Pallava

From Jatland Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Pallava (पल्लव) was a dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India. Pallavas became a major power during the reign of Mahendravarman I (571–630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I (630–668 CE) and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of the Tamil region for about 600 years until the end of the 9th century.

Jat clans

Pallav (पल्लव)[1] Pallavan (पल्लवान)[2] Palhav (पल्हव)[3] is gotra of Jats. They were rulers in Central Asia. [4] Pallav gotra is said to be originated from place named Pallava (पल्लव). [5]

In Mahavansa

Pallavabhogga is place mentioned mentioned in Mahavansa/Chapter 29, Mahadeva came from Pallavabhogga.

Mahavansa/Chapter 29 tells.... From various (foreign) countries also did many bhikkhus come hither; what need to speak of the coming of the brotherhood living here upon the island (Lanka).

  • With eighty thousand bhikkhus from the region of Rajagaha came the thera Indagutta, the head of a great school.
  • From Isipatana came the great thera Dhammasena with twelve thousand bhikkhus to the place of the cetiya. (Isipatana = Sarnath)
  • With sixty thousand bhikkhus came hither the great thera Piyadassi from the Jetarama-vihara.
  • From the Mahavana (monastery) in Vesali came the thera Urubuddharakkhita with eighteen thousand bhikkhus.
  • From the Ghositarama in Kosambi came the thera Urudbammarakkhita with thirty `thousand bhikkhus.
  • From the Dakkhinagiri in Ujjeni came the thera Urusamgharakkhita with forty thousand ascetics.
  • With a hundred and sixty thousand bhikkhus came the thera named Mittinna from the Asokarama in Pupphapura.
  • From the Kasmira country came the thera Utinna bringing with him two hundred and eighty thousand bhikkhus.
  • The wise Mahadeva came from Pallavabhogga with four hundred and sixty thousand bhikkhus, and
  • From Alasanda the city of the Yonas came the thera Yonamahadhammarakkhita with thirty thousand bhikkhus.
  • From his dwelling by the road through the Vinjha forest mountains, came the thera Uttara with sixty thousand bhikkhus.
  • The great thera Cittagutta came hither from the Bodhimanda-vihara with thirty thousand bhikkhus.
  • The great thera Candagutta came hither from the Vanavasa country with eighty thousand ascetics.
  • The great thera Suriyagutta came from the great Kelasa-vihara with ninety-six thousand bhikkhus.

In Mahabharata

Pallava (पल्लव) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.10.66)

Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Pallava (पल्लव) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.10.66).[6].....Then again there are the Shudra-Abhiras, the Daradas, the Kasmiras, and the Pashubhis; the Khashikas, the Tukharas, the Pallavas , the Girigavharas (VI.10.66)

History

Pallava dynasty

The Pallava dynasty was an Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India. They gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, whom the Pallavas served as feudatories.[7][8]

Pallavas became a major power during the reign of Mahendravarman I (571–630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I (630–668 CE) and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of the Tamil region for about 600 years until the end of the 9th century. Throughout their reign they were in constant conflict with both Chalukyas of Badami in the north and the Tamil kingdoms of Chola and Pandyas in the south. Pallavas were finally defeated by the Chola ruler Aditya I in the 9th century CE.[9]

Pallavas are most noted for their patronage of architecture, the finest example being the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Mamallapuram. Kancheepuram was capital of the Pallava kingdom. The Pallavas who left behind magnificent sculptures and temples, established the foundations of medieval South Indian architecture. They developed the Pallava script from which Grantha ultimately descended. The Pallava script gave rise to several other southeast Asian scripts. Chinese traveller Xuanzang visited Kanchipuram during Pallava rule and extolled their benign rule.

The origins of the Pallavas

The origins of the Pallavas have been debated by scholars.[10] The available historical materials include three copper-plate grants of Sivaskandavarman in the first quarter of the 4th century CE, all issued from Kanchipuram but found in various parts of Andhra Pradesh, and another inscription of Simhavarman half century earlier in the Palanadu area of the western Guntur district.[11][12]All the early documents are in Prakrit, and scholars find similarities in paleography and language with the Satavahanas and the Mauryas.[13] Their early coins are said to be similar to those of Satavahanas.[14]

Two main theories of the origins have emerged from this data: one that the Pallavas were former subsidiaries of Satavahanas in the Andhradesa (the region north of Penna River in modern Andhra Pradesh [15]) and later expanded south up to Kanchi, and the other that they initially rose to power in Kanchi and expanded north up to the Krishna river.

