनुमान के लंकाभिगमन प्रसंग में मैनाक का उल्लेख किया है--'जलनिधि रघुपति दूत विचारी, तैं मैनाक होहि श्रमहारी'.

External links


  1. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.760-761
  3. Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
  4. Source: Puranic Encyclopedia
  5. उत्तरेण तु कैलासं मैनाकं पर्वतं प्रति, यक्ष्यमाणेषु सर्वेषु दानवेषु तदा मया
  6. रम्यं बिन्दुसरॊ नाम यत्र राजा भगीरथः, दृष्ट्वा भागीरथीं गङ्गाम उवास बहुलाः समाः (II.3.9)
  7. तत्र पुण्यह्रदस तात मैनाकश चैव पर्वतः, बहुमूलफलॊ वीर असितॊ नाम पर्वतः (III.87.9)
  8. मैनाके पर्वते सनात्वा तथा संध्याम उपास्य च, कामं जित्वा च वै मासं सर्वमेध फलं लभेत (XIII.26.56)
  9. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.760-761