Ginri Patta Rajpura

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Ginadi Haveli

Ginri Patta Rajpura (गीनड़ी पटटा राजपुरा) or Ginari Tiba or Ginari Chhoti (गिनड़ी छोटी) is a village in the Churu tehsil and district in Rajasthan.


It is located on the eastern corner of the Churu district of Rajasthan, India. The village is over 450 years old and lies north-east of Churu and 25 km from Churu. Bordering villages include Ranwa Ki Dhani, Lalasar, Ginadi Taal, Inderpura, Thalori & Bhamasi.

Origin of name

One view is that some 450 years ago, there was a jagayat centre (authorized resting place on payment for travelers ) on the way (sub trade route Taranagar (RINI) - Churu). The jagayti (contractor owner of the place) had to pay 1 gini (a gold coin equal to 1/2 of a mohar). The centre, therefore, was called Giniwala गीनीवाला.

Jat Gotras

Population details

  • As per Census-2011 statistics, Ginri Patta Rajpura village has the total population of 1108 (of which 555 are males while 553 are females).[1]
  • Census-2001 reveals that the village, is spread over 43 Bigha of Aabadi land, and had an overall population of 998'[2]of whom 600 are members of the Jat People. Other castes residing in the village include Rajput, Swami, Nai and Harijan.


One view is that some 450 years ago, there was a jagayat centre (authorized resting place for travelers on payment) on the way (sub trade route Taranagar (RINI) - Churu). The jagayti (contractor owner of the place) had to pay 1 gini (a gold coin equal to 1/2 of a mohar). The centre, therefore, was called Giniwala गीनीवाला.

During the war between Rai Sigh Rathore (a son of the Bika Rathore of the then newly established state Bikaner) & Poonia chief Kanha Deo of Jhansal (near Hissar) many Poonia families were displaced. One Ramkishan Poonia family migrated from the village Binjawas (Rajgadh) to adjoining area of Shekhawati region Neema Ki Dhani. The Poonia family along with the families of ancestors of Deepa Karel,Roopdas Swami and Balaram Meghwal further displaced reached the Giniwala Jagayat - centre and established their dhani ढाणी (residence) there.

Immigration process

  • Kulhari (ancestors of Pannaram, Mama-Bhua-Bhai of the Poonia) followed by the Dullar (ancestors of Bakhtaram, a cousin of Kulhari and Poonia) migrated from Vadpura. Thereafter ancestors of Harji Khalia (relatives of the Poonia and cousins of the Kulhari) came to settle.
  • Ancestors of Daluram Tetarwal migrated from TetraShekhawati to Neemwali (Nohar) to settle at Ginadi. Thereafter Ishran, ancestors of Chunaram - relatives of Poonia - came to settle here.
  • Ancestors of Lal Singh Rathore (Bika) from Jagir house of Rajpura came as Kotria sardar.
  • Ancestors of Binjaram Nai, Rohil and Singhmar (Harijans) were the next to settle here.
  • Some 110 years ago, Sunda and Khakhal relatives of Poonia migrated from Bardadas and Jori respectively along with ancestors of Ghoturam, Nathuram, Netaram Tetarwals from Bardadas.
  • Ruhils from Khansoli, ancestors of Chuhad Singhmar Harijan from Ginadi Taal, ancestors of Kanaram Harijan from Kadwasar, Kewalji Dhanak from Jori and Asharam Kadwasra were next migrants.
  • Mohanji Isharwal from Bharu only 20 years ago was the last to migrate to the village.


The "Theh" थेह (remains of earthen pots) at Rathion Ki Dhani (राठिओं की ढाणी) and south of the village site at farmlands of Kanaram Kulhari and Richhpal Poonia, the "Babal Kunds and the 'Chhatri' (छतरी) there, the Bodia kua (बोड़िया कुआ) and the memorial” chabutra चबूतरा of Meghrajot Singh near or under the house of Ramnarayan Swami are notable relics associated with the village.

Village administration

The village along with 24 others was under the Jagir of Rajpura Thakur. Poonia,Udaram & his ancestors, were village Choudhary and Meghwal the village Kotwal. The Choudhary collected land revenue (Rakam) and arbitrated the village disputes. The Kotwal functioned as Ahalkar (messenger-cum-attendant) of the Thakur and Choudhary. Due to untimely death of Choudhary Rajuram and his ailing son Surjaram Poonia, Chimnaram Tetarwal was appointed as co-choudhary of the village some 20 years before abolition of the Jagirdari system.