The proponents of the Andhra origin theory include S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar and K. A. Nilakanta Sastri. They believe that Pallavas were originally feudatories of the Satavahanas in the south-eastern part of their empire who became independent when the Satavahana power declined.[16] They are seen to be "strangers to the Tamil country", unrelated to the ancient lines of Cheras, Pandyas and Cholas. Since Simhavarman's grant bears no regal titles, they believe that he might have been a subsidiary to the Andhra Ikshvakus who were in power in Andhradesa at that time. In the following half-century, the Pallavas became independent and expanded up to Kanchi.[17][18]

Another theory is propounded by historians R. Sathianathaier[19] and D. C. Sircar,[20] with endorsements by Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund[21] and Burton Stein.[22] Sircar points out that the family legends of the Pallavas speak of an ancestor descending from Ashwatthama, the legendary Brahmin warrior of Mahabharata, and his union with a Naga princess. According Ptolemy, the Aruvanadu region between the northern and southern Penner rivers (Penna and Ponnaiyar[23][24]) was ruled by a king Basaronaga around 140 CE. By marrying into this Naga family, the Pallavas would have acquired control of the region near Kanchi.[25] While Sircar allows that Pallavas might have been provincial rulers under the later Satavahanas with a partial northern lineage, Sathianathaier sees them as natives of Tondaimandalam (the core region of Aruvanadu). He argues that they could well have adopted north Indian practices under the Mauryan Asoka's rule. He relates the name "Pallava" to Pulindas, whose heritage is borne by names such as "Pulinadu" and "Puliyurkottam" in the region.[26]

According to C. V. Vaidya, the Pallavas were Maharashtrian Aryans who spoke Maharashtri Prakrit for centuries and hence retained it even in the midst of surrounding Dravidian languages. They may even be said to have been 'Marathas' for their name was said to be still preserved in the Maratha family name of 'Pālave' (which is just Prakrit form of Pallava). And a further corroboration is that the gotra of the Pālave Maratha family is Bharadwaja, same as the one which Pallavas have attributed to themselves in their records.[27]

Overlaid on these theories is another hypothesis of Sathianathaier which claims that "Pallava" is a derivative of Pahlava (the Sanskrit term for Parthians). According to him, partial support for the theory can be derived from a crown shaped like an elephant's scalp depicted on some sculptures, which seems to resemble the crown of Demetrius I.[28]

Rivalries of Pallavas

Rivalries of Pallavas with Cholas

The Pallavas captured Kanchi from the Cholas as recorded in the Velurpalaiyam Plates, around the reign of the fifth king of the Pallava line Kumaravishnu I. Thereafter Kanchi figures in inscriptions as the capital of the Pallavas. The Cholas drove the Pallavas away from Kanchi in the mid-4th century, in the reign of Vishugopa, the tenth king of the Pallava line. The Pallavas re-captured Kanchi in the mid-6th century, possibly in the reign of Simhavishnu, the fourteenth king of the Pallava line, whom the Kasakudi plates state as "the lion of the earth". Thereafter the Pallavas held on to Kanchi until the 9th century, until the reign of their last king, Vijaya-Nripatungavarman.[29]

Rivalries of Pallavas with Kadambas

The Pallavas were in conflict with major kingdoms at various periods of time. A contest for political supremacy existed between the early Pallavas and theKadambas. Numerous Kadamba inscriptions provide details of Pallava-Kadamba hostilities.[30]

Kadamba dynasty's founder Mayurasharma first succeeded in establishing himself in the forests of Sriparvatam (possibly modern Srisailam in Andhra Pradesh) by defeating the Antharapalas (guards) of the Pallavas and subduing the Banas of Kolar in 345 CE. The Pallavas under Skandavarman were unable to contain Mayurasharma and recognised him as a sovereign in the regions from the Amara Ocean (Western Ocean) to Prehara (Malaprabha River). Some historians feel that Mayurasharma was initially appointed as a commander (Dandanayaka) in the army of the Pallavas, as the inscription uses such terms as Senani and calls Mayurasharma Shadanana (six-faced god of war). After a period of time, due to the confusion caused by the defeat of Pallava Vishnugopa by Samudragupta (Allahabad inscriptions), Mayurasharma formed his kingdom with Banavasi (near Talagunda) as his capital.[31]

