Vishvamitra (विश्वामित्र) was sage of ancient times in India. Vishwamitra was a Kshatriya, who attained to the state of a Brahmana and became the founder of a race of Brahmanas. He is also credited as the author of most of Mandala 3 of the Rigveda, including the Gayatri Mantra.
- 1 King in ancient India
- 2 Mention by Panini
- 3 In Mahabharata
- 4 Vishwamitra's Family tree
- 5 Vishwamitra's sons
- 6 History
- 7 Rama's Journey to Vishvamitra Ashrama
- 8 Rama's marriage with Sita, the Daughter of Janaka
- 9 Association with present Jat gotras
- 10 Agnikula Kshatriyas by Vishwamitra
- 11 Jat clans from his family tree
- 12 References
King in ancient India
Vishvamitra was a king in ancient India, also called Kaushika "descendant of Kusha". He was a valiant warrior and the great-grandson of a great king named Kusha. The Valmiki Ramayana, prose 51 of Bala Kanda, starts with the story of Vishvamitra:
There was a king named Kusha (not to be confused with Kusha, son of Rama), a brainchild of Prajapati, and Kusha's son was the powerful and verily righteous Kushanabha. One who is highly renowned by the name Gadhi was the son of Kushanabha, and Gadhi's son is this great-saint of great resplendence, Vishvamitra. Vishvamitra ruled the earth, and this great-resplendent king ruled the kingdom for many thousands of years.
Mention by Panini
Anusasana Parva/Book XIII Chapter 4 tells ancestry of Viswamitra, a Kshatriya whose sons became progenitors of many races of Brahmanas and founders of many clans. Viswamitra (विश्वामित्र) is mentioned in Mahabharata verse (XIII.4.46,47) .... The celebrated wife of Godhe too gave birth to the regenerate Rishi Viswamitra versed in the knowledge of Brahma, by favour of that Rishi. The highly devout Vishwamitra, though a Kshatriya, attained to the state of a Brahmana and became the founder of a race of Brahmanas.
Vishwamitra's Family tree
Madhuchcchanda, Devrat, Akshina, Shakunta, Babhru, Kalapatha, Yajnavalkya, Sthuna, Uluka, Yamaduta, Saindhavayana, Karna, Jangha, Galava, Vajra, Shalankayana, Lalatya, Narada, Kurchamuka, Vaduli, Musala, Rakshogriva, Anghrika, Naikabhricha, Shilayupa, Sita, Suchi, Chakraka, Marutantavya, Vataghna, Ashwalayana, Syamayana, Gargya, Jabali, Susruta, Karisha, Sansrutya, Paurava, Tantu, Kapila, Tarakayana, Upagahana, Arjunayana, Margamitra, Hiranyksha, Janghari, Babhruvahana, Suti, Vibhuti, Suta, Suta, Suranga, Araddhi, Namaya, Champeya, Ujjayana, Navatantu, Bakanakha, Sayonya, Rati, Shyoruha, Arumatsya, Shirisha, Gardhabhi, Urjjayoni, Radapeksa, Narada,
Rama's Journey to Vishvamitra Ashrama
The four sons of Dasharatha grew up to early manhood, excelling all in bravery and virtue. Rama especially be came the idol of the people and the favourite of his father. Learned in the Vedas, he was no less expert in the science of elephants and horses and in riding cars, and a very mirror of courtesy. Lakshmana devoted himself to Rama's service, so that the two were always together. Like a faithful shadow Lakshman followed Rama, sharing with him everything that was his own, and guarding him when he went abroad to exercise or hunt. In the same way Satrughna attached himself to Bharata. So it was till Rama reached the age of sixteen.
Now there was a certain great rishi named Vishvamitra, originally a Kshatriya, who by the practice of unheard-of austerities had won from the gods the status of brahma-rishi. He dwelt in the Shaiva hermitage called Siddhashrama, and came thence to ask a boon from Dasharatha. Two rakshasas, Maricha and Suvahu, supported by the wicked Ravana, continually disturbed his sacrifices and polluted his sacred fire; none but Rama could overcome these devils. Dasharatha welcomed Vishvamitra gladly, and promised him any gift that he desired ; but when he learnt that his dear son Rama was required for so terrible and dangerous a service, he was cast down, and it seemed as though the light of his life went out. Yet he could not break his word, and it came to pass that Rama and Lakshmana went away with Vishvamitra for the ten days of his sacrificial rites. But though it was for so short a time, this was the beginning of their manhood and of love and strife.
