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Thoth

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Thoth (थोथ) is a gotra of Jats. [1] [2]

Variants

Origin

Thot (थोत) was an ancient Jat King of Yuti vansha of Kota-Bundi area in Rajasthan around 4-6th century.[3]

Ancestry of Thot

  • Thot (थोत) → Chandrasena (चंद्रसेन) → Kartika (कार्त्तिक) {m. Gunaniwas (गुणनिवास)} →Mukunda (मुकुंद-बड़ा)+ Daruka (दारुक -छोटा)
  • Daruka (दारुक) → Kuhala (कुहल - बड़ा) + Doka (दोक-छोटा)
  • Kuhala (कुहल)→ Dhunaka (धुनक)

History

James Todd obtained a Pali inscription about Jit or Jat tribe at village Ramchandrapura (Now Chhawni Ram Chandra Pura, 324007 in Kota Municipal area)3 kos (6 miles) east of Bundi state, which he sent to Asiatic Society London. The inscription reveals that there was a king Thot born in Uti vansha. His son was Raja Chandrasain (Chandrasena) , a powerful and beloved of his subject. The son of Chandrasain was Kartika, renowned for his prowess. His wife was Gunaniwas, who gave birth to two sons Mukunda and Daruka. Daruka produced son named Kuhal. Kuhal produced son named Dhunak, who achieved great works. He had war with Hill Meenas tribes and defeated and destroyed them. He along with his brother Dok worshipped gods and brahmanas. They founded a Sun-temple for the pleasure of his beloved wife. The temple will stand till the sumer suvarna mountain stands on the sand. Kuhal had founded this temple and a Maheshwar temple in east. The popularity of this was spread by Achal, son of Mahabali Maharaja Yashovarma. [4]

The period of war of this dynasty with pahari Meenas is difficult to asses. If we assume that Jat ruler Kartik had war with Menander then the period of this comes about 150 BC. Menander had attacked areas upto Chittor. It is very likely that Kartika had a war with Menander. This way the period of his descendant becomes the first century. If we look into the period of Achal who made this temple popular it comes around third or fourth century or beyond it, as ruler Yashovarman was in Maukhari vansha in eighth century in Kannauj. He had sent a delegation to China in 731 AD. [5] Lack of records and history prior to sixth century prevents prom determining the exact period of the rule of Kartik and his descendants. According to Thakur Deshraj, We can presume their rule from fourth to sixth century. [6]

Ram Chandra Pura Inscription of Maharaja Kartik

Inscription No. II. of James Tod: Translation of an inscription in the Nail-headed characters relative to the Jit Race, discovered at Ram Chandrapoora, six miles east of Boondee in digging a well. It was thence conveyed and deposited by me in the Museum of the Royal Asiatic Society.

English Text of Ram Chandra Pura Inscription (Inscription No. II. )

To my foe, salutation! This foe of the race of JIT CATHIDA1, how shall I describe, who is resplendent by the favour of the round bosom of ROODRANI 2, and whose ancestor, the warrior TUKHYA 3, formed the garland on the neck of Mahadeva. Better than this foe on the earth’s surface, there is none; therefore, to him I offer salutations. The sparkling gems on the coronets of kings irradiate the nail of his feet.

Of the race of BOTENA 4 Raja THOT was born; his fame extended through the universe.

Pure in mind, strong in arm, and beloved by mankind, such was CHANDERSEN 5. How shall he be described, who broke the strength of his foe, on whom when his sword swims in fight, he appears like a magician. With his subjects he interchanged the merchandise of liberality, of which he reaped the fruits. From him whose history is fair, was born KRITIKA, the deeds of whose arm were buds of renown, forming a necklace of praise in the eyes of mankind. His queen was dear to him as his own existence—how can she be described? As the flame is inseparable from the fire so was she from her lord—she was the light is sung from the Sun—her name GOON-NEWASA 6, and her actions corresponded with her name. By her he had two sons, like gems set in bracelets, born to please mankind. The elder was named SOOKUNDA, the younger DERUKA. Their fortunes consumed their foes: but their dependents enjoyed happiness. As the flowers of Calp-vricsha are beloved by the gods so are these brothers by their subjects, granting their requests, and increasing the glory of the race, whence they sprang. –[A useless descriptive stanza left out 7.

DERUKA had a son, KUHLA, and his was DHUNIKA, whose deeds ascended high—who could fathom the intentions of mankind—whose mind was deep as the ocean—whose ever hungry falchion expelled from their mountains and forests the MEENA tribes, leaving them no refuge in the three words, leveling their retreats to the ground. His quiver was filled with crescent-formed arrows—his sword the climber [vela] 8 of which pearls are the fruits. With his younger brother Dewaka be reverences gods and Brahmins—and with his own wealth perfumed a sacrifice to the sun.

For the much beloved’s [his wife] pleasure this was undertaken. Now the river of ease, life and death, is crossed over, for this abode will devour the body of the foe, into which the west wind wafts the fragrant perfume from the sandal-covered bosom of Lacshmi 9; while from innumerable lotos the gale from the east comes laden with aroma, the hum of the bees as they hang clustering on the flowers of the padhul is pleasing to the ear.

So long as Soomeru stands on its base of golden sands, so long may the dwelling endure. So long as the wind blows on the koonjeris 10, supporters of the globe, while the firmament endures, or while Lacshmi 11 causes the palm ti be extended, so long may his praise and this edifice be stable.

KUHLA 12 formed this abode of virtue, and east thereof a temple to ISWARA. By ACHIL, son of the mighty prince YASOVERMA 13, has its renown, been composed in various forms of speech.

Translation of an inscription in the Nail-headed characters relative to the Jit Race, discovered at Ram Chandrapoora[7]

Notes by James Tod on Inscription II[8]

[Note 1]- Question, if this Jit is from (da, the mark of the genitive case) Cathey? The land of the Cathae foes of Alexander, and probably, of the Cathi of the Saurashtra peninsula, alike, Scythnic as the Jit, and probably the same race originally?

[Note 2]Roodarani, an epithet of the martial spouse of Harar SIVA, the god of war, whom the Jit in the preceding inscription invokes.

[Note 3] –Here, we have another proof of the Jit being of Takshac race; this at the same time has a mythological reference to the serpent taakhya, which forms the garland of the warlike divinities.

[Note 4]— Of this race I have no other notice, unless it should mean the race [cula] was from Butan.

[Note 5]Chandrasen is celebrated in the history of the Pramaras as the founder of several cities, from two of which, Chandrabhaga, at the foot of the central plateau of India, in Northern Malwa, and CHANDRAVATI, the ruins of which I discovered at the foot of the Aravulli near Aboo. I possess several valuable memoria, which will, ere long, confirm the opinions I have given of the Takshac architect.

[Note 6]— The habitation of virtue.

[Note 7]— This shows these foresters always had the same character.

[Note 8]— Vela is the climber or ivy, sacred to Mahadeva.

[Note 9]— Lacshmi, the apsara or sea-nymph, is feigned residing amongst the waters of the lotos-covered lake. In the hot weather the Rajpoot ladies dip their corsets into an infusion of sandal-wood, hence the metaphor.

[Note 10]— Koonjaris are the elephants who support the eight corners of the globe.

[Note 11]- Lacshmi is also dame Fortune, or the goddess of riches, when the image.

[Note 12]— Kuhl is the fifth in descent from the opponent of the Jit.

[Note 13]—Without this name this inscription would have been but of half its value. Fortunately various inscriptions on stone and copper, procured by me from Oojein, settled the era of the death of this prince in S. 1191, which will alike answer for Achil, his son, who was most likely one of the chieftains of KUHLA, who appears to have been of the elder branch of the Pramaras, the foe of the Jit invaders.

राजा थोत

ठाकुर देशराज[9] ने लिखा है कि कर्नल टाड को, जाट जाति सम्बन्धी, बूंदी राज्य के तीन कोस पूर्व में रामचन्द्रपुरा नामक स्थान में से कूआं खोदते समय पाई गई, एक खोदित लिपि मिली थी। टाड साहब ने उसे लंदन की ‘एशियाटिक सुसाइटी’ की चित्रशाला में भेज दिया था। उसकी प्रतिलिपि उन्होंने अपने ग्रंथ ‘टाड राजस्थान’ में इस प्रकार दी है-

  • यूती वंश में राजा थोत ने जन्म लिया, उनकी यश-किरण समस्त पृथ्वी मंडल पर व्याप्त हुई।
  • राजा चन्द्रसेन पवित्र चित्त, अमित बलशाली और प्रजा समूह के परम-प्रिय पात्र थे, जिन्होंने अपने शत्रुओं को बिलकुल दुर्बल कर दिया और जिन्होंने

जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-588


युद्ध में तलवार चलाते समय ऐन्द्रजालिक की भांति विचित्र बाहुबल का परिचय दिया उसका विषय किस प्रकार कहा जा सकता है? प्रजा के प्रति वे बड़ा उदार व्यवहार करते और उस कारण वे शुभमय फल पाते थे। उन विख्यात चन्द्रसेन के औरस से कार्तिक ने जन्म लिया। उन कार्तिक का बाहुबल सर्वत्र विख्यात था। मनुष्य-समाज में उनकी बड़ी प्रशंसा थी। वह अपनी जिन रानी को प्राणों के सरिस चाहते थे उन रानी के विषय में किस प्रकार वर्णन किया जाए? जिस प्रकार अग्नि से शिखा को अलग नहीं किया जा सकता, उसी प्रकार वह रानी अपने पति के साथ मिलती थी। वे सूर्य-किरण के समान थीं। उनका नाम गुणनिवास था। उनका आचरण उनके नाम के समान था। उन रानी के गर्भ से कार्तिक के माणिक्य के समान भुवनरंजन दो पुत्र उत्पन्न हुये। बड़े का नाम मुकन्द छोटे का नाम दारुक था। उनके सौभाग्य को देखकर शत्रुओं का हृदय विदीर्ण होता था और उनके अनुगामी लोग अनन्त सुख को भोगते थे। देवताओं को जिस भांति कल्पवृक्ष प्यारा है, वैसे ही ये दोनों भ्राता अपनी प्रजा के लिये प्रिय थे। वे प्रजा की प्रार्थना पूर्ण करके जिस वंश में जन्म लिया था, उस वंश की गौरव-गरिमा फैलाते थे। (कर्नल टाड ने यहां कई श्लोक निष्प्रयोजन समझकर उनका अनुवाद नहीं किया)।

  • दारुक के कुहल नाम का एक पुत्र उत्पन्न हुआ । कुहल के औरस से धनुक का जन्म हुआ, उन्होंने बड़े-बड़े कार्य सिद्ध किये। वह मनुष्य के हृदय का भाव अनुभव कर लेते थे। उनका चित्त समुद्र के समान गम्भीर था। उन्होंने पहाड़ी मीना जाति को विताड़ित, परास्त और सर्वथा विध्वंश कर दिया था। उनको फिर कहीं स्थान न मिला। वह अपने छोटे भ्राता दोक के सहित देवता और ब्राह्मणों की पूजा करते थे। उन्होंने अपने धन से अपनी प्राणप्यारी की प्रसन्नता के लिए सूर्य के उद्देश्य से यह मन्दिर स्थापित किया।
  • जब तक सुमेर सुवर्ण बालुका के ऊपर खड़ा है, तब तक यह मन्दिर विराजमान रहेगा। जब तक जगत-दानिणी हथनियों की देह में प्राण रहेगा, जब तक लक्ष्मी धन दान करेंगी, तब तक उनका यश और मन्दिर अक्षय भाव से विराजमान रहेगा।
  • कुहल ने यह मन्दिर और इसके पूर्व पार्श्व में महेश्वर के मन्दिर की प्रतिष्ठा कराई थी। महावली महाराज यशोवर्मा के पुत्र अचल के द्वारा इसकी प्रसिद्धि फैली है।’’ (टाड परिशिष्ट १)


इस शिलालेख के पढ़ने से कम से कम तीन बातें मालूम होती हैं-


पहाड़ी मीना जाति से इनका कब और कहां पर युद्ध हुआ, इसका पता चला


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-589


लेना अवश्य टेढ़ा काम है। यदि हम यह कहें कि मिनण्डर के साथी मीना लागों से जाट नरेश कार्तिक का युद्ध हुआ, तो मानना पड़ेगा कि वे ईसवी सन् 150 वर्ष पहले बूंदी के आस-पास के प्रदेश पर राज्य कर रहे थे। क्योंकि कई इतिहास लेखकों ने भारत पर मिनण्डर के इस आक्रमण का समय ईसवी पूर्व 155 वर्ष माना है।1 उसने चित्तौड़ तक धावा किया था। बहुत संभव है कि इसी आक्रमण के समय महाराज कार्तिक का उनसे युद्ध हुआ हो। इस तरह से उनके वंशज धनुक का समय पहली शताब्दी का आरम्भिक भाग हो सकता है।

इन लोगों तथा इनके मन्दिर की प्रसिद्धि कराने वाले यशोवर्मा के पुत्र अचल के समय पर जब हम ध्यान देते हैं तो इन लोगों का समय ईसवी सन् की तीसरी, चौथी अथवा इससे भी पीछे की सदी मानना पड़ता है, क्योंकि यशोवर्मा नामक नरेश मौखरी वंश में संभूत आठवीं शताब्दी मे कन्नौज का शासक था। उसने 731 ई. में चीन को एक दल भेजा था।2 किन्तु उसके पुत्र का नाम अचल था, ऐसा लेख इस शिलालिपि के सिवाय कोई दूसरा अब तक नहीं मिला है। यदि यशोवर्मा को यशोधर्मा मान लिया जाये तो इन महाराजाओं का समय उनके समय से कुछ ही समय पहले का रहता है, क्योंकि महाराज यशोधर्मा का समय पांचवी, छठी सदी के बीच का है। यशोधर्मा मन्दसौर के जाट-नरेश थे। निकटवर्ती तथा सजातीय होने से यशोधर्मा के पुत्र अचल ने उनकी प्रसिद्धि फैलाई हो यह संभव ही है, किन्तु सुदूरवर्ती (कन्नौज के) यशोवर्मा के पुत्र ने इनकी कीर्ति का प्रचार किया, इसमें दोनों का कोई खास सम्बन्ध होना चाहिये। मौखरी जाट इस समय जाटों में मौजूद हैं। सम्भव है मौखरी यशोधर्मा और कार्तिक के वंशजों में वैवाहिक सम्बन्ध हुआ हो। यदि यह पिछली बात सही है तो कार्तिक के वंशजों का राज छोटे-मोटे रूप में बूंदी के निकटवर्ती प्रदेश पर ईसा की आठवीं सदी तक होना चाहिये। मीना जाति के साथ कार्तिक का जो युद्ध हुआ था, उसे मिनेण्डर के साथियों के साथ मान कर आगे कोई दूसरा युद्ध मानना पड़ेगा। दसवीं सदी तक जयपुर में हम मीनों के छोटे-छोटे राज्य पाते हैं, बहुत संभव है कि ये ही लोग उन पर चढ़कर गये हों।

ऐतिहासिक सामग्री की कमी और छठी सदी के पहले का इतिहास प्रायः अप्राप्त होने के कारण यह निश्चय करने में बाधा पड़ती है कि कार्तिक व उनके पूर्वज और वंशज किस समय में शासक थे। फिर भी हम कह सकते हैं कि उनका समय चौथी और छठी शताब्दी के बीच का है, क्योंकि यशोधर्मा और यशोवर्मा


1. बौद्ध-कालीन भारत (जनार्दन भट्ट कृत) पेज 271।
2. भारत के प्राचीन राजवंश। भाग 2।


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-590


के समय से कुछ पहले उनका राज रहा होगा। तभी तो अचल के द्वारा उनकी प्रसिद्धि फैलाई गई थी।

Thjoth or Thjot in old Norse

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[10] writes that Our well supported investigations, have shown already , that the Jats migrated or were forced to migrate to the Middle East, where from, through Greece and Egypt during fifth and sixth centuries A.D. and even much earlier, they spread as far away as Sweden and the Baltic countries[11]. While passing through France and the Netherlands they carried with them their Middle Eastern appellations to the countries of their destination and these names, then, underwent further changes. The Swedes called them Thjoth[12], a slightly modified version of Djat, in old French and Norse. Those who en route, settled down in the Netherlands were known as the Jutes and gave one of the Islands, Jutland, their name. No less remarkable is the fact that these Jutes, the earliest settlers in Cantware (Kent) in England[13] after conquering it in early fifth century A.D. were also described as Djat[14] . The Oxford English Dictionary (1977 ed.) gives a very faithful account of the variants available in the old languages of the north-western European countries. In old English they were known as Juti, in early medieval Latin as Jutae, Juti (in plural) and Geta, in Icelandic as Jota and in Jutland, Denmark etc. as Jut as well as Jotar[15]

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[16] writes - In the Arabic speaking countries Jat was also written as Djat and as Thjoth or Thjot in old Norse. As I do not possess any knowledge of these languages, I fail to explain the why and wherefore of these variants. However, one thing is sure that 'D' and 'Th' are silent in Djat and Thjoth (like 'k' in know, 'p' in 'Ptolemy' and in psychology' and 'd' in 'djereed' and djinn and djetun'[17]).

Distribution

Notable persons

Population

See also

  • Thothal -
  • Thoth - was one of the deities of the Egyptian pantheon. Thoth's chief temple was located in the city of Khmun, later called Hermopolis Magna during the Greco-Roman era.

References

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. थ-24
  2. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p.44,s.n. 1186
  3. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter IX,p.588
  4. James Todd, Appendix 1], Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.588-589
  5. Bharat Ke Prachin Rajvansh, II
  6. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.589-590
  7. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, pp. 623-24
  8. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, pp. 624-25
  9. जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृ.588-590
  10. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Jat-Its variants,pp.340
  11. Mac Ritchie, op.cit. Westphal and Westphal, op.cit., pp. 41-48.
  12. Oxford Dic., (1977, p. 1167.
  13. Carter, E.H. and Mears, RAF.; His. of Brit., Oxf. Clarendon Pres, 1937 pp. 28-29. H.G. Wells, Outline of His., p. 57.
  14. Oxford Eng. Dic., Vol. V, p. 645.
  15. Oxf. Dic. (1977), p. 588, Green and Gardner, q. by Ujagar Singh Mahil, Ant.,
  16. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Jat-Its variants,pp.361
  17. 245. Cr. Twentieth Century Chambers, Oxford and Websters dictionaries.

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