Rivalries of Pallavas with Kalabhras

During the reign of Vishnugopavarman II (approx. 500–525), political convulsion engulfed the Pallavas due to the Kalabhra invasion of the Tamil country. Towards the close of the 6th century, the Pallava Simhavishnu stuck a blow against the Kalabhras. The Pandyas followed suit. Thereafter the Tamil country was divided between the Pallavas in the north with Kanchipuram as their capital, and Pandyas in the south with Madurai as their capital.[32]

Rivalries of Pallavas with Birudas

The royal custom of using a series of descriptive honorific titles, Birudas, was particularly prevalent among the Pallavas. The birudas of Mahendravarman I are in Sanskrit, Tamil and Telugu. The Telugu birudas show Mahendravarman's involvement with the Andhra region continued to be strong at the time he was creating his cave-temples in the Tamil region. The suffix "Malla" was used by the Pallava rulers.[33] Mahendravarman I used the biruda, Satrumalla, "a warrior who overthrows his enemies", and his grandson Paramesvara I was called Ekamalla "the sole warrior or wrestler". Pallava kings, presumably exalted ones, were known by the title Mahamalla ("great wrestler").[34]

Chronology of Pallava rulers

The earliest documentation on the Pallavas is the three copper-plate grants, now referred to as the Mayidavolu, Hirehadagali and the British Museum plates (Durga Prasad, 1988) belonging to Skandavarman I and written in Prakrit.[35] Skandavarman appears to have been the first great ruler of the early Pallavas, though there are references to other early Pallavas who were probably predecessors of Skandavarman.[36] Skandavarman extended his dominions from the Krishna River in the north to the Pennar River in the south and to the Bellary district in the West. He performed the Aswamedha and other Vedic sacrifices and bore the title of "Supreme King of Kings devoted to dharma".[37]

The Hirahadagali copper plate (Bellary District) record in Prakrit is dated in the 8th year of Sivaskanda Varman to 283 CE and confirms the gift made by his father who is described merely as "Bappa-deva" (revered father) or Boppa. It will thus be clear that this dynasty of the Prakrit charters beginning with "Bappa-deva" were the historical founders of the Pallava dominion in South India.[38][39]

The Hirahadagalli Plates were found in Hirehadagali, Bellary district and is one of the earliest copper plates in Karnataka and belongs to the reign of early Pallava ruler Shivaskanda Varma. Pallava King Sivaskandavarman of Kanchi of the early Pallavas ruled from 275 to 300 CE, and issued the charter in 283 CE in the 8th year of his reign.

Vijaya Skandavarman (Sivaskandavarman) was king of the Pallava kingdom at Bellary region in Andhra, and viceroy of Samudragupta at Kanchipuram. The writer of the grant was privy councillor Bhatti Sharman and was supposed to be valid for 100,000 years.

As per the Hirahadagalli Plates of 283 CE, Pallava King Sivaskandavarman granted an immunity viz the garden of Chillarekakodumka, which was formerly given by Lord Bappa to the Brahmins, freeholders of Chillarekakodumka and inhabitants of Apitti. Chillarekakodumka has been identified by some as ancient village Chillarige in Bellary, Karnataka.[40]

In the reign of Simhavarman IV, who ascended the throne in 436, the territories lost to the Vishnukundins in the north up to the mouth of the Krishna were recovered.[41] The early Pallava history from this period onwards is furnished by a dozen or so copper-plate grants in Sanskrit. They are all dated in the regnal years of the kings.[42]

The following chronology was composed from these charters by Nilakanta Sastri in his A History of South India:[43]

Early Pallavas

  • Simhavarman I (275–300)
  • Skandavarman (unknown)
  • Visnugopa (350–355)
  • Kumaravishnu I (350–370)
  • Skandavarman II (370–385)
  • Viravarman (385–400)
  • Skandavarman III (400–436)
  • Simhavarman II (436–460)
  • Skandavarman IV (460–480)
  • Nandivarman I (480–510)
  • Kumaravishnu II (510–530)
  • Buddhavarman (530–540)
  • Kumaravishnu III (540–550)
  • Simhavarman III (550–560)

Later Pallavas

The incursion of the Kalabhras and the confusion in the Tamil country was broken by the Pandya Kadungon and the Pallava Simhavishnu.[44] Mahendravarman I extended the Pallava Kingdom and was one of the greatest sovereigns. Some of the most ornate monuments and temples in southern India, carved out of solid rock, were introduced under his rule. He also wrote the play Mattavilasa Prahasana.[45]

The Pallava kingdom began to gain both in territory and influence and were a regional power by the end of the 6th century, defeating kings of Ceylon and mainland Tamilakkam.[46] Narasimhavarman I and Paramesvaravarman I stand out for their achievements in both military and architectural spheres. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple.

  • Simhavishnu (575–600)[52]
  • Mahendravarman I (600–630)[52]
  • Narasimhavarman I (Mamalla) (630–668)[52]
  • Mahendravarman II (668–672)
  • Paramesvaravarman I (670–695)[52]
  • Narasimhavarman II (Raja Simha) (695–722)[52]
  • Paramesvaravarman II (705–710)

Later Pallavas of the Kadava Line

The kings that came after Paramesvaravarman II belonged to the collateral line of Pallavas and were descendants of Bhimavarman, the brother of Simhavishnu. They called themselves as Kadavas, Kadavesa and Kaduvetti. Hiranyavarman, the father of Nandivarman Pallavamalla is said to have belonged to the Kadavakula in epigraphs.[47] Nandivarman II himself is described as "one who was born to raise the prestige of the Kadava family".[48]

  • Nandivarman II (Pallavamalla) (732–796) son of Hiranyavarman of Kadavakula[49]
  • Dantivarman (795–846)
  • Nandivarman III (846–869)
  • Aparajitavarman (879–897)

Pallava architecture

The Pallavas were instrumental in the transition from rock-cut architecture to stone temples. The earliest examples of Pallava constructions are rock-cut temples dating from 610–690 and structural temples between 690–900. A number of rock-cut cave temples bear the inscription of the Pallava king, Mahendravarman I and his successors.[50][51][52]

Among the accomplishments of the Pallava architecture are the rock-cut temples at Mamallapuram. There are excavated pillared halls and monolithic shrines known as Rathas in Mahabalipuram. Early temples were mostly dedicated to Shiva. The Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram and the Shore Temple built by Narasimhavarman II, rock cut temple in Mahendravadi by Mahendravarman are fine examples of the Pallava style temples.[53] The temple of Nalanda Gedige in Kandy, Sri Lanka is another. The famous Tondeswaram temple of Tenavarai and the ancient Koneswaram temple of Trincomalee were patronised and structurally developed by the Pallavas in the 7th century.[54]

Religion

Pallavas were followers of Shiva. The Chinese monk Xuanzang who visited Kanchipuram during the reign of Narasimhavarman I reported that there were 100 Buddhist monasteries, and 80 temples in Kanchipuram.[55]

Jat History

Pallaval are the Pallavas of literature; the Pahlavi of modern Iran, the Pallava of Indian history. They are a Jat clan. [56]

पल्लव जाटवंश

वैदिक सम्पत्ति पृ० 424 पर पुराणों के संकेत से स० पं० रघुनंदन शर्मा साहित्यभूषण ने लिखा है - अर्थात् वैवस्वतमनु के इक्ष्वाकु, नाभाग, धृष्ट, शर्याति, करुष, पृषध्र, दिष्ट, प्राशु, नृग, नरिष्यन्त दस पुत्र हुए। (विष्णु पुराण, चतुर्थ अंश, अध्याय 1 श्लोक 7) हरिवंश अध्याय 10, श्लोक 28 में लिखा है कि नरिष्यन्त के पुत्रों का ही नाम शक है। इन शकों को राजा सगर ने ‘अर्धमुण्डान् शकान्’ अर्थात् आधा सिर मुंडवाकर निकाल दिया। यह घटना इस कारण हुई कि सम्राट् सगर ने अपने पिता बाहु के युद्ध में हार जाने का बदला शत्रुओं को हराकर इस तरह से लिया कि उसने यवनों के शीश मुंडवाये, शकों के आधे सिरों को मुंडवाया, पारदों को लम्बे बाल वाला बनाया, पह्लवों की मूंछ दाढ़े रखवाई तथा वषट्कार आदि से वंचित कर दिया। ब्राह्मणों ने भी इनका परित्याग कर दिया, इसलिए ये सब म्लेच्छ कहे गये (विष्णु पुराण चतुर्थ अंश, अध्याय 3, श्लोक 47-48)। शक लोग सीथिया (शकावस्था का अपभ्रंश) में जाकर बस गये। इसलिये इनके आर्य होने में कोई सन्देह नहीं है।1 (वैदिक सम्पत्ति पृ० 424)

आर्य क्षत्रियों को ब्राह्मणों के दास न होने के कारण म्लेच्छ, शूद्र, व्रात्य करार दिया गया। इसकी अधिक जानकारी के लिये देखो द्वितीय अध्याय, जाट क्षत्रिय वर्ण के हैं, प्रकरण।

रामायण काल में भी उपर लिखित जाटवंशों का राज्य व देश थे। इनका वर्णन इस प्रकार है - पह्लव, शक, बर्बर योद्धाओं ने वसिष्ठ ऋषि की ओर से विश्वामित्र की शक्तिशाली सेना के साथ युद्ध करके उसे हरा दिया। (वा० रा० बालकाण्ड 54-55वां सर्ग)। सीता जी की खोज के लिये सुग्रीव ने वानर सेना को उत्तर दिशा में अन्य देशों के साथ शकों के देश में भी जाने का


1. शक लोगों ने आर्यावर्त से बाहिर जाकर शक देश बसाया, जोकि उनके नाम पर शकावस्था कहलाया, जिसका अपभ्रंश नाम सीथिया पड़ गया (वैदिक सम्पत्ति, पृ० 424, लेखक पं० रघुनंदन शर्मा)।


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-263


आदेश दिया (वा० रा० किष्किन्धाकाण्ड, सर्ग 43वां)। महाभारत काल में इन जाट वंशों का वर्णन निम्न प्रकार से है - पाण्डवों की दिग्विजय के समय भीमसेन ने पूर्व दिशा की ओर अनेक देशों को जीतकर शकों और बर्बरों को छल से पराजित किया (सभापर्व 30वां अध्याय)। नकुल ने पश्चिम दिशा में जाकर बर्बर, पह्लव और शकों को जीतकर उन से रत्नों की भेंट ली (सभापर्व, 32वां अध्याय)। महाराजा युधिष्ठिर के राजसूय यज्ञ में शक, बर्बर लोगों ने सहस्रों गधे और शक लोगों ने तलवारें, फरसे और सहस्रों रत्न भेंट दिये (सभापर्व, 51वां अध्याय, श्लोक 23-25)। पह्लव और शक ये उत्तम कुल में उत्पन्न श्रेष्ठ एवं शस्त्रधारी क्षत्रिय राजकुमारों ने बहुत धन अर्पित किया (सभापर्व, 52वां अध्याय)। महाभारत युद्ध में शक, पह्लव, बर्बर कौरवों की ओर होकर लड़े (भीष्मपर्व 19वां अध्याय श्लोक 13, और द्रोणपर्व)।

पह्लव (पल्लव) जाटों ने छठी सदी के मध्य से आठवीं सदी के मध्य तक दक्षिण भारत में शासन किया। इसका वर्णन “भारतवर्ष में जाटवीरों का दक्षिण में राज्य” अध्याय में किया जायेगा। पाठक समझ गये होंगे कि शक, बर्बर, पह्लव जाट गोत्र हैं जो क्षत्रिय आर्य हैं और भारतवर्ष के ही आदिवासी हैं। महाभारत के पश्चात् बौद्ध-काल के अन्तिम समय और गुप्त राजाओं के शासन काल में जिन शक, कुषाण, हूण आदि जातियों ने भारतवर्ष पर आक्रमण किये वे विदेशी कबीले थे। उनसे जाटों के निकास का कोई सम्बन्ध नहीं है। आज भी शक, बर्बर, पह्लव (पल्लव) गोत्र के जाट कई स्थानों पर बसे हुए हैं। हां शक (सीथियन), कुषाण और श्वेत हूण लोग स्वयं जाट थे परन्तु इन से अन्य जाट गोत्रों की उत्पत्ति नहीं हुई।[57]

कैस्पियन सागर में पह्लव पार्थियन राज्य

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[58] लिखते हैं:

पह्लव पार्थियन - पह्लव गोत्र के जाटों ने अपने राजा अर्सकस (Arsaces) के नेतृत्व में पार्थिया राज्य स्थापित किया। यह पार्थिया देश बैक्ट्रिया के पश्चिम और कैस्पियन सागर के दक्षिण-पूर्व में था। इन लोगों ने अपना राज्य कैस्पियन सागर तक बढ़ाया। पह्लव लोगों ने 256 ई०


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-351


पू० से सन् 224 ईस्वी तक अर्थात् 480 वर्ष तक ईरान पर शासन किया। (जाट्स दी ऐन्शन्ट रूलर्ज, पृ० X, 77, लेखक बी० एस० दहिया)।

पह्लव लोगों के विषय में सत्यकेतु विद्यालंकार ने पृ० 57 पर लिखा है कि “प्राचीन भारतीय ग्रन्थों में प्रार्थिया को ‘पह्लव’ कहा गया है, और पुराणों में शक और पह्लव साथ-साथ आते हैं। 25 ई० पू० में कुषाण वीर राजा कुजुलकफस कदफिसस ने पार्थियन लोगों के शासन का अन्त कर दिया।” यही लेखक पृ० 53 पर लिखते हैं कि “सैल्युकस द्वारा स्थापित सीरियन साम्राज्य जब दुर्बल हो गया तब वहां के निवासियों ने विद्रोह कर दिया और 248 ई० पू० स्वतन्त्र पार्थियन राज्य की स्थापना कर ली। पार्थियन विद्रोह के नेता अरसक और तिरिदात नाम के दो भाई थे। उन्होंने धीरे-धीरे पार्थियन राज्य की शक्ति को बहुत बढ़ा लिया और शीघ्र ही ईरान का सम्पूर्ण प्रदेश उनकी अधीनता में आ गया। 223 ई० पू० सीरिया के राजसिंहासन पर राजा एष्टियोकस तृतीय आरूढ़ हुआ। उसने पार्थिया पर आक्रमण कर दिया परन्तु असफल रहा और पार्थिया के राजा से सन्धि कर ली।” आगे पृ० 10 पर लिखते हैं कि “छठी शताब्दी ई० पू० में ईरान के हखामनी (जाट) सम्राटों ने सुग्ध देश को अपने अधीन कर लिया। बाद में ग्रीक, शक और पार्थियन (पह्लव) लोगों ने काम्बोज़, वाह्लीक और सुग्ध पर शासन किया।” (मध्य एशिया तथा चीन में भारतीय संस्कृति, लेखक सत्यकेतु विद्यालंकार)।

महेन्द्रवाड़ी, मद्रास

महेन्द्रवाड़ी (AS, p.729): तमिलनाडू के आरकट और आरकोनम के बीच पल्लवकालीन नगर के खंडहर स्थित हैं. महेंद्रवर्मन प्रथम (600 -625 ई.) ने जो पल्लव वंश का प्रतिभाशाली शासक था, संभवत: इस नगर की स्थापना की थी. नगर के निकट महेंद्रताल नामक झील के चिन्ह हैं जिसका निर्माण महेंद्र वर्मन ने ही करवाया था. [59]

पालक

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[60] ने लेख किया है ... पालक (AS, p.553) गुप्तसम्राट समुद्रगुप्त की प्रयाग प्रशस्ति में इस स्थान के शासक उग्रसेन का समुद्रगुप्त द्वारा हराये जाने का उल्लेख है--' काञ्चेयकविष्णुगोपावसमुक्त्तक- -नीलराज वैङ्गेयकहस्तिवर्म्म-पाल्लकोग्रसेन-दैवराष्ट्रकुबेर....' विंसेंट स्मिथ ने इस स्थान को जिला नैलोर (मद्रास) के अंतर्गत बताया है. पहले कुछ विद्वानों का मत था कि यह स्थान पालघाट का प्राचीन नाम है.

सितन्नवासल (मद्रास)

सितन्नवासल, मद्रास, (p.965): मूल नाम संभवत:सिद्धणवास अर्थात सिद्धों का डेरा है. यह स्थान पड्डुक्कोटा से 9 मील दूर है. यहां पथरीली पहाड़ियों में शैलकृत जैन गुहा मंदिर स्थित हैं. तीसरी सदी ईसा पूर्व का एक ब्राह्मी अभिलेख भी यहां उपलब्ध हुआ है. इसमें इन गुफाओं का जैन मुनियों के निवास के लिए निर्मित किया जाना उल्लिखित है. गुफाओं में अजंता की शैली के पल्लव कालीन (सातवीं सदी ई.) भित्तिचित्र भी प्राप्त हुए हैं. [61]

कावेरीपत्तन

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[62] ने लेख किया है ...कावेरीपत्तन (मद्रास) (p.184): कावेरी नदी के मुहाने पर बसा हुआ प्राचीन काल का प्रसिद्ध बंदरगाह है. कांची के पल्लव नरेश के शासनकाल में ताम्रलिप्ति के समान ही कावेरीपत्तन भी एक बड़ा व्यापारिक केंद्र था. द्वीपद्वीपांतरो विशेषत: रोम साम्राज्य से भारत आने वाले पोत इस बंदरगाह पर ठहरते थे. गुप्त काल में यहां के बौद्ध विहारों में 'महाविहार निकाह' के भिक्षु रहते थे. यह बंदरगाह अब कावेरी के [p.185]: मुहाने के अंट जाने से विलुप्त हो गया है. (देखें- काकंदी, पुहार)

Distribution

Notable persons

Population

See also

External links

References

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. प-58
  2. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. प-83
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. प-58
  4. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, p.341
  5. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 263
  6. शूद्राभीराद दरदाः काश्मीराः पशुभिः सह, खशिकाश च तुखाराश च पल्लवा गिरिगह्वराः (VI.10.66)
  7. The journal of the Numismatic Society of India, Volume 51, p.109
  8. Alī Jāvīd and Tabassum Javeed. (2008). World heritage monuments and related edifices in India, p.107
  9. Gabriel Jouveau-Dubreuil, The Pallavas, Asian Educational Services, 1995 - Art, Indic - 86 pages, p. 83
  10. Sathianathaier, R. (1970) [first published 1954], "Dynasties of South India", in Majumdar, R. C.; Pusalkar, A. D. (eds.), The Classical Age, History and Culture of Indian People (Third ed.), Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 255–275
  11. Aiyangar, S. K.; Nilakanta Sastri, K. A. (1960), "The Pallavas", in R. C. Majumdar; K. K. Dasgupta (eds.), A Comprehensive History of India, Volume III, Part 1: A.D. 300–985, New Delhi: Indian History Congress/People's Publishing House, pp. 315–316
  12. Rama Rao 1967, pp. 47-48: "The Manchikallu Prakrt inscription mentions a Simhavamma or Simhavarman of the Pallava family and the Bharadvaja gotra and registers gifts made by him after performing Santi and Svastyayana for his victory and increase of strength."
  13. Aiyangar & Nilakanta Sastri 1960, pp. 315–316.
  14. Subramanian, K. R. (1989) [first published 1932], Buddhist Remains in Andhra and the History of Andhra Between 225 and 610 A.D., Asian Educational Services, p. 71, ISBN 978-81-206-0444-5
  15. Gopalachari, K. (1957), "The Satavahana Empire", in K. A. Nilakanta Sastri (ed.), A Comprehensive History of India, II: The Mauryas and Satavahanas 325 SC.-AD 300, Calcutta: Indian History Congress/Orient Longman, pp. 296–297
  16. Aiyangar & Nilakanta Sastri 1960, pp. 314–316
  17. Aiyangar & Nilakanta Sastri 1960, pp. 314–316.
  18. Sathianathaier 1970, p. 256
  19. Sathianathaier, R. (1970) [first published 1954], "Dynasties of South India", in Majumdar, R. C.; Pusalkar, A. D. (eds.), The Classical Age, History and Culture of Indian People (Third ed.), Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 255–256
  20. Sircar, D. C. (1970) [first published 1954], "Genealogy and Chronology of the Pallavas", in Majumdar, R. C.; Pusalkar, A. D. (eds.), The Classical Age, History and Culture of Indian People (Third ed.), Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 275–276
  21. Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004), A History of India (Fourth ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9780415329194,p.120
  22. Stein, Burton (2016). "Book Reviews : Kancipuram in Early South Indian History, by T. V. Mahalingam (Madras : Asia Publishing House, 1969), pp. vii-243". The Indian Economic & Social History Review. 7 (2): 317–321.
  23. Sircar, Dines Chandra (1935), The Early Pallavas, Calcutta: Jitendra Nath De, pp. 5–6:
  24. Aiyangar, S. K. (1928), "Introduction", in R. Gopalan (ed.), History of the Pallavas of Kanchi, University of Madras, pp. xi–xii:
  25. Sircar 1970, pp. 275–276.
  26. Sathianathaier 1970, pp. 256-257.
  27. Vaidya C.V.,History of Medieval Hindu India, pg.281
  28. Sathianathaier 1970, pp. 255–256.
  29. Rev. H Heras, SJ (1931) Pallava Genealogy: An attempt to unify the Pallava Pedigrees of the Inscriptions, Indian Historical Research Institute
  30. KR Subramanian. (1989). Buddhist remains in Āndhra and the history of Āndhra between 224 & 610 A.D, p.106-109
  31. Suryanath Kamat (1980), A Concise History of Karnataka: From Pre-historic Times to the Present, Archana Prakashana, pp. 31–33
  32. Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999), Ancient Indian History And Civilization, New Age International, p. 445, ISBN 9788122411980
  33. Marilyn Hirsh (1987) Mahendravarman I Pallava: Artist and Patron of Māmallapuram, Artibus Asiae, Vol. 48, Number 1/2 (1987), pp. 109-130
  34. Rabe, Michael D (1997). "The Māmallapuram Praśasti: A Panegyric in Figures". Artibus Asiae. 57 (3/4): 189–241.
  35. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p.91
  36. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p.91–92
  37. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p.91
  38. Aiyangar, S. Krishnaswami (2003), "Early History Of The Pallavas", Some Contributions Of South India To Indian Culture, Cosmo Publications (15 July 2003), ISBN 978-8170200062
  39. Moraes, George M. (1995), The Kadamba Kula: A History of Ancient and Mediaeval Karnataka, Asian Educational Services, p. 6, ISBN 9788120605954
  40. Aiyangar, S. Krishnaswami (2003), "Early History Of The Pallavas", Some Contributions Of South India To Indian Culture, Cosmo Publications (15 July 2003), ISBN 978-8170200062
  41. Arunkumar, R. (2014), "Political History of Ancient South India" (PDF), Caste system in ancient South India, Gulbarga University/Shodhganga
  42. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p.92
  43. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p.92
  44. Kulke and Rothermund, p.120
  45. Sen, Sailendra (2013), A Textbook of Medieval Indian History, Primus Books, pp. 41–42, ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4
  46. Kulke and Rothermund, p111
  47. V. Ramamurthy, History of Kongu, Volume 1, International Society for the Investigation of Ancient Civilization, 1986, p. 172
  48. Eugen Hultzsch, South Indian Inscriptions, Volume 12, Manager of Publications, 1986, p. viii
  49. Sen, Sailendra (2013), A Textbook of Medieval Indian History, Primus Books, pp. 41–42, ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4
  50. Nilakanta Sastri, pp412–413
  51. James G. Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, The Rosen Publishing Group, p. 399, ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8
  52. "Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram". UNESCO.org.
  53. Nilakanta Sastri, p139
  54. "Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram". UNESCO.org.
  55. Kulke and Rothermund, pp121–122
  56. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), p. 288
  57. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III (Page 263-264)
  58. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ.351-352
  59. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.729
  60. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.553
  61. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.965
  62. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.184



Back to Jat Gotras