Literacy rates Before 1947

only 5 persons Shri Purnaram Khakhal, Magaram Poonia, Chimnaram Tetarwal, Rikhuram Poonia and Chhogaram Poonia were literate with inspiration from Swami Keshwanand Trust. Pieces of earthen pots and wood-coals were their slate and 'barta' respectively.

Housing & construction

In the past,huts and Saals (room built with clay and limestone and with thatched ceiling)were the popular dwelling structures.. The first pakka room (built with chuna -baked limestone- and khor -nodules of clay- used with Dhandhla stone) was built by Motaram Poonia followed by Bhinwam chamar, Chimnaram Tetarwal & Udaram Poonia. The four rooms, kua, johra, three kunds (Babal kunds along with the Babal chhatri) & the memorial chabutra were the only pakka structures before independence.

After Independence

Village government

The village is governed by Panchayati Raj System. In the first panchayat election, the village along with 14 others, was under Sehjusar gram Panchayat. Later on it became part of Inderpura panchayat and now it is a part of Lalasr Banirotan panchayat. Presently out of total 9 members of the panchayat 3 panchas are elected from Ginadi. The panchayat is under Vikas Samiti Churu. It is part of the Churu MLA constituency. During first two panchayats, Nyay Samitis at panchayat levels were also constituted. Ch. Magaram Poonia of the village was elected member of the nyay Samiti.late sh. Chimnaram Tetarwal from the village was elected sarpanch of Indarpura panchayat.Sh. Chokharam Poonia of the village was elected sarpanch for Lalasar panchayat. Secretary Panchayat, Patwari, Gram Sewak,Vyavsthapak cooperative society, waterman, lineman & Sathin Aanganbari Kendra are village level govt. functionaries. The village is under Dudhwakhara police station.

Village economy

Almost all the families of the village are engaged in farming. However, some members of the families are engaged in services & other activities. There are three male government teachers, two female government teachers, five private school teachers, five nurses,one railway, one in the RAC, three state policemen, six in army, three in water Works department, five retired Havildars, 22 work in Arab countries, there are two accountants, one retired govt. PG college principal, one private college lecturer, two engineers, three (MBA) managers, two lawyers & twenty persons working in factories outside the village. As can be seen from these figures, out of the 220 families (houses) more than 85 villagers are employed in occupations other than agriculture.

There are four private schools established and operated by the villagers, two in the village and two at Jodhpur.

Apart from agriculture, live-stock activities are also carried on in the village, almost every household has some sort of animals with it. There are ten 'Rewads'(a herd of sheep & goats), 30 camels, 60 cows with one village bull,160 buffaloes with a common "Jhota"( he buffalo), two mares & 4 donkeys. The village is counted as one of the best villages in the tehsil. Almost every household has a pakka room with pakki boundaries & there are good havelis.

But as compared with the position of the village some 50 years ago, in general, the financial position has worsened. Then, out of 125 households only 25 houses were indebted, but now out of 220 households more than 160 are indebted. Thus indebtedness has risen from 20% to more than 75%.

Reasons of rise in indebtedness are many. On one hand are positive changes in lifestyle, raising of living standards, now people eat better, wear better clothes, use amenities and facilities seen in towns. Villagers spend on education, transportation, and medication. But the biggest setback has been the adverse farming conditions. In the past, every member of the family earned: children raised livestock, ghee was sold to arrange for groceries, every bye-product of farming - woods, fodder etc. - fetched a hefty income. The costs in farming were little, medical expenses almost non-existent, no expense on water-electricity, no education expense, no transportation expense; no expense on detergents & cosmetics. The expenses were very few since the living standards were low and even little income led to an economy of surplus & self-reliance. In addition, farmers do not know where their interests lie. They support rallies that seek to curb prices of farm produces in guise of controlling inflation. As a matter of fact such rallies are to benefit other sections of society at the cost of the farmer.


Ginadi is connected by a two lane asphalt road to Churu. Churu Railway station, 25 km from Ginari is the nearest railway station, which is well connected to Jaipur, Delhi and other cities.

