Ram Chandra Pura

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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क

Ram Chandra Pura (राम चन्द्र पूरा) or 'Chhawni Ram Chandra Pura' is an ancient historical place in Kota Municipal area in Kota, Rajasthan.


Ram Chandra Pura Inscription of Maharaja Kartik

Inscription No. II. of James Tod: Translation of an inscription in the Nail-headed characters relative to the Jit Race, discovered at Ram Chandrapoora, six miles east of Boondee in digging a well. It was thence conveyed and deposited by me in the Museum of the Royal Asiatic Society.

English Text of Ram Chandra Pura Inscription (Inscription No. II. )

To my foe, salutation! This foe of the race of JIT CATHIDA1, how shall I describe, who is resplendent by the favour of the round bosom of ROODRANI 2, and whose ancestor, the warrior TUKHYA 3, formed the garland on the neck of Mahadeva. Better than this foe on the earth’s surface, there is none; therefore, to him I offer salutations. The sparkling gems on the coronets of kings irradiate the nail of his feet.

Of the race of BOTENA 4 Raja THOT was born; his fame extended through the universe.

Pure in mind, strong in arm, and beloved by mankind, such was CHANDERSEN 5. How shall he be described, who broke the strength of his foe, on whom when his sword swims in fight, he appears like a magician. With his subjects he interchanged the merchandise of liberality, of which he reaped the fruits. From him whose history is fair, was born KRITIKA, the deeds of whose arm were buds of renown, forming a necklace of praise in the eyes of mankind. His queen was dear to him as his own existence—how can she be described? As the flame is inseparable from the fire so was she from her lord—she was the light is sung from the Sun—her name GOON-NEWASA 6, and her actions corresponded with her name. By her he had two sons, like gems set in bracelets, born to please mankind. The elder was named SOOKUNDA, the younger DERUKA. Their fortunes consumed their foes: but their dependents enjoyed happiness. As the flowers of Calp-vricsha are beloved by the gods so are these brothers by their subjects, granting their requests, and increasing the glory of the race, whence they sprang. –[A useless descriptive stanza left out 7.

DERUKA had a son, KUHLA, and his was DHUNIKA, whose deeds ascended high—who could fathom the intentions of mankind—whose mind was deep as the ocean—whose ever hungry falchion expelled from their mountains and forests the MEENA tribes, leaving them no refuge in the three words, leveling their retreats to the ground. His quiver was filled with crescent-formed arrows—his sword the climber [vela] 8 of which pearls are the fruits. With his younger brother Dewaka be reverences gods and Brahmins—and with his own wealth perfumed a sacrifice to the sun.

For the much beloved’s [his wife] pleasure this was undertaken. Now the river of ease, life and death, is crossed over, for this abode will devour the body of the foe, into which the west wind wafts the fragrant perfume from the sandal-covered bosom of Lacshmi 9; while from innumerable lotos the gale from the east comes laden with aroma, the hum of the bees as they hang clustering on the flowers of the padhul is pleasing to the ear.

So long as Soomeru stands on its base of golden sands, so long may the dwelling endure. So long as the wind blows on the koonjeris 10, supporters of the globe, while the firmament endures, or while Lacshmi 11 causes the palm ti be extended, so long may his praise and this edifice be stable.

KUHLA 12 formed this abode of virtue, and east thereof a temple to ISWARA. By ACHIL, son of the mighty prince YASOVERMA 13, has its renown, been composed in various forms of speech.

Translation of an inscription in the Nail-headed characters relative to the Jit Race, discovered at Ram Chandrapoora[1]

Notes by James Tod on Inscription II[2]

[Note 1]- Question, if this Jit is from (da, the mark of the genitive case) Cathey? The land of the Cathae foes of Alexander, and probably, of the Cathi of the Saurashtra peninsula, alike, Scythnic as the Jit, and probably the same race originally?

[Note 2]Roodarani, an epithet of the martial spouse of Harar SIVA, the god of war, whom the Jit in the preceding inscription invokes.

[Note 3] –Here, we have another proof of the Jit being of Takshac race; this at the same time has a mythological reference to the serpent [Takhaji|taakhya], which forms the garland of the warlike divinities.

[Note 4]— Of this race I have no other notice, unless it should mean the race [cula] was from Butan.

[Note 5]Chandrasen is celebrated in the history of the Pramaras as the founder of several cities, from two of which, Chandrabhaga, at the foot of the central plateau of India, in Northern Malwa, and CHANDRAVATI, the ruins of which I discovered at the foot of the Aravulli near Aboo. I possess several valuable memoria, which will, ere long, confirm the opinions I have given of the Takshac architect.

[Note 6]— The habitation of virtue.

[Note 7]— This shows these foresters always had the same character.

[Note 8]— Vela is the climber or ivy, sacred to Mahadeva.

