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Chandrasena

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Chandrasain (चंद्रसैन) (Chandrasen, Chandrasena,Chandersen) was a King of Malwa. His capital was Chandrawati identified by James Tod [1] as per [Note 5] to Ram Chandra Pura (Inscription No. II). This site is Now Chhawni Ram Chandra Pura, PIN:324007, in Kota Municipal area.


James Tod found a Pali inscription about Jat King Chandrasain at village Ram Chandra Pura 6 miles east of Bundi state, which he sent to Asiatic Society London. The inscription reveals that there was a king Thot born in Yuti vansha. His son was Raja Chandrasain, a powerful and beloved of his subject. [2]

Ancestry of Chandrasena

ThotChandrasenaKartika (m. Gunaniwas) → Daruka (+Mukunda/Sukunda) → KuhalaDhunaka(?Nagara Inscription of Dhanika 684 A.D. )

Period of Chandrasena

An Inscription dated 684 A.D. belonging to Dhanika has been reported from Nagara, which was a stronghold of the Mallava tribe in the early centuries of the Christian era. [3]

Ram Chandra Pura Inscription of James Tod (Inscription No.II) mentions Dhunika son of Kuhla.

Both Dhanika of 684 AD Inscription and Dhunika of James Tod (Inscription No.II) appear to bee one and the same persons which in Hindi is Dhanika (धनिक).

Now we can construct a time line for Chandrasena taking 25 years for each generation.

ThotChandrasena (584 A.D.)→ Kartika (609 AD) (m. Gunaniwas) → Daruka (634 AD) (+Mukunda/Sukunda) → Kuhala (659 AD) → Dhunika (684 A.D. )

Our supposed date of Chandrasena (584 A.D.) is approaching 606 AD the date Jat Raja Harshavardhana was crowned Monarch.

Jat Gotras from Chandrasain

  • Chandwal (चंदवाल) Chandwar (चंदवार) Chandwa (चंदवा) Chandi (चंदी) Chandrayan (चंदरायण) is gotra of Jats started after Maharaja Chandrasain. [4]
  • Chandan (चांदन) gotra of Jats started after Maharaja Chandrasain. [5]

History

According to James Tod [7] as per [Note 5] to Ram Chandra Pura (Inscription No. II) — Chandrasen is celebrated in the history of the Pramaras as the founder of several cities, from two of which, Chandrabhaga, at the foot of the central plateau of India, in Northern Malwa, and Chandrawati Abu, the ruins of which I discovered at the foot of the Aravulli near Aboo. I possess several valuable memoria, which will, ere long, confirm the opinions I have given of the Takshaka architect.

Alexander Cunningham [8] has also confirmed after a visit to Chandravati that it was an old ruined city first settled by Chandersen, the ruler of Malwa. The place is in the vicinity of modern Jhalrapatan and none has expressed any doubt about its antiquity.

Moreover, the place of the ruins of the city founded by Chandersen also falls in the adjacent region from where the inscription under discussion had been discovered namely, Ram Chandrapoora, six miles east of Boondee, in digging a well.

Therefore, the circumstantial and material information leads us to express the probability that the second ruler named in the inscription is Chandersen, who founded Chandravati.

The Parmaras of Malwa were originally from Achalgarh and Chandrawati. Around 810 AD Upendra or Kerishnaraja left the place and established capital in Malwa. They ruled earlier from Achalgarh for a long period. [9]

Inscription No. II: Ram Chandra Pura Inscription of Maharaja Kartik

James Todd obtained a Pali inscription about Jit or Jat tribe at village Ramchandrapura 3 kos (6 miles) east of Bundi state, which he sent to Asiatic Society London. The inscription reveals that there was a king Thot born in Yuti vansha. His son was Raja Chandrasain, a powerful and beloved of his subject. The son of Chandrasain was Kartik, renowned for his prowess. His wife was Gunaniwas, who gave birth to two sons Mukund and Daruk. Daruk produced son named Kuhal. Kuhal produced son named Dhunak, who achieved great works. He had war with Hill Meenas tribes and defeated and destroyed them. He along with his brother Dok worshipped gods and brahmanas. They founded a Sun-temple for the pleasure of his beloved wife. The temple will stand till the sumer suvarna mountain stands on the sand. Kuhal had founded this temple and a Maheshwar temple in east. The popularity of this was spread by Achal, son of Mahabali Maharaja Yashovarma. [10]

The period of war of this dynasty with pahari Meenas is difficult to asses. If we assume that Jat ruler Kartik had war with Menander then the period of this comes about 150 BC. Menander had attacked areas upto Chittor. It is very likely that Kartik had a war with Menander. This way the period of his descendant becomes the first century. If we look into the period of Achal who made this temple popular it comes around third or fourth century or beyond it, as ruler Yashovarman was in Maukhari vansha in eighth century in Kannauj. He had sent a delegation to China in 731 AD. [11] Lack of records and history prior to sixth century prevents prom determining the exact period of the rule of Kartik and his descendants. According to Thakur Deshraj, We can presume their rule from fourth to sixth century. [12]

Saran Pali Inscription of 1580

सारन का लेख १५८० ई. - यह लेख सोजत प्रान्त के सारन नामक स्थान का है.[13] यहां रावचन्द्र सेन की दाहक्रिया की गयी थी. इस स्थान में एक प्रतिमा बनी हुई है जो चन्द्रसेन जी की घोड़े पर सवार की है और ५ स्त्रियां खड़ी हैं जो उनके साथ सती हुई थीं. उसमें अंकित है -

Text
"श्री गणेषाय नम: । संवत १६३७ शाके १५ [०] २ माघ मासे सू (शु) क्ल पक्षे सतिव (सप्तमी) दिने राय श्री चन्द्रसेण जी देवीकुला सती पंच हुई ।"
Saran Inscription of 1580[14]


References

  1. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, pp. 624-25
  2. James Todd, Appedix 1, Inscription II, Vol.1, pp. 624-25, Thakur Deshraj : Jat Itihas (Hindi), p.588-589
  3. Bharata-Kaumudi, I. p. 267 quoted in Classical Age, p. 160
  4. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998 p.242
  5. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998 p.244
  6. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998 p.244
  7. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, pp. 624-25
  8. Arch. Survey Report 1864-65, p.264
  9. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.11
  10. James Todd, Appedix 1, Inscription II, Thakur Deshraj : Jat Itihas (Hindi), p.588-589
  11. Bharat Ke Prachin Rajvansh, II
  12. Thakur Deshraj : Jat Itihas (Hindi), p.589-590
  13. डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा: 'राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्त्रोत', 1983, पृ.169
  14. डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा: 'राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्त्रोत', 1983, पृ.169

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