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A cool breeze, delighted at the sight of Rama, fanned their faces, and flowers rained down upon them from the sky. Vishvamitra led the way ; the two brothers, carrying their bows and swords, wearing splendid jewels and gloves of lizard-skin upon their fingers, followed Vishvamitra like glorious flames, making him bright with the reflection of their own radiance.
Arrived at the [[hermitage, Vishvamitra (Vishvamitra-Ashrama) and the other priests began their sacrifice ; and when the rakshasas, like rain- clouds obscuring the sky, rushed forward in horrid shapes, Rama wounded and put to flight Maricha and Suvahu, and slew the others of those evil night-rangers. After the days of sacrifice and ritual at Siddhashrama were over, Rama asked Vishvamitra what other work he required of him.
Rama's marriage with Sita, the Daughter of Janaka
Sister Nivedita and Anand K. Coomaraswamy mentions the story of Rama's marriage with Sita, the Daughter of Janaka.....
After the days of sacrifice and ritual at Siddhashrama were over, Rama asked Vishvamitra what other work he required of him. Vishvamitra replied that Janaka, Raja of Mithila, was about to celebrate a great sacrifice. " Thither," he said, "we shall repair. And thou, O tiger among men, shalt go with us, and there behold a wonderful and marvellous bow. This great bow the gods gave long ago to Raja Devarata; and neither gods nor gandharvas nor asuras nor rakshasas nor men have might to string it, though many kings and princes have essayed it. That bow is worshipped as a deity. The bow and Janaka's great sacrifice shalt thou behold."
Thus all the Brahmans of that hermitage, with Vishvamitra at their head, and accompanied by Rama and Lakshman, set out for Mithila; and the birds and beasts dwelling in Siddhashrama followed after Vishvamitra, whose wealth was his asceticism. As they went along the forest paths Vishvamitra related
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ancient stones to the two brothers, and especially the story of the birth of Ganga, the great river Ganges.
Janaka welcomed the ascetics with much honour, and appointing them to seats according to their rank, he asked who those brothers might be that walked amongst men like lions or elephants, godlike and goodly to be seen. Vishvamitra told King Janaka all the history of Dasharatha's sons, their journey to Siddhashrama and fight with the rakshasas, and how Rama had now come to Mithila to see the famous bow.
Next day Janaka summoned the brothers to see the bow. First he told them how that bow had been given by Shiva to the gods, and by the gods to his own ancestor, Devarata. And he added : " I have a daughter, Sita, not born of men, but sprung from the furrow as I ploughed the field and hallowed it. On him who bends the bow I will bestow my daughter. Many kings and princes have tried and failed to bend it. Now I shall show the bow to you, and if Rama succeed in bending it I shall give him my daughter Sita."
Then the great bow was brought forth upon an eight-wheeled cart drawn by five thousand tall men. Rama drew the bow from its case and strove to bend it ; it yielded easily, and he strung and drew it till at last it snapped in two with the sound of an earthquake or a thunder-clap. The thousands of spectators were amazed and terrified, and all but Vishvamitra, Janaka, Rama, and Lakshman fell to the ground. Then Janaka praised Rama and gave orders for the marriage to be prepared, and sent messengers to Ayodhya to invite Raja Dasharatha to his son's wedding, to give his blessing and consent. Thereafter the two kings met and Janaka bestowed Sita upon Rama, and his second daughter Urmila on Lakshman.
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To Bharata and Satrughna Janaka gave Mandavya and Srutakirti, daughters of Kushadhwaja. Then those four princes, holding each his bride's hand, circumnavigate the sacrificial fire, the marriage dais, the king, and all the hermits thrice, while flowers rained down from heaven and celestial music sounded. Then Dasharatha and his sons and their four brides returned home, taking with them many presents, and were welcomed by Kaushalya and Sumitra and the slender- waisted Kaikeyi. Having thus won honour, wealth, and noble brides, those four best of men dwelt at Ayodhya, serving their father.
Association with present Jat gotras
Ram Sarup Joon writes ... Many names in the Genealogical tables of Yayati are associated with present Jat gotras. Some examples are Ushinar, Shishu Bhadra, Tak or Takshak, Satoti, Krishan or Kushana from the Yadhu branch; Dushyanta, Bharat, Bhardwaja, Hasti, Ajmirh, Kaushik, Gadh and Vishwamitra of Puru branch; Seth, Arh, Gandhi, Gaindhu and Gandhar of the Ardas branch.
Ram Swarup Joon writes that about Baje, Bajyar, Baje Ranya: In the Mahabharat ", Chapter - Sabha Parva" We find a mention of the Bajia gotra. They were staunch enemies of Nand dynasty. Chander Shekhar has given a reference while giving an account of the Maurya dynasty. The king of Bajarnia fought against Alexander the Great. The capital of the Bajernias was Bijerania Kot near Ludhiana. The Bajernias consider themselves the descendants of the son of Satak Raj Rishi Vishvamitra. (The B and V are interchangeable) Bajernia Raje, Bajyar and Raje Bije Ranya, Hindus and Sikhs are found in the Punjab.
Ram Sarup Joon writes that ...A number of Jat gotras are found amongst the Brahmins. Badgi is one of them. Badgi Brahmins and Biji, Baje and Bajrania Jats are all descendants of Rishi Bishwamitra son of Raja Kusl Kirayana.
Agnikula Kshatriyas by Vishwamitra
James Tod writes that Viswamitra chose for Re-creation of the Agnikula Kshatriyas rite the summit of Mount Abu where dwell the hermits and sages constantly occupied in the duties of religion, and who had carried their complaints even to the kheer samudra (sea of curds), where they saw the Father of Creation floating upon the hydra (emblem of eternity). He desired them to regenerate the warrior race, and they returned to Mount Abu with Indra, Brahma, Rudra, Vishnu, and all the inferior divinities, in their train. The fire-fountain (anhal-kund) was lustrated with the waters of the Ganges; expiatory rites were performed, and, after a protracted debate, it was resolved that Indra should initiate the work of re-creation.
Pramara: Having formed an image (putli) of the duba grass, Indra sprinkled it with the water of life, and threw it into the fire-fountain. Thence, on pronouncing the sajivan mantri (incantation to give life), a figure slowly emerged from the flame, bearing in the right hand a mace, and exclaiming, " Mar ! mar !" (slay, slay). He was called Pramara; and Abu, Dhar, and Ujain were assigned to him as a territory.
Solanki:Brahma was then entreated to frame one from his own essence (ansa). He made an image, threw it into the pit, whence issued a figure armed with a sword (kharga) in one hand, with the veda in the other, and a janeu round his neck. He was named Chalukya or Solanki, and Anhalpur Patan was appropriated to him.
[p.407]: Parihar: Rudra formed the third. The image was sprinkled with the water of the Ganges, and on the incantation being read, a black ill-favoured figure arose, armed with the dhanus or bow. As his foot slipped when sent against the demons, he was called Parihara, and placed as the poleoh, or guardian of the gates. He had the no-nangal Marusthali, or 'nine habitations of the desert' assigned him.
Chauhans: The fourth was formed by Vishnu; when an image like himself, four-armed, each having a separate weapon, issued from the flames, and was thence styled Chaturbhuja Chau-han, or the ' four-armed.' The gods bestowed their blessing upon him, and Macavati-nagri as his territory. Such was the name of Garra-Mandalla in the Dwapar, or silver age.
Jat clans from his family tree
Kings or Rishis progenitors of Jat clans:
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.461
- विश्वामित्रं चाजनयद गॊधेर भार्या यशस्विनी, ऋषेः परभावाद राजेन्द्र बरह्मर्षिं बरह्मवादिनम (XIII.4.46) ततॊ बराह्मणतां यातॊ विश्वामित्रॊ महातपाः, कशत्रियः सॊ ऽपय अथ तथा बरह्म वंशस्य कारकः (XIII.4.47)
- The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations, 1993, p. 15.
- Sister Nivedita and Anand K. Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists/CHAPTER II,pp.27-28
- Sister Nivedita and Anand K. Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists/CHAPTER II,pp.28-30
- History of the Jats/Chapter II,p. 28
- Ram Swarup Joon| History of the Jats/Chapter V,p.72
- Ram Sarup Joon : History of the Jats/Chapter VI,p.123
- James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Haravati,p.406-407
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