[Note 9]— Lacshmi, the apsara or sea-nymph, is feigned residing amongst the waters of the lotos-covered lake. In the hot weather the Rajpoot ladies dip their corsets into an infusion of sandal-wood, hence the metaphor.

[Note 10]— Koonjaris are the elephants who support the eight corners of the globe.

[Note 11]- Lacshmi is also dame Fortune, or the goddess of riches, when the image.

[Note 12]— Kuhl is the fifth in descent from the opponent of the Jit.

[Note 13]—Without this name this inscription would have been but of half its value. Fortunately various inscriptions on stone and copper, procured by me from Oojein, settled the era of the death of this prince in S. 1191, which will alike answer for Achil, his son, who was most likely one of the chieftains of KUHLA, who appears to have been of the elder branch of the Pramaras, the foe of the Jit invaders.

Thakur Deshraj on Ram Chandra Pura Inscription of Maharaja Kartik

James Todd obtained a Pali language inscription about Jit or Jat tribe at village Ram Chandra Pura (रामचन्द्रपुरा) (Now Chhawni Ram Chandra Pura, 324007 in Kota Municipal area) 3 kos (6 miles) east of Bundi state, while digging a well, which he sent to Asiatic Society London. The inscription reveals that there was a king Thot (थोत) born in Yuti (यूति) vansha. His son was Raja Chandrasain, a powerful and beloved of his subject. The son of Chandrasain was Kartik, renowned for his prowess. His wife was Gunaniwas, who gave birth to two sons Mukund and Daruk. Daruk produced son named Kuhal. Kuhal produced son named Dhunak, who achieved great works. He had war with Hill Meenas tribes and defeated and destroyed them. He along with his brother Deok worshipped gods and brahmanas. They founded a Sun-temple for the pleasure of his beloved wife. The temple will stand till the sumer suvarna mountain stands on the sand. Kuhal had founded this temple and a Maheshwara temple in east. The popularity of this was spread by Achal, son of Mahabali Maharaja Yashovarma. [3]

The period of war of this dynasty with pahari Meenas is difficult to asses. If we assume that Jat ruler Kartik had war with Menander then the period of this event comes to about 150 BC. Menander had attacked areas upto Chittor. It is very likely that Kartik had a war with Menander. This way the period of his descendant becomes the first century. If we look into the period of Achal who made this temple popular it comes around third or fourth century or beyond it, as ruler Yashovarman was in Maukhari vansha in eighth century in Kannauj. He had sent a delegation to China in 731 AD. [4] Lack of records and history prior to sixth century prevents prom determining the exact period of the rule of Kartik and his descendants. According to Thakur Deshraj, We can presume their rule in the region from fourth to sixth century. [5]

रामचन्द्रपुरा शिलालेख पर ठाकुर देशराज

कर्नल टाड को जाट जाति सम्बन्धी एक शिलालेख बून्दी राज्य के तीन कोस पूर्व में रामचन्द्रपुरा नामक स्थान में कुवा खोदते समय मिला था. यह गाँव वर्तमान में कोटा शहर की सीमा में 'छावनी रामचन्द्रपुरा' नाम से जाना जाता है. यह एक खोदित लिपि है जिसको टाड ने 'रोयल एसियाटिक सोसायटी लंदन' की चित्रशाला में भेज दिया था. उसकी प्रतिलिपि उन्होने ’टाड राजस्थान’ में प्रकाशित की थी जो निम्नानुसार है:

"यूती वंश में राजा थोत ने जन्म लिया, उनकी यश किरण समस्त पृथ्वी मण्डल पर व्याप्त हुई.
राजा चन्द्रसैन पवित्र चित, अमित बलशाली और प्रजा-समूह के परमप्रिय पात्र थे. (१) जिन्होने अपने शत्रुओं को बिल्कुल दुर्बल कर दिया और युद्ध में तलवार चलाते समय ऐन्द्रजालिक की भान्ति विचित्र बाहुबल का परिचय दिया उसका विषय किस प्रकार कहा जा सकता है? प्रजा के प्रति बड़ा उदार व्यवहार करते और उस कारण से शुभमय फल पाते थे. उन विख्यात चन्द्रसैन के औरस से कार्तिक ने जन्म लिया. उन कार्तिक का बाहुबल सर्वत्र विख्यात था. मनुष्य समाज में उनकी बडी प्रशंसा थी. वह अपनी जिन राणी को प्राणों के सरिस चाहते थे उन रानी के विषय में किस प्रकार वर्णन किया जाये? जिस प्रकार अग्नि से शिखा को अलग नहीं किया जा सकता है, उसी प्रकार वह रानी अपने पति के साथ मिलित थी. वह सूर्य-किरण के समान थीं. उनका नाम गुणनिवास था. उनका आचरण उनके नाम के समान था. उन रानी के गर्भ से कार्तिक के माणिक्य के समान भुवनरंजन दो पुत्र उत्पन्न हुये. बड़े का नाम मुकुन्द छोटे का नाम दारुक था. उनके सौभाज्ञ्य को देखकर हृदय विदीर्ण होता था. उनके अनुगामी लोग अनन्त सुख भोगते थे. देवताओं को जिस भांति कल्पवृक्ष प्यारा है, वैसे ही ये दोनों भ्राता अपनी प्रजा के लिये प्रिय थे. वे प्रजा की प्रार्थना पूर्ण करके जिस वंश में जन्म लिया था, उस वंश की गौरव-गरिमा फैलाते थे. (कर्नल टोड ने यहां कई श्लोक निष्प्रयोजन समझकर उनका अनुवाद नहीं किया.)
दारुक के कुहल नामक एक पुत्र उत्पन्न हुआ. कुहल के औरस से धुनक का जन्म हुआ, उन्होने बड़े-बड़े कार्य सिद्ध किये. वह मनुष्य के हृदय के भाव अनुभव कर लते थे. उनका चित समुद्र के समान गंभीर था. उन्होने पहाड़ी मीना जाति को विताड़ित, परास्त और सर्वथा विध्वंश कर दिया. उनको फिर कहीं स्थान नहीं मिला. वह अपने छोटे भ्राता दोक के सहित देवता और ब्रह्मणों की पूजा करते थे. उन्होने अपने धन से अपनी प्राण प्यारी की प्रसन्नता के लिये सूर्य के उद्देश्य से यह मन्दिर स्थापना किया.
जब तक सुमेर सुवर्ण बालूका के ऊपर खड़ा है, तब तक यह मन्दिर विराजमान रहेगा. जब तक लक्ष्मी धन-दान करेंगी, तब तक उनका यश और मन्दिर अक्षय भाव से विराजमान रहेगा.
कुहल ने यह मन्दिर तथा इसके पूर्व पार्श्व में महेश्वर के मन्दिर की प्रतिष्ठा कराई थी. महावली महाराज यशोवर्मा के पुत्र अचल के द्वारा इसकी प्रसिद्धि फैली." (टाड परिशिष्ट -१)

ठाकुर देशराज[6] लिखते हैं कि इस शिलालेख के पढने से कम से कम तीन बातें साफ मालूम होती हैं -

पहाड़ी मीना जाति से इनका कब और कहां पर युद्ध हुआ, इसका पता लगान टेढा काम है. यदि हम यह कहें कि मिनण्डर के साथी मीना लोगों से जाट नरेश कार्त्तिक का युद्ध हुआ, तो मानना पड़ेगा कि वे ईस्वी सन 150 के पहले बूंदी के आस-पास के प्रदेश पर राज कर रहे थे क्योंकि कई इतिहासकार भारत पर मिनेण्डर के आक्रमण का समय ई.पू. 155 मानते हैं. [7] उसने चित्तौड़ तक धावा किया था. बहुत संभव है कि इसी समय आक्रमण में महराज कार्तिक का उनसे युद्ध हुआ हो.

इन लोगों तथा इनके मन्दिर की प्रसिद्धि फैलाने वाले यशोवर्मा के पुत्र अचल के समय पर जब ध्यान देते हैं तो इन लोगों का समय ई. सन की तीसरी-चौथी या इसके पहले का समय मानना पड़ेगा. हम यह मानें कि इस शिलालेख का यशोवर्मा वही हैं जो यशोधर्मा नाम से कहा गया है और मंदसौर के जाट शासक थे तो उनका समय 5-6ठी सदी का होता है. यह संभव है कि निकटवर्ती तथा सजातीय होने से यशोधर्मा के पुत्र अचल ने उनकी प्रसिद्धि फैलाई हो.

ऐतिहासिक सामग्री की कमी तथा ६ठी सदी के पहले का इतिहास अप्राप्त होने के कारण यह निश्चय करने में बाधा पड़ती है कि कार्तिक और उसके पूर्वज तथा वंशज किस समय में शासक रहे. फिर भी हम कह सकते हैं कि उनका समय 4-6ठी के बीच होना चाहिय.

Note - Bandhu Varma was contemporary of Kumargupta I and Samudragupta. He was ruler of Mandsaur before Huna victory of Yashodharman. There is a inscription about Bandhu Varma at Mandsaur. The silk workers had constructed Sun temple here which was repaired by Bandhu Varma in samvat 530 (473 AD). This facts indicates that both had constructed sun temples. Hence the ruler Yashodharman of Mandsaur's son Achala may be considered as person who spread the glory of this place.

Notable persons


  1. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, pp. 623-24
  2. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, pp. 624-25
  3. James Todd, Appedix 1, Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.588-589
  4. Bharat Ke Prachin Rajvansh, II
  5. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.589-590
  6. ठाकुर देशराज:जाट इतिहास, 1992,पृ.588-90
  7. जनार्दन भट्ट: बौद्ध-कालीन भारत,पृ.271

Further reading

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