Asphalt roads connect the village to surrounding villages. The first village road connecting it to Churu- Taranagar road was built 1n 2006 with the efforts of the villagers under the leadership of prof. Shivram Poonia and his cousin 'Sarpanch'(Gram Panchayat head) sh. Chokharam Poonia.

Camel carts and bullock carts were formerly the chief means of transportation and are being replaced by cycles and other automobiles.

In the rainy season, womenfolk can be seen bringing grass on their heads for cows and buffaloes.

Now, there are 5 tractors, 4 pick-ups,1 truck, 3 autos, 4 jeeps & 10 cars in the village.


Before independence there were only 5 literates in the village. Primary school was established by the government in 1961-62. The school started in a'khuddi' (a room with mud walls and grass roof). Its first teacher was Shri Munir khan Dhobi of Dudhwakhara. Two pakka rooms were constructed by the villagers in 1963. Now the school has been upgraded to middle level with 8 rooms and 300 students on its roll. Two private primary schools are also operating in the village.

Notable persons

Firsts in village:

  • Shri Patram Khakhal and Shri Atmaram Tetarwal matriculation 1957-58 and first govt. servants.
  • Shri Shiv Ram Poonia graduation - 1970.
  • Shri Shiv Ram Poonia post graduation - 1972 and gazetted officer in 1972.
  • Miss Vijya Laxmi Poonia female graduate -1994.
  • Miss Seema Poonia female post graduate (MSc botany)- 1999.
  • Miss Dipti Poonia MBA 2003 and first lady employee.
  • Mr. Dhruva Poonia, MBA - Having worked in foreign (for F1F9, at Holland and UK) - 2007..
  • Mr. Shankar Lal Meghwal advocate - 2008.
  • Miss Kirti Poonia foreign student MS IT Texas Dallas, USA 2009.
  • Shri Omprakash Poonia PhD 2011.
  • Miss Poonam Poonia MBBS 2009, doing PG in USA.
  • Mr. Amit Prakash Poonia, engineering-BITS Dubai-doing job in Italy.
  • Late Ch. Chhogaram Poonia has a creditable record of having 21 graduates and post graduates (6 in foreign) in his extended family.
  • Two students are doing MBBS, three engineering and two LLB and two ladies doing Phd.


All the villagers follow the Hindu religion.

Local deities

  • Thakurji: the oldest temple in the village; The Swami clan as its priest; owning a Dohli ( tax-free farm-land allotted by the state for sustenance of the priest family); actually it's Krishna- temple but called Thakurji perhaps due to influence of erstwhile Thakurs (jagirdars ); the priest daily in the morning takes a ferry to each house and says "jai thakurji" and in turn gets some floor.The villagers go to the temple on the occasions of birth, marriage and death.The temple was housed in a mud walled room till 1980 when the employees of the village, under leadership of prof. Shiv Ram Poonia,got constructed full pakka temple with installation of statues(Pran pratistha).
  • Gogaji: A Chauhan chieftain born in nearby Jodi village to mata(mother) Bachhal with the blessing of Guru Gorakh Nath and blessed by him to be lord of snakes; he owned the famous magical mere Keshar Kalvi and fought against the plunders to protect cows; was exiled by his mother due to killing by him his cousins Arjan-Sharjan; prayed Kalma (a religious mantra of the Muslims) and took Jinwat Smadhi(lively going in the earth)and therefor called Gogapeer, perhaps the only deity worshiped by both the Hindus and the Muslims, his smadhi-satha (death place) Gogamedi near Bhadra tehsil is a India level pilgrim centre.
  • In Ginadi there was only a Than (a small triangular structure symbolic of a medi (full temple) till 2007 when a pakki medi was constructed by the villagers under the leadership of haveldar Ishar Ram Ishran. In the months of Shrawan-Bhadwa,village girls go to it and offer water while singing and praying for protection from snakes. snake-bites in the area are most common in the months of Shrawan-Bhadwa; snake-bitten person is brought to the Medi and a Tanti (a thread embedded with the feather of peacock) is tied to him, the person is depoisoned. If not,a "thali of Kansi" (plate of alloy) is applied to his back by an expert and the poison is sucked by it. 8th day of the month of Bhadwa is observed as Goga-day; a "prashad" (blessed offering)of Chitki (a piece of coconut) and Kheer (a liquid preparation of milk-rice) is offered on this day. The Bhakat ( devotee priest) prays for landing of Jewdees (rope like poison -less snakