|Author: Laxman Burdak IFS (R)|
- 1 Location
- 2 Variants
- 3 Original Name and the Founders
- 4 Aburu village
- 5 Villages in Abu Road tahsil
- 6 History
- 7 Origin of agnikula clans of Rajputs
- 8 Abu Vashishtha temple Inscription of 1337 AD (1280 AD)
- 9 अर्बुद
- 10 आबू
- 11 प्रमार जाट:ठाकुर देशराज
- 12 Mount Abu Vimala Temple Inscription of v.s. 1378 (1322 AD)
- 13 Abu Luna Vashi (Teja Pala) temple Inscription of s.v. 1287 (1230 AD)
- 14 लूणवशी (अबू-देलवाडा) प्रशस्ति (1230 ई.)
- 15 Monuments
- 16 Jat clans
- 17 In Mahabharata
- 18 See also
- 19 References
It is located in Sirohi district. Mount Abu is 58 km from Palanpur (Gujarat). The mountain forms a distinct rocky plateau 22 km long by 9 km wide. The highest peak on the mountain is Guru Shikhar, at 1722 meters above sea level. It is referred to as 'an oasis in the desert', as its heights are home to rivers, lakes, waterfalls and evergreen forests.
- Abu (आबू) दे. Arbuda (अर्बुद) (AS, p.64)
- Arbuda (अर्बुद) = Abu (आबू) (राज.) (p.40)
- Arbuda Parvata (अर्बुद पर्वत)
- Abu Parvata/Abuparvata (आबू पर्वत)
- Arbudagiri (अर्बुद-गिरि)
- Arbudanchal/Arbudanchala (अर्बुदांचल)
- Nandivardhana (नंदिवर्धन)
- Mount Abu
- Arbuda Mountains
Original Name and the Founders
- अबुरु (जाट गोत्र - अबू) : अबुरु नाम का गाँव झारखंड के पश्चिमी सिंहभूम जिले की खूंटपानी विकास-खंड में है।
Villages in Abu Road tahsil
Abu Road (M), Achalgarh, Akra Bhatta, Amba, Ambaweri, Amthala, Andaliya, Arna, Awal, Bageri, Bahadurpura, Bhaisasingh, Bhamriya, Block No.1, Bori Booj, Bosa, Buja, Chanar, Chandela, Chandrawati, Chotila, Danvav, Deldar, Deri, Derna, Dovtra, Duna Kakar, Fatehpura, Forest Chotila, Ganka, Girwar, Jamboori, Jawai, Jaydara, Karoli, Khadat, Khara, Kiwarli, Kui, Kyara, Kyari, Kyariya, Mahi Khera, Manpur (Rural), Maval, Meen, Meergarh, Morthala, Mount Abu (M), Mudrala, Mungthala, Nichla Khejra, Nichlagarh, Nichli Bor, Or, Oriya, Paba, Pandoori, Rada, Ranora, Redwa Kalan, Redwa Khurd, Sakoda, Salgaon, Sangna, Santpur (Rural), Shergaon, Siyawa, Soorpagla, Taleti, Talwaron Ka Naka, Tankiya, Tartoli (Rural), Toonka, Umarni, Upla Khejra, Uplagarh, Uplibor, Utraj, Wasda,
Arbuda Mountains is a mountain range described in the epic Mahabharata. It is identified to be the Mount Abu in southern Rajasthan, India. This mountain is mentioned in the travels of Arjuna during his twelve-year pilgrimage
In the Puranas, the region has been referred to as Arbudaranya, ("forest of Arbhu") and 'Abu' is a dimunitive of this ancient name. It is believed that sage Vasishtha retired to the southern spur at Mount Abu following his differences with sage Vishvamitra.
Dasharatha Sharma writes....[p.123]: Hammira was the last and most famous of the Chauhans of Ranthambhor. Hammira had ascended the throne in V.1339. Not very long after this, he started, according to the Hammiramahakavya, on a digvijaya or conquest of all the quarters. He first defeated Ajuna, the ruler of Bhamarasa, and then exacted tribute from the fort of Mandalakrita (मण्डलकृत) or Mandalgarh. Striking southwards from here, he reached Ujjayini and Dhara and defeated the Paramara ruler Bhoja. From here he turned northwards, and reached home passing through Chittor, Abu, Vardhanapura (वर्धनपुर) (Badnore), Changa (चंगा) (fortress of the mers still retains old name), Pushkar, Maharashtra (Marot), Sakambhari, Khandilla (खंडिल्ल) (Khandela), Champa (चम्पा) (Chaksu), and Karkarala (कर्कराला) (Karkaralagiri of the Balvan Inscription == Karauli), at the last of which places he received the homage of the ruler of Tribhuvanagiri (Tahangarh).
[p.124]: after came a Koti-yajna which was very much like the asvamedha of Samudragupta. It was under the direction of his purohita Vishvarupa. This digvijaya, or rather a number of raids from time to time magnified into one systematic digvijaya (Balvan Inscription, EI, XIX, pp.49 ff) by Nayachandra, took place before V. 1345 (c. 1288 A.D.). The Balvan inscription of the year mentions the performance of not only one but two Kotiyagna by Hammira and describes the capture of the elephant force of Arjuna, the ruler of Malwa, a kingdom the condition of which was indeed bad enough to invite interference from all sides.
Origin of agnikula clans of Rajputs
The agnikul clans of Rajputs are mentioned by Chand Bardai, the court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan, in his book 'Prithviraj Raso'. According to him, when Parshurama had destroyed the Kshatriyas and there was no one left to protect the Brahmins, they assembled and performed a yajna on Mount Abu.
They kindled the sacred fire and prayed to God to produce a brave class to protect them. In response to their prayers, four great heroes sprang from this sacred fire. These founded the four great Rajput families - Parmaras, Pratiharas, Chalukyas and Chauhans. James Tod in his annals has explained the Agnikula theory to be the acceptance of warrior groups coming from Central India into the Kshatriyas.
Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria) considers the incidence of creation of new Kshatriya class Rajput as a result of differences between Brahmans and the old Kshatriya class Jats. The Brahman, by virtue of his ladle and learning and the Jat, by dint of his sword and sceptre, rivalled each other for supremacy. The former never desisted from devising exploitative pia fraus afresh (cf. Maharishi Dayanand, Satyarthaprakasha, Ch. XI - "Jatji and Popeji" later was never tired of tearing them to shreds. The long drawn out struggle resulted in the victory of the "pen and pothi of the Pandit" over the sickle and sword of the Jat in the medieval age when a new class of hereditary rulers, who entirely surrendered to the benedictions of the priest, was baptised at Mount Abu at the cost of the Jats. Both of them had no love lost for the Jats and no faith in their values.
Abu Vashishtha temple Inscription of 1337 AD (1280 AD)
आबू के वशिष्ठ मन्दिर की प्रशस्ति १३३७ ई.
यह प्रशस्ति आबू के वशिष्ठ के मन्दिर में लगी हुई है जिसक समय सम्वत १३९४ वैशाख सुदि १० गुरुवार है. इसमें वशिष्ठ आश्रम और मुनि के प्रभाव का वर्णन है. इस मन्दिर के लिये दिये गये गांवों के अनुदानों का वर्णन है जिनको चौहान तेजसिंह, देवड़ा श्री तिहुण, कान्हडदेव तथा चौहान सामन्तसिंह ने दिये थे. ये गांव झांबटु, ज्यालुलि, तेजलपुर, सीहलुण, वीरवाड़ा, लुहुलि, छापुलि, और किरणथलु थे. यहां कान्हडदेव के अधिकार क्षेत्र को राष्ट्र की संज्ञा दी है. चौहान वंश को जाति की संज्ञा दी गयी है. इसकी अन्तिम पंक्तियों क कुछ अंश इस प्रकर है -
- "देवड़ा श्री तिहुणाकेन स्वहस्तेन सीहलू ग्रामं दत्त तथा राजश्री कन्हडदेवेन स्वहस्तेन वीरवाड़ा ग्रामं दत्तं तथा चहुमान जातीय श्री सामन्तसिहेन लुहुलि छापुलि किरणयलुग्रामत्रयं दत्तं"
अर्बुद=आबू (राजस्थान) (AS, p.40): विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ... महाभारत में, अर्बुद पर्वत की गणना तीर्थस्थलों में की गई है। अर्बुद निवासियों का उल्लेख विष्णुपुराण (विष्णुपुराण 2,13,16) में है- 'पुंड्राः कलिगमागधा दक्षिणाद्याश्च सर्वशः तथापरांताः सौराष्ट्राः शूराभीरास्तथार्बुदाः'। चंदबरदाई लिखित पृथ्वीराजरासो में वर्णित है कि अग्निकुल के चार राजपूत वंश- पवार, परिहार, चौहान, और चालुक्य आबू पहाड पर किये गये एक यज्ञ द्वारा उत्पन्न हुए थे। क्रूक (crook) के मत में यह यज्ञ विदेशी जातियों को क्षत्रिय वर्ण में सम्मिलित करने के लिये किया गया होगा।
आबू=अर्बुद (राजस्थान) (AS, p.64): विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ... [p.64]: जैन वास्तु कला के सर्वोत्कृष्ट उदाहरण स्वरूप दो प्रसिद्ध संगमरमर के बने मंदिर जो दिलवाड़ा या देवलवाड़ा मंदिर कहलाते हैं इस पर्वतीय नगर के जगत प्रसिद्ध स्मारक हैं. विमलसाह के मंदिर को एक अभिलेख के अनुसार राजा भीमदेव प्रथम के मंत्री विमलसाह ने बनवाया था. इस मंदिर पर 18 करोड रुपए व्यय हुआ था. कहा जाता है कि विमलसाह ने पहले कुंभेरिया में पार्श्वनाथ के 360 मंदिर बनवाए थे किंतु उनकी इष्ट देवी अंबाजी ने किसी [p.65]: बात पर रुष्ट होकर पांच मंदिरों को छोड़ अवशिष्ट सारे मंदिर नष्ट कर दिए और स्वप्न में उन्हें दिलवाड़ा में आदिनाथ का मंदिर बनाने का आदेश दिया. किंतु आबू पर्वत के परमार नरेश ने विमलसाह को मंदिर के लिए भूमि देना तभी स्वीकार किया जब उन्होंने संपूर्ण भूमि को रजतखंडों से ढक दिया. इस प्रकार छप्पन लाख रुपए में यह जमीन खरीदी गई थी. इस मंदिर में आदिनाथ की मूर्ति की आँखें असली हीरक की बनी हुई हैं और उसके गले में बहुमूल्य रत्नों का हार है. इस मंदिर का प्रवेश द्वार गुंबद वाले मंडप से होकर है जिसके सामने एक वर्ग आकृति भवन है. इसमें 6 स्तंभ और 10 हाथियों की प्रतिमाएं हैं. इसके पीछे मध्य में मुख्य पूजागृह है जिसमें एक प्रकोष्ठ में ध्यानमुद्रा में अवस्थित जिन की मूर्ति है. इस प्रकोष्ठ की छत शिखर रूप में बनी है यद्यपि ऊँची नहीं है. इसके साथ एक दूसरा प्रकोष्ट बना है जिसके आगे एक मंडप स्थित है. इस मंडप के गुंबद के आठ स्तंभ है. संपूर्ण मंदिर एक प्रांगण के अंदर घिरा हुआ है जिसकी लंबाई 128 फुट और चौड़ाई 75 फुट है. इसके चतुर्दिक् छोटे स्तंभों की दुहरी पंक्तियां हैं जिनसे प्रांगण की लगभग 52 कोठरियों के आगे बरामदा-सा बन जाता है. बाहर से मंदिर नितांत सामान्य दिखाई देता है और इससे भीतर के अद्भुत कला वैभव का तनिक भी आभास नहीं होता. किनती श्वेत संगमरमर के गुंबद का भीतरी भाग, दीवारें, छतें तथा स्तंभ अपनी महीन नक्काशी और अभूतपूर्व मूर्तिकारी के लिए संसार प्रसिद्ध है. इस मूर्तिकारी में तरह-तरह के फूल-पत्ते, पशु-पक्षी तथा मानवों की आकृतियां इतनी बारीकी से चित्रित हैं मानो यहां के शिल्पियों की छैनी के सामने कठोर संगमरमर मोम बन गया हो. पत्थर की शिल्पकला का इतना महान वैभव भारत में अन्यत्र नहीं है.
दूसरा मंदिर जो तेजपाल का कहलाता है, निकट ही है और पहले की अपेक्षा प्रत्येक बात में अधिक भव्य और शानदार दिखाई देता है. इसी शैली में बने तीन अन्य जैन मंदिर भी यहाँ आस-पास ही हैं. किंवदंती है कि वशिष्ठ का आश्रम देवलवाड़ा के निकट ही स्थित था. अर्बुदा-देवी का मंदिर यहीं पहाड़ के ऊपर है.
जैन ग्रंथ विविधतीर्थकल्प के अनुसार आबूपर्वत की तलहटी में अर्बुद नामक नाग का निवास था, इसी के कारण यह पहाड़ आबू कहलाया. इसका पुराना नाम नंदिवर्धन था. पहाड़ के पास मंदाकिनी नदी बहती है और श्रीमाता अचलेश्वर और वशिष्ठ आश्रम तीर्थ हैं. अर्बुद-गिरि पर परमार नरेशों ने राज्य किया था जिनकी राजधानी चंद्रावती में थी. इस जैन ग्रंथ के अनुसार विमल नामक सेनापति ने ऋषभदेव की पीतल की मूर्ति सहित यहां एक चैत्य [p.66]: बनवाया था और 1088 विक्रम संवत में उसने विमल-वसति नामक एक मंदिर बनवाया. 1288 विक्रम संवत में राजा के मुख्यमंत्री ने नेमि का मंदिर लूणिगवसति बनवाया. 1243 विक्रम संवत में चंडसिंह के पुत्र पीठपद और महतसिंह के पुत्र लल्ल ने तेजपाल द्वारा निर्मित मंदिर का जीर्णोद्धार करवाया. इसी मूर्ति के लिए चालुक्यवंशी कुमारपाल भूपति ने श्रीवीर का मंदिर बनवाया था. अर्बुद का उल्लेख एक अन्य जैन ग्रंथ तीर्थमाला चैत्यवंदन में भी मिलता है-- 'कोडीनारकमंत्रिदहाड़पुरेश्रीमंडपे चार्बुदे'.
प्रमार जाट:ठाकुर देशराज
Mount Abu Vimala Temple Inscription of v.s. 1378 (1322 AD)
Source of this section is Epigraphia Indica Vol. IX
|Mount Abu Vimala Temple Inscription of v.s. 1378 (1322 AD) |
In 1828 H. H. Wilson, in As. Res. Vol. XVI. p. 284 ff., published an account of the inscriptions on the mountain Arbuda, the modern Mount Abu in the Sirohi State of Rajasthan, from copies presented to the Asiatic Society of Bengal by Captain Speirs, Political Agent at Sirohi. In that account Prof. Wilson gave full translations of one of the two large inscriptions at the temple of Neminatha, the texts of which were first published in 1883 by Mr. A. V. Kathavate.
The number of the inscriptions the total number, 148 are from the temple of Rishabha (idinatha) which was founded by Vimala ; 97 from the temple of Neminatha, founded by Tejahpala, 30 from the temple of Achalesvara, and 13 from other localities. Of the Vimala temple inscriptions 126 are dated, the earliest date being of the [Vikrama] year 1119 (about A.D. 1062), in a short inscription (No. 1780 of Mr. Cousens' list) of a minister of the Chalukya Bhimadeva I and the latest (No. 1874) of the [Vikrama] year 1785 (about A.D. 1728) ; between the two, the-years which most frequently occur are the Vikrama years 1245 (22 times) and 1378 (25 times). Of the inscriptions at Tejahpala's temple 77 are dated, and here the earliest dates are of the Vikrama year 1287 (about A.D. 1230), the very year in which the temple was founded, while the latest date (in No. 1748) is one of the [Vikrama] year 1911 (about A.D. 1854) ; no less than 47 inscriptions are dated between the Vikrama years 1287 and 1297, and 9 between 1346 and 1389. Of the 30 inscriptions at the temple' of Achalesvara 22 are dated. Here the earliest inscription appears to be one (No. 1950), unfortunately almost entirely effaced, of the [Vikrama] year 1186 (about A.D. 1129), and another (No. 1941) seems to contain a date in the [Vikrama] year 1191.
No. 1951 of Mr. Cousens' List is dated in the [Vikrama] year 1207 (about A.D. 1150), in the reign of the Paramara Mahamandalesvara Yasodhavaladeva (a feudatory of the Chalukya Kumarapala, an inscription of whom is dated in the same year). Two other inscriptions (Nos. 1945 and 1946) are dated in the [Vikrama] years 122 and 122, the rest in 1377 and later years. Regarding the 13 remaining inscriptions, it will suffice to say that the Guhila inscription mentioned above (No. 1953 of the List) is dated in the [Vikrama] year 1342, and that the dates which occur in others are of later years.
Of the inscriptions at the temple of Neminatha, the two largest and most important, together -with 30 shorter ones, have been edited from Mr. Cousens' materials by Prof. Luders, above, Vol. VIII. p. 200 ff. We give the text of an inscription, of the [Vikrama] year 1378, which, is at the temple of Rishabha, and the chief point of interest in which is the statement that that temple was founded in the Vikrama year 1088 (about A.D. 1031) by a certain Vimala, who had been appointed Dandapati at Arbuda by [the Chalukya] Bhimadeva [I.].
The date here given for the foundation of the temple is known to us also from other sources. In Ind. Ant. Vol. XI. p. 243, the late Dr. Klatt gave an extract from a Pattavali of the Kharatara-gachchha, according to which ' the minister Vimala, who belonged to the Poravāḍa (Prāgvāṭa) family, and who broke the parasols of thirteen Sultans and established the town of Chandravati, caused a temple of Rishabhadeva to be built on the mountain Arbuda a temple which even now is known by the name Vimala-vasahi, and which, it is added, was consecrated by Vardhamana-suri in the year 1088.
The same story, with the same date, is more fully given in the extracts in Prof. Weber's Catalogue of the Berlin MSS., Vol. II. pp. 1036 and 1037, where we are moreover told that, to obtain from the Brahmans the ground on which he intended to build the temple, Vimala had to cover it with gold coins, and that he expended 18 crores and 53 lacs (185,300,000) in the building of the temple. And the date also occurs in an interesting extract from Jinaprabhasuri's Tirthakalpa, in Prof. Peterson's Fourth Report, p. 92 f . There, again, the Vikrama year 1088 is given for the foundation of the Vimala-vasati, and 1288 for that of the Luniga-vasati? and it is also stated that, when the two temples had been 'demolished or damaged (bagna) by the Mlechchhas, they were repaired in the Saka year 1243 (i.e. the Vikrama year 1378), the first by Lalla, the son of Mahaṇasimha, and the other by Pithaḍa, the son of the merchant Chanḍasimha. We shall see below that our inscription actually records the restoration, in 1378, of Vimala's temple by Lalla (Laliga), the son of Mahaṇasimha, and Vijaḍa, the son of Dhanasimha ; and the name of the person who repaired Tejahpala (the Lūṇiya-vasati) is given as Pethada in an inscription at that temple, the full text of which is :
- L. 1 Om || A-chamdrarkram namdatād=esha samghā-| dhisaḥ srimā-
- L. 2 n Pethaḍāḥ samgha-yuktaḥ | jirnnoddhāram Vastupāla-
- L. 3 sya chaitya | tene yen=eha-arbudādrau sva-sāraiḥ ||
The inscription with which we are more immediately concerned here (No. 1790) of Mr.Consent List) is on a black built into the side wall of a shrine in the corridor of Vimala's temple.
The object of the inscription is, to record that in the [Vikrama] year 1378 two persona, Lalla (Laliga) and Vijada, for the spiritual welfare of their parents repaired the temple of Rishabha (Adinatha) on the mountain Arbuda. And the inscription is divided into three parts.
First part (verses 1-13)
- The first part (verses 1-13) is a prasasti or eulogy of the sacred Arbuda ; but besides glorifying that locality and some mythical or divine beings (Ambika and Srimata) residing there, it also gives a few historical details connected with it, and especially records the foundation, in the Vikrama year 1088, of the temple of Adinatha by Vimala.
- The second part (v. 14-23) contains a rājāvali of the chiefs who at the time of the restoration of the temple were in possession of the mountain. And
- The third part (vv. 24-38) gives an account of the family of the men by -whom, the temple was repaired.
- The concluding verses (39-42) record the name and spiritual lineage of the priest or teacher who consecrated the restored building and the exact date when he did so.
The first part begins with, the well-known story how on the mountain Arbuda there sprang from the fire-pit (anala-kunda, agni-kunga) of the sage Vasishtha the hero Paramara. In his lineage appeared the hero Kānhaḍadeva ; and in his family there was a chief named Dhandhu (Dhandhuraja), who was lord of the town of Chandrāvati and who, averse from rendering homage to the Chaulukya king Bhimadva I and to escape that king's anger, took refuge with king Bhoja, the lord of Dhārā. The author then, rather abruptly, tells us that in the Prāgvaṭa family there was a distinguished personage named Vimala in whom religion, immersed in darkness through the wickedness of the times, suddenly shone forth again in its splendour. He was appointed by king Bhima dandapati (commander of the forces or governor) at Arbuda, and there one night was enjoined by the divine Ambika to build on the mountain a beautiful dwelling for the Yugadibhartri (Yugadi-jina, Adinatha). That Vimala obeyed the request the author intimates in the verse :
- "I adore the holy Adinatha who was placed on the top of Arbuda by the glorious Vimala, -when one thousand and eighty-eight years had passed since (the time of) the glorious king Vikramaditya."
The chief Dhandhu or Dhandhuraja, spoken of in the preceding paragraph, apparently is the Prarara (or Paramara) Dhandhuka mentioned above, whose son Purnapala ruled the Arbuda territory in the Vikrama years 1099 and 1102. He would of course have been a contemporary of both the Chalukya Bhimadeva I and the Paramara Bhojadeva of Malava.
Vimala's name occurs in another inscription at his own temple, dated in the Vikrama year 1201. That inscription, No. 1767 of Mr. Cousens' List, contains 10 lines of siting which covers a space about 2' 6" long by 5-1/2" high, and contains 17 verses. In the ink-impression the first two lines of it cannot be read with any confidence, but a man is spoken of in them, who belonged to the Srimala kula and was an ornament of the Prāgvāṭa vamsa. His son was Lahadha, who was somehow connected with the king Mula (i.e. the Chaulukya Mularaja I.) and was also known by the name Vira-mahattama. Lahadha had two sons. The first of them, was the minister Neḍha, and the second Vimala, who in verse 7 is described thus :
- Dvitiyako=dvaitamatāvalamvi(bi) damdādhipaḥ sri-Vimalo va(ba)bhuva ।
- yen=edam=uchchair=bhavasimdhusetukalpam vinirmmapitam=atra veśma ||
Nedha's son was Laliga ; his son was the minister Mahiduka ; and he again had two sons, Hema and Dasaratha. And the object of the inscription, is, to record that Dasaratha at the temple of Rishabha set up an image of Neemijinesa (Nemitirthankara, i.e. Neminatha), which was installed on Friday, the first tithi of Jyeshtha of the Vikrama year 1201, corresponding to Friday, - the 5th May A.D. 1144. The genealogy here given is for the greater part corroborated by another inscription at Vimala's temple, No. 1768 of Mr. COousens' List, the full text of which is :
- L. 1 Sri-Srimālakulodbhava-| Viramahamamtri-putra-[sa]nmamtri-। sri-
- L. 2 Neḍha-putra- Lāliga- tatsuta-Mahimduka- suten=edam ।| Nijapu-
- L. 3 trakalatra-samanvitena । sanmamtri-Dasarathen=edam | sri-Nemi-
- L. 4 natha-[b]imvam | mokshārtham kāritarh ramyam ||
For us the main point of interest is the date which the first of the two inscriptions furnishes for Dasaratha ; for that date, being of the Vikrama year 1201, shows that Vimala, the younger brother of Dasaratha's great-grandfather Nedha, may well have lived in the Vikrama year 1088, the traditional date for the foundation of his temple.
Second part (verses 14-23)
The second part of our inscription (verses 14-23) give us Rājāvali of the kings. The verse 14 commences with Āsaraja, who belonged to the Chāhuvama (Chāhuvāna, Chāhamāna) family and was king of the town of Nadula (Naddul), After him came Samarasimha ; and his son was Mahanasimhabhaṭa (v. 15). Then comes Pratapamalla ; and to him was born Vijaḍa, the lord of the Marusthallimandala (v. 16). He had three sons, the first of whom was the king Lūṇiga (v. 17). Verse 18 then eulogizes Luṇdha who like a god of death devoured the host of adversaries ; ' and verse 19 Lumbha, of whom verse 20 records that he conquered the mountain Arbuda, and that, after having ruled the earth, he became the lord of heaven (i.e. died). Verse 21 then eulogizes Tejasimha, the son of Luniga ; verse 22 wishes long life to Tihunaka ; and the mutilated verse 23 appears to say that Lumbhaka together with Tejasimha and Tihuna (srimal-Lumbhaka-nāmā saman-vitas=Tejasimha-Tihunābhyām) in right manner carried on the government of the mountain Arbuda.
Third part (verses 24-38)
Third part of our inscription (verses 24-38)' - At the time when this inscription was composed, in the Vikrama year 1378, Lumbha was dead, and the government of Abu mast have been actually carried on by Tejasimha. The account, which forms the third part of our inscription (verses 24-38), of the family of the two men (Lalla and Vijada) who restored the temple, contains little more than a list of names which may be seen from the following Table :-
- Desala (with wife Mai)
- Mohapa - Moha
- Gosala (with wife Gunadevi)
- Dhanasimha (with wife Dhāndhaladevi)
- Vijaḍa - Simhadhara - Samarsimha - Vijapala - Narapala - Viradhavala
- Bhima (with wife Hansalade)
- Mahaṇasimha (with wife Mayaṇallade)
- Lāliga (Lalla) - Siha (?) - Lopa (?)
There are at Vimala's temple several short inscriptions of members of this family, like-wise dated in the [Vikrama ] year 1378. And there is a longer inscription of the same family, No. 1791 o Mr. Cousens' List, which is dated, in words and figures, in the Vikrama year 1309. This inscription contains 25 lines of writing with 15 verses, and records the installation, by Anandasuri, of an image of Nemijna (Neminatha) at Vimala's vasahika. We learn from it that the family belonged to the Uke[sa] vamsa, and that its founder, Jelhaka, as he is there called, was an inhabitant of Madavyapura (Mandor). After Kuladhara it mentions five sons of his, but as the text is partly effaced, we can not give their names from the ink-impression at nay disposal.
The remaining verses (39-42) of our inscription record that Rishabha -was installed (or rather re-installed) on the mountain Arbuda by the guru or suri suri Gyanachadra, on a date i.e. the [ Vikrama] year 1378.
From all this there can be no doubt that, of the three kings who in our inscription are spoken of as having been awakened by Dharmasuri, one was a king Vigraharaja of Sakambhari (the capital of the Sapadalaksha country). This king is identical with Visaladeva-Vigraharaja, whose Delhi Siwalik pillar inscriptions are dated in the Vikrama year 1220 (in A.D. 1164), and that Dharmaghoshasuri himself is a person of that name who in a short Vimala temple inscription (No. 1906 of Mr. Cotisens List) is mentioned with a date in the [Vikrama] year 1226 (in A.D. 1170). Who the two other kings were is not known.
The date given in verse 42 is Monday, the ninth tithi of the dark half (siti) of Jyeshtha in the year made up of the vasus (8), the munis (7), the gunas (3) and the moon (1), i.e, the [Vikrama] year 1378. Here there is the difficulty that the word siti, which I have translated by ' the dark half,' might equally well denote ' the bright half ' ; and at first sight the latter interpretation might really seem to be preferable, because in line 30 of our text the date is repeated in the words 1379 Jesitha-sudi 9 Some. But against this it has to be said that in four independent inscriptions (Noa. 1771, 1821, 1829 and 1904 of Mr. Cousens' List) we have samvat (or sam) 1878 varse Jyeshtha-vadi 9 Soma-dine (or Some), which evidently is the same date as the one given in our inscription. And besides, for the bright half of Jyaishtha the date would be quite incorrect for 1378 (as a Chatradi current or expired, or Karttikadi expired year), whereas for the dark half of the purnimanta Jyaishtha of the expired Karttikadi Vikrama year 1378 it regularly corresponds to Monday, the 10th May A.D. 1322. For these reasons I regard my translation of the date to be correct and take Monday, the 10th May A.D. 1322 to be its proper equivalent ; and I consider the way in which the date has been repeated in line 30 (where ' 1379 ' under any circumstances would be suspicions) to be due to a mistake.
- Parmara - This inscription provides historical base for the creation of Parmars from the Agnikula. Verses 3-6 tell us that at the mountain Arbuda there sprang from the fire-pit (anala-kunda, agni-kunga) of the sage Vasishtha the hero Paramara. In his lineage appeared the hero Kānhaḍadeva ; and in his family there was a chief named Dhandhu (Dhandhuraja), who was lord of the town of Chandrāvati and who, averse from rendering homage to the Chalukya king Bhimadva I. and to escape that king's anger, took refuge with king Bhoja, the lord of Dhārā.
- The inscriptional facts and inclusion of many Jat clans in these documents leads us to believe the view of James Todd that Parmaras (Panwar) rulers of Arbud (Abu) were of Jat (vansha). 
- Dhamdhuraja - Dhamdhurajah has been mentioned in verse 5. The chief Dhandhu or Dhandhuraja, apparently is the Paramara Dhandhuka mentioned above, whose son Purnapala ruled the Arbuda territory in the Vikrama years 1099 (1042 AD) and 1102 (1045 AD). He would of course have been a contemporary of both the Chalukya Bhimadeva I. and the Paramara Bhojadeva of Malava.
- Lalla (लल्ल) - Lalla, the son of Mahaṇasimha, repaired Vimala-vasati temple in the Saka year 1243 (v.s. 1378), when the temple had been demolished by the Mlechchha.
- We find from our inscription actually records the restoration, in 1378, of Vimala's temple by Lalla (Laliga), the son of Mahaṇasimha, and Vijaḍa, the son of Dhanasimha ; and the name of the person who repaired Tejahpala (the Lūṇiya-vasati) is given as Pethada in an inscription
- Lumbha - Lumbha was the founder of the Chauhan Deora rule on Abu. We have information about him from Achaleshwar temple inscription of year 1377 V.E. (1320 AD). (See - Achalgarh). We have info about Lumba, a Lakra Chauhan Jat clan, found in Bagpat. We need to find inter-relations.
- Pethaḍa (पेथड़) - Pethaḍa, the son of Chanḍasimha, repaired Luniga-vasati temple in the Saka year 1243 (v.s. 1378), when the temple had been demolished by the Mlechchha.
- Tejapal - Neminatha temple at Mt abu was founded by Tejahpala. Of the inscriptions at Tejahpala's temple 77 are dated, and here the earliest dates are of the Vikrama year 1287 (about 1230 A.D.), the very year in which the temple was founded, while the latest date (in No. 1748) is one of the [Vikrama] year 1911 (about A.D. 1854). We need to research in this matter.
- Guhila - Guhila inscription mentioned above (No. 1953 of the List) is dated in the [Vikrama] year 1342. Guhilawat is a Jat clan.
- Rishabha - Rishabha temple was founded in the Vikrama year 1088 (about 1031 AD) by a certain Vimala, who had been appointed Dandapati at Arbuda by the Chalukya Bhimadeva I.
- Vimala - the minister Vimala, who belonged to the Poravāḍa (Prāgvāṭa) family, and who broke the parasols of thirteen Sultans and established the town of Chandravati, caused a temple of Rishabhadeva to be built on the mountain Arbuda a temple which even now is known by the name Vimala-vasahi, and which, it is added, was consecrated by Vardhamana-Suri in the year v.s. 1088 (about 1031 AD). We need to find more facts about this Vimal. His family is reported as Poravāḍa and we have Paur as a Jat Gotra.
- An another inscription of v.s. 1201 tells us that he belonged to the Srimala kula and was an ornament of the Prāgvāṭa vamsa. His son was Lahadha, who was somehow connected with the king Mula (i.e. the Chaulukya Mularaja I.) and was also known by the name Vira-mahattama. Lahadha had two sons. The first of them, was the minister Neḍha, and the second Vimala. Nedha's son was Laliga ; his son was the minister Mahiduka ; and he again had two sons, Hema and Dasaratha. And the object of the inscription, is, to record that Dasaratha at the temple of Rishabha set up an image of Neemijinesa (Nemitirthankara, i.e. Neminatha), which was installed on Friday, the first tithi of Jyeshtha of the Vikrama year 1201, corresponding to Friday, - the 5th May A.D. 1144.
- Ambika and Srimata - mythical or divine beings (Ambika and Srimata) residing there in Arbuda.
- Achalgarh - Achalgarh (अचलगढ़) is a fort situated eleven kilometers north of Mount Abu, a hill station in Rajasthan, India. The Parmaras of Malwa were originally from Achalgarh and Chandrawati. Around 810 AD Upendra or Krishnaraja left the place and established capital in Malwa. Reasons for leaving this area are mentioned in above note on Paramaras.
- Agnikula - The inscriptions at Abu and Achalgarh do not support the Agnikula theory of Rajputs. Dr. Dasharath Sharma considers origin of this theory not earlier than 10th century. He considers this a purely imaginary theory.
Abu Luna Vashi (Teja Pala) temple Inscription of s.v. 1287 (1230 AD)
Luna Vashi or the Teja Pala Temple is dedicated to the 22nd Tirthankara, Shri Nemi Nathji. It resembles the architectural plan of the Vimal Vashi temple although it was built 200 years after that temple. The two brothers, Vastu Pala and Tej Pala, both ministers of a local ruler, built this magnificent temple in 1230 AD. The temple is the among the last few monuments built in the Solanki style. The striking feature of the Tejapala temple is its dome which stands on 8 pillars. From this dome hangs a big ornamental pendant with elaborate carving. From the ceiling this pendant looks like a cluster of half open lotuses.
According to the local legend, the two brothers, before becoming minister, went on a pilgrimage with huge wealth, which they decided to bury it under a tree. While digging, they found more gold. Anupama Devi, wife of Teja Pala advised them to build temples at Satrunjaya and Girnar with their wealth. When they were ministers they heard about the holiness of Mount Abu and decided to build a temple there dedicated to Shri Neminath to commemorate their dead brother Luna.
Another major attraction in this temple is the principal cell known as Grabagriha, which when lighted reveals the massive idol of Neminath. There are 39 cells each of which contains one or more images. The ceiling in front of the cell is profusely ornamented. The relief in the porticos of the cell portrays important scenes from the life of Neminath. Another main attraction is the Hathishala or the elephant cell which features 10 beautiful marble elephants. These elephants are neatly polished and realistically modeled. Earlier these elephants carried the idols representing the family of Vastu Pala. Behind the elephants are the 10 slabs bearing a figure of male and female.
लूणवशी (अबू-देलवाडा) प्रशस्ति (1230 ई.)
लूणवशी (आबू-देलवाडा) प्रशस्ति (1230 ई.) के बारे में डॉ. गोपीनाथ शर्मा  लिखते हैं की यह प्रशस्ति पोरवाड़ ज्ञातीय शाह वस्तुपाल तेजपाल द्वारा बनवाए हुए आबू के देलवाड़ा गाँव के लूणवसही के मंदिर की संवत 1287 फाल्गुन बदि 3 रविवार की है. इसकी भाषा संस्कृत गद्य में लिखी है. इसमें आबू के परमार शासकों और वस्तुपाल तेजपाल के वंश का वर्णन है. इसमें उल्लेखित है की सोमसिंह के समय मंत्री वस्तुपाल के छोटे भाई तेजपाल ने आबू पर देलवाडा गाँव में लूणवसही नामक नेमिनाथ का मंदिर अपनी स्त्री अनुपमादेवी के श्रेय के लिए बनवाया. उसकी पूजा आदि के लिए सोमसिंह ने बारठ परगने का डबानी गाँव उक्त मंदिर को भेंट किया. इस मंदिर की प्रतिष्ठा विजयसेन सूरी ने की. इसमें कई गोष्ठिकाओं का उल्लेख है जो विभिन्न पर्वों पर मंदिर का प्रबंधन करती थी. गोष्ठिकाओं के सदस्यों की नामावली उस समय के श्रेष्ठी लोगों को जानने में सहायक है. इसमें दिए गए गाँवों के नाम उपयोगी हैं. इसे गाँवों में - सरउली, कासहृद्, हएडाउद्रा, मडाहटवा, साहिलवाडा, देउलवाडा, महुवा, आबुधा, उरार्सो, ऊतरछ, सिहर, साल, हेठउजी, आरवी, आदि विशेष उल्लेखनीय हैं. इसमें 12 गाँवों को धन्धलेश्वर्देवी की कोटड़ी कहा गया है. संभवतः कोटा और जयपुर राज्य में कोटड़ी में सामंतों के गाँव का विभाजन इसी प्रथा से सम्बंधित दोखता है.
- अर्बुदा-देवी का मंदिर - Arbuda Devi Temple: Mount Abu was originally called Arbudanchal, named after Arbuda Devi. The temple is at a higher altitude and can be reached by climbing up a flight of stairs. It takes us approximately 20 minutes to reach the shrine. This is a cave temple. One has to crouch through a very narrow hole to enter the sanctom Santorum that housed a gorgeous stone image in black decked with ornaments and silk. The goddess apparently is one of the forms of Shakti and is extremely revered among the locals.
- दिलवाड़ा या देवलवाड़ा मंदिर
- Jat gotras - In this inscription we get links to following Jat gotras or place names: The spelling variations in this chapter which differ from Jat clans are in bracket.
- Deg (Degā)
- Desali (Desala),
- Ghosalya (Gosala),
- Guhilawat (Guhila)
- Kulhari (Kuladhara),
- Lumba (Lumbha),
- Nodal (Nadula),
- Por (Poravāḍa),
Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 47 (II.47.26) mentions Kings who brought tributes to Yudhishthira: Arbuda (अर्बुद) Nagavanshi King is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.47.26)....."And the Sakas, Tukharas, Kankas, [Roma]]s and men with horns bringing with them as tribute numerous large elephants and ten thousand horses, and hundreds and hundreds of millions of gold waited at the gate, being refused permission to enter."
Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 80 mentions the merit attached to tirthas. Arbuda (अर्बुद) Mountain is mentioned in Mahabharata (III.80.74). ....One must then go, O virtuous chief of warriors, to Arbuda (अर्बुद) (III.80.74), the son of Himavat, where there was a hole through the earth in days of yore. There is the asylum of Vasistha, celebrated over the three worlds. Having resided for one night, one obtaineth the merit of the gift of a thousand kine.
- Encyclopedea of Archives (Ghos Memorial) Volume 11 page 733
- .Epic India, Or, India as Described in the Mahabharata and the Ramayana By Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya, p.299
- Encyclopedea of Archives (Ghos Memorial) Volume 11 page 733
- Dasharatha Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties", Ch. XI, pp. 123-124.
- The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Prologue, p.XVI
- डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा: 'राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्त्रोत', 1983, पृ.127
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.40
- टॉड रचित राजस्थान
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.64-66
- Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Utpatti Aur Gaurav Khand)/Shashtham Parichhed, p.127
- Epigraphia Indica Vol IX, pp.155-156
- No. 1743 of Mr. Cousens's List, " on plaster near shrine doorway of the principal temple in Vastupala temple.
- Encyclopedea of Archives (Ghos Memorial) Volume 11 page 733
- Dr. Dasharath Sharma:Early Chauhan dynasty
- 'राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्त्रोत' 1983 ,पृ. 102
- शकास तुखाराः कङ्काश च रॊमशाः शृङ्गिणॊ नराः महागमान दूरगमान गणितान अर्बुदं हयान (II.47.26)
- ततॊ गच्छेत धर्मज्ञ हिमवत्सुतम अर्बुदम, पृथिव्यां यत्र वै छिद्रं पूर्वम आसीद युधिष्ठिर (III.80.74)
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