|Author: Laxman Burdak IFS (R)|
- For ex. Governor see Chandrawati Sheoran
- Chandrawati चन्द्रवती = चन्द्रावती (AS, p.319)
- Chandravati चंद्रवटी = Chandrapuri चंद्रपुरी (AS, p.319)
- Chandravati चन्द्रावती = चन्द्रवती (AS, p.320)
- Chandrawati Nagari/Chandrawatinagari (चन्द्रावती नगरी)
The village situated near Abu Road on the bank of the West Banas River in Rajasthan. In ancient times it was an extensive town, and present villages such as Dattani, Kiverli, Kharadi and Santpura were its suburbs. The old ruins, such as temples, torans and images scattered over the large area, bear testimony to its past glory.
Chandravati Inscription of A.D. 691 of Raja Doorgagana
According to James Tod  as per [Note 5] to Ram Chandra Pura (Inscription No. II) — Chandrasen is celebrated in the history of the Pramaras as the founder of several cities, from two of which, Chandrabhaga, at the foot of the central plateau of India, in Northern Malwa, and Chandrawati, the ruins of which I discovered at the foot of the Aravulli near Aboo. I possess several valuable memoria, which will, ere long, confirm the opinions I have given of the Takshaka architect.
Alexander Cunningham in his Arch. Survey Report has also confirmed after a visit to Chandravati that it was an old ruined city first settled by Chandersen, the ruler of Malwa. The place is in the vicinity of modern Jhalrapatan and none has expressed any doubt about its antiquity.
The Parmaras of Malwa were originally from Achalgarh and Chandrawati. Around 810 AD Upendra or Kerishnaraja left the place and established capital in Malwa. They ruled earlier from Achalgarh for a long period. 
Chandravati was ruled by the Paramaras of Abu. The first Paramar ruler of the area was Sindhuraja in the early tenth century. The Ugrasena Panwar founded the Panwar rule at Abu. Raja Bhoj (1010-1050 AD) was an illustrious rulers of this dynasty. 
In 1024 AD, Chandravati was attacked and plundered by Mahmud Ghazni when he passed through Rajasthan to attack Anahilavada. After defeating Prithviraja III in 1192 AD the Muslim army also attacked Chandravati. In 1197 AD Qutubuddin general Khusrav defeated then ruler of Chandravati Dharavarsha near the foot of Mount Abu.
In about 1315 AD Chandravati passed into the hands of Chauhans.
The Vimala temple inscription of v.s. 1378 (1321 AD) tells us the historical base for the creation of Parmaras from the Agnikula. Verses 3-6 tell us that at the mountain Arbuda there sprang from the fire-pit (anala-kunda, agni-kunga) of the sage Vasishtha the hero Paramara. In his lineage appeared the hero Kānhaḍadeva ; and in his family there was a chief named Dhandhu (Dhandhuraja), who was lord of the town of Chandrāvati and who, averse from rendering homage to the Chalukya king Bhimadva I. and to escape that king's anger, took refuge with king Bhoja, the lord of Dhārā.
Sahasamala Devada shifted his capital to Sirohi around 1425 A.D. AD, and from then on Chandravati lost its glory. It is now a small village.
चन्द्रवती - चन्द्रावती
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...1. चंद्रावती (AS, p.319) राजस्थान में आबू पर्वत के निकट है. यह नगरी प्राचीन काल में पंवारों की राजधानी थी. आबू के उग्रसेन पंवार ने पंवार राज्य की नींव डाली थी. राजा भोज (1010- 1050 ई.) इस वंश का प्रसिद्ध राजा था जिसके समय में पंवारों की राजधानी धारानगरी में थी. 12 वीं सदी में सोलंकियों ने पंवार राज्य का अंत कर दिया था. चंद्रवती के खंडहर आबू के निकट हैं. चंद्रवती को चंद्रावती भी कहते हैं.
चन्द्रावती नगरी राजस्थान के प्रसिद्ध दर्शनीय स्थल माउण्ट आबू से 6 किलोमीटर की दूरी पर दक्षिण में है। ध्वस्त हो चुकी यह नगरी अहमदाबाद मार्ग पर परमार शासकों की राजधानी होने के कारण 11वीं-12वीं सदी में बहुत समृद्ध थी। विद्धानों के अनुसार चन्द्रावती नगरी लंका के समान वैभवशाली थी। चन्द्रावती के आस-पास के खण्डहरों को देखकर डॉ. भण्डारकर ने यहाँ कम से कम 360 जैन मंदिरों के अस्तित्व की सम्भावना व्यक्त की है।
इतिहास: संवत 1503 में सोमधर्म रचित 'उपदेश सप्तसति' ग्रंथ में चन्द्रावती के 444 जैन मंदिर तथा 999 शेष मंदिरों का उल्लेख है। परमार शासकों की राजधानी में यशोधवल एवं धारावर्ष प्रतापी राजा हुए हैं, जिनकी कीर्ति दूर-दूर तक फैली हुई थी। 1303 ई. तक यहाँ परमार शासकों का शासन रहा था। 1311 ई. में राव लूमा ने इस पर अधिकार कर परमार शासन परम्परा को खत्म कर दिया। दिल्ली-गुजरात के मुख्य मार्ग पर स्थित होने के कारण यह समृद्धशाली नगरी मुस्लिम आक्रांताओं द्वारा अनेकों बार लूटी गई। गुजरात के सुल्तान बहादुरशाह (1405-1442ई.) ने चित्तौड़ की विजय से लौटते समय इस नगरी को आँखों से देखकर इसका चित्रण अपनी पुस्तक 'ट्रेवल्स इन वेस्टर्न इण्डिया' में किया है।
टॉड का वर्णन: टॉड के अनुसार यहाँ विभिन्न आकार-प्रकार वाली बीस इमारतें थीं। यहाँ पर मिली 138 मूर्तियों में 'त्रयम्बक' (तीन मुँह वाली आकृति) घुटने पर स्त्री बैठी हुई, बीस भुजाओं वाले शिव, जिनके बाईं ओर एक महिष है और दाहिना पैर उठाकर गरुड़ जैसी आकृति पर रखा हुआ है। एक महाकाल की बीस भुजाओं की प्रतिमा भी मिली है। टॉड ने मंदिर के भीतरी भाग और मध्य के गुम्बद की कलाकारी को बारीक एवं उच्च कोटि का बताया है।
पुरातत्त्व स्थल: यह ध्वस्त नगरी इतिहासकारों एवं पुरातत्त्वेत्ताओं के लिए रोचक एवं खोज के उपयुक्त स्थल के रूप में आज विद्यमान है। यहाँ के टीलों में अनेकों मूर्तियाँ अभी भी दबी पड़ी हैं। वर्तमान में ऐतिहासिक नगरी ध्वस्त क्षेत्र की तारबन्दी की हुई है। यहाँ खुले में सैकड़ों खण्डित प्रतिमाएँ, स्तम्भ, कलश, बेलबूटेदार, पत्थर, गुम्बद, ईटों के टुकड़े इत्यादि इन टीलों के पास बिखरे पड़े हैं। यहाँ के क़रीब 20 बड़े-बड़े टीलों को देखने पर लगता है कि यहाँ अनेक मंदिर विष्णु एवं शिव के रहे हैं। यहाँ पर अनेक खण्डित प्रतिमाएँ मिली है, जिसमें गणेश की खड़ी हुई प्रतिमा, ब्रह्मा प्रतिमा, देवी प्रतिमा, रणभैरी से सम्बन्धित पत्थर लेख, कुबेर की खण्डित प्रतिमा, जो अन्दर से खोखली है।
इस प्रकार की प्रतिमाएँ मदिंर में दान-भेट डालने के लिए रखी जाती थीं। काम-कला से सम्बन्धित कुछ खण्डित मूर्तियाँ भी ध्वस्त मंदिर के गर्भगृह के बाहर बारीकी से उत्कीर्ण हैं। ध्वस्त मंदिर के फाउंडेशन पर जानवरों, गन्धर्वों, अप्सराओं की मैथुन क्रियाओं आदि से सम्बन्धित कुछ मूर्तियाँ उत्कीर्ण हैं। इस ध्वस्त क्षेत्र के लिए ऐसा माना जाता है कि ब्रिटिश सरकार ने जब रेलमार्ग बिछाया था, तब यहाँ के उत्कीर्ण पत्थरों को पटरियों के नीचे बिछा दिया तथा अधिकांश मूर्तियों को तस्कर और चोर उठाकर ले गये। वर्तमान में चन्द्रावती के ध्वस्त टीलों में हमारी कला और संस्कृति की भावी सम्भावना नज़र आती है।
Deora Chauhans of Chandravati and Abu
- Reference - This section is mainly from "Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, pp. 196-202. It has been included here to complete the account of early Chauhan Dynasties.
Manavasimha - [Page-196] The founder of the Devada line was Manavasimha, the elder son of Samarasimha of Jalor [See page-166]. Udayasimha, as the abler of the two brothers succeeded to the throne, but Manavasimha appears to have been treated well and might have been assigned a small jagir by way of compensation.( See The Deora inscriptions at Achalesvar and Vimala-vasahi.)
Pratapamalla - His son, Pratapamalla, is described as 'respected in the assemblies of rulers"( Bhupala-sadassu manyah, verse 19 of the Vimal-vasahi inscription of V. I378.), probably because he served well either his uncle Udayasimha, who lived on up to V. 1316, or his son and successor, Chachigadeva, whose last date is about V. 1339.
According to the Sundha Inscription of V. 1319, Chachigadeva delighted himself in felling the trembling Patuka. This has been interpreted by Dr. D.R. Bhandarkar to mean that Chachigadeva defeated his cousin Pratapamalla. But considering the fact that the relations between the Deora and Sonigara lines were, as indicated by the inscriptions of the former, cordial enough, it would be as already pointed out (See above, p. 176.), better to, identify the "trembling Patuka" with the Paramara ruler, Pratapamalla of Chandravati and Abu during whose reign Chachigadeva's forces penetrated into the Abu territory up to Sundha and Sonepur. (See above, p. 177.)
Vijada (वीजड़) - Pratapamalla's son, Vijada, known also as Dashasyandana or Dasharatha, probably laid the foundations of the Deora kingdom of the Abu area, first by operating as a captain of Chachigadeva's forces and later on by making new conquests on his own account. In the Dilwara inscription of V. 1377, he is described as the lord of Marumandala. Shorn of its exaggeration,
[Page-197] the epithet indicates, we think, the assumption of an independent position by Vijad. From Tonkra village of the old Sirohi State we have an inscription of a certain Vijad, dated in the (Vikrama) year 1232. He must obviously be different from Vijad Deora, who came to the throne not earlier than V. 1340.
By his queen, Namalladevi, Vijada had four sons: Lavanyakarna, Lundha, Lakshmana and Lunavarman. (Verses 22-23 of the Achaleshvar Inscription of V. 1377) Of these Lavanyakarna succeeded his father.
Lavanyakarna - During the life time of Lavanyakarna, the Chauhans were passing through one of the worst periods of their political existence. In V. 1367, the armies of Alauddin Khalji captured the Chauhan strongholds of Siwana and Sanchor (See above pp. 185 and 194. ), Four years later, Jalor also passed into Muslim hands, in spite of the gallant resistance put up by Kanhadadeva and his feudatories.( See above p. 191) Thousands of Chauhans must have as a result of these reverses sought refuge with Lavanyakarna, his small principality being the only island of safety in the sea of troubles that seemed to be engulfing the Chauhans everywhere. As the Achaleshvara Inscription of V. 1377 states, "when the Asuras. i.e., the Muslims had destroyed the Kshatriyas, he devoted himself to the protection of his clansmen and their lands." (verse- 25 of the Achaleshvar inscription of V. 1377.)
And this influx of the Chauhans from elsewhere was not without some good effects as far as the Devadas were concerned. It made them numerically strong enough to expand further; and expansion was absolutely necessary, for the small principality of Lavanyakarna could hardly be expected to contain and support the daily swelling numbers of the Chauhan refugees, who, uprooted from their lands in Rajasthan, naturally
[Page-198] moved towards the fastnesses of the Adivalli hills and soon overwhelmed the Paramara principality of Chandravati and Abu, parts of which had been occupied by the Chauhans even as early as V. 1319. Pratapamalla Paramara ruled at Chandravati up to V. 1344. (See the Patnarayarya inscription of Pratapamalla.) For his successor, Vikramasimha, however, we have a solitary inscription at Barman in the old Sirohi State dated in V. 1356. So the Abu area might have been conquered by the Chauhans somewhere between this year and V. 1372, the year of Lumbha's Vimalvasahi inscriptions No. 1 and 2 ; and this period can be narrowed further by regarding the Chauhan influx that followed the reverses of V.1367-1371, as the main cause of Chauhan expansionist activities.
Nainsi (Nainsi’s, Khyat, Hindi translation. I. pp. 120-123. ) gives the following account of the Chauhan infiltration and conquest :
- "Formerly the Paramaras ruled at Abu. Rawal Kanhadadeva was then the ruler of Jalor. It was then that Devada Vijada's sons, Jaswant, Samara, Luna, Lumbha, Lakha, and Tejsi settled down near the Siranwa (सिरण्वा) hill, which is not far from Sirohi. They possessed no land. So they decided to capture Abu somehow. At that time a bard of the Paramaras came to them. They entertained him well, and he carried to the Paramara ruler of Abu the proposal that the Paramaras should marry the twenty-five daughters of the Chauhans. They agreed but desired one of the Chauhan brothers as a surety. Luna accompanied the bard in that capacity. He stayed with the Paramara chief and twenty-five Paramara bridegrooms set out to marry the Chauhan maidens with a small entourage. Twenty-five Chauhan youths disguised themselves as brides, and on receiving a set signal killed the twenty-five Paramara bridegrooms. The rest of the Paramaras, who were by that time under the influence of strong drinks, were easily done to death, and news was sent to Luna through a bard. As soon as he heard it, he told the Paramara chief that Abu belonged to the Chauhans and that he would kill him as his brothers
- [Page-199] had killed the other Paramaras. This led to a fight in which both of them died. In the meanwhile the Chauhans reached Abu and captured it."
In spite of its many inaccuracies; this account probably points to the following true facts :-
- 1. That the Chauhans conquered Abu from the Paramaras. No Chauhan inscription states this fact explicitly.
- 2. That the conquest probably took place at a period not very far removed from Kanhadadeva's death in V. 1371.
- 3. That Devadas were at that time almost landless and it was absolutely necessary that they should conquer some territory and live on the income accruing from it.
- 4. That though Vijada's son Lavanyakarna died without conquering Abu, his had most probably been the master mind that conceived the plan. It is also likely that both valour and stratagem played a part in the conquest of Abu.
Lumbha - For Lavanyakarna's younger brother and successor, Lumbha. Lumbha was known also as Lundha, Luntiga, Luntagara, Luntigadeva, Luntakara and Luniga. Dr. F. Kielhorn and Dr. D.R. Bhandarkar are wrong in regarding Luniga as a name of Lavanyakarna, and Lumbha as a name of Lunavarman. The Achalesvara Inscription states that Abu and Chandravati were conquered by Lundha or Luntiga. The Dilwara Inscription has the same thing to say about Lumbha, proving thereby that Lumbha and Lundha were Identical. Still more specific is the assertion of the Dilwara inscription to the effect that Luniga was known as Lundha on account of destroying his enemies and as Lumbha by reason of watering the creeper of his fame with the tears of his enemies' wives.
We have the following inscriptions about Lumbha:-
- 1. Vimal Vasahi Inscription No. 1 :- This is almost gone. Its date is the second day of the bright half of Jyeshtha, V. Samvat 1372. For the spiritual welfare of his parents, Vijada and Namalladevi, he passed on to the temple all the corn, clothes and money that he received from the shrines of Adinatha and Neminatha.
- 2. Vimal Vasahi Inscription No. 2:- This inscription also is in good condition. It is dated the 8th day of the dark half of V. Samvat 1372. It states that in the victorious reign of Lundhaka, Selahatha Lunamaka decided from that very day not to have any corn, money, cloth etc. from the gods Adiinatha and Neminatha.
- 3. Vimal Vasahi Inscription No.3 :- [Page-200] This record is dated, the 1st day of the dark half of Chaitra V. Samwat 1373, and records the decision of the gramikas of Dilvada not to have the tax of 24 drammas from the priests of Adinatha and Neminatha.
- 4. Achalesvara (Abu) Inscription :- Its verses 3-19 deal with the Chauhans of Nadol and Jalor from whom the Deoras of Abu were descended. Five verses have been devoted to the Deora line from Manavasimha to Lundha. The five verses that follow tell us of the repair of the sabhamandapa of Achalesvara by Lundha, the setting up the statues of himself and his queen in front of Achalesvara and the grant of the village, Hethumji, to the temple. The date of the inscription is the 8th day of the bright half of Vaisakha, V. Samwat 1377, in the victorious reign of Maharajakula Lundhagara.
These inscriptions give us a fairly good idea of the character and policy of Lumbha. He obviously was no mere conqueror. He knew also the princely art of winning the hearts of his newly conquered subjects and conciliating every section of society. Under the Paramaras, the Jains most probably had to pay a number of vexatious pilgrim taxes. By foregoing them he won over the extremely influential Jain community to his side. He spent also money on the temple of Achalesvara, being most probably a Saiva by religious conviction. He could thus claim, if he desired, to be a defender of the two great religions of India, then reeling under the terrible blows dealt by Aluddin Khalji. He may have been famous also for his justice, for this alone justifies his being called "the spring season to that mountain called the way of justice." (न्ययमार्ग-शिखरि-मधुमास)
Tejasimha - For Lumbha's successor, Tejasimha, we have three inscriptions. Of these the first, dated in V. 1378, shows that Tejasimha had been associated with his father's administrative
[Page-201] work along with his brother Tihunaka. The third inscription dated in V. 1393 gives his last date. Like Lumbha, Tejasirmha may have been a Saiva. But he made over to the temple of Vasishtha the three villages of Jhabatu, Jyaluli and Tejalapura, (EI, IX, p. 82. ) and thus probably won over for his dynasty the support of not only the jainas and Saivas but also the Vaishnavas.
Kanhadadeva - Tejasimha was succeeded by Kanhadadeva either late in V. 1393 or V. 1394. We have at the Vasishtha temple, Abu, an inscription of his reign, dated in V. 1394, recording the grant of the village Viravada by the Deora Tihunka. The second inscription is on the statue of Kanhadadeva in the Achalesvara temple and is dated in (Vikrama) Samwat 1400. Kanhadadeva was thus probably a Saiva, though he may have patronised other sects also.
Samantasimha - Samantasimha may have been the next ruler. From the Vasishtha temple inscription we learn that he granted the villages of Luhuli, Chhapuli and Kiranathala to the Vasishtha temple. Tradition, as recorded by Forbes, makes him Samantasimha's successor, though he is mentioned neither by Nainsi nor the Badavas of Sirohi.
Ranamalla - Samantasimha was succeeded by Ranamalla.
Sahasramalla - The reign of Sivabhana's successor, Sahasramalla or Saisamala, saw many ups and downs. His energetic policy led to the extension of the Deora dominions in the western direction, and like a true vijigishu, he went on from the annexation of one small territory to the other. But very soon he had to contend with rulers, equally able and ambitious and with much greater resources. Gujarat, Malwa and Mewar were at the time the three great states contending for supremacy in Western and
[Page-202] Central India, and the Deoras, even if they wished, could not have remained out of the orbit of their ambition. At some time before V. 1509, Maharana Kumbha of Mewar made himself master of Abu, and Chandravati also became so indefensible that Sahasmal transferred his capital to Sirohi, which he founded on the 2nd day of the bright half of Vaisakha, V. 1482 (1425 A.D.). Thus towards the end of the fifteenth century of the Vikrama era, the Deora kingdom of Chandravati and Abu became transformed into the kingdom of Sirohi and the Deoras continued to rule there up to the time their State was amalgamated in Rajasthan.
Recent excavations at Chandrawati
1000-year-old settlement unearthed at Chandravati - An archaeological excavation team has exposed the complete plan of settlement in one of the ancient forts at Chandravati in Sirohi district. The ancient settlement is believed to be of Parmars of Abu branch spread in about 50 hectares. The second season of excavation that commenced from January 12, spearheaded by Prof J S Kharakwal of JRN Rajasthan Vidyapeeth, Udaipur would continue until the last week of February. The project is a joint venture of the Archaeological department and Rajasthan Vidyapeeth University, Udaipur.
Intensive exploration unit of the research team has spotted craft area of the township along the Sevarni, the southern fringe of the settlement. It is likely that out of three dozen temples a few may belong to craft folks. The exploration unit has also discovered a few watch towers located to the east and south east of the settlement. Line drawing of the temples, craft area, and other complexes is also underway.
Another fort of Parmar dynasty found at Chandrawati: An archaeological excavation team at Chandrawati has discovered another fort here in the outskirts of Abu Road. This fort is much bigger than the previous one and is protected on the east by a hillock which was found to be a watch tower.
At the entrance of the fort was found an inscription from the 12th century with depiction of a cow and a calf, perhaps denoting donation. The epigraphic evidences housed in Mt Abu museum and other places reveal that Chandravati was the capital township of Parmar kings of Abu branch. Therefore, it is likely that this fort may belong to the Parmar kings.
- Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, pp. 624-25
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.11
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.319
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.319
- भारतकोश-चन्द्रावती नगरी
- भारतकोश-चन्द्रावती नगरी
- भारतकोश-चन्द्रावती नगरी
- भारतकोश-चन्द्रावती नगरी
- भारतकोश-चन्द्रावती नगरी
- Times of India Jaipur, Dated 7.2.2015
- http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/c...w/46439890.cms Article by Geetha Sunil Pillai in Times of India 3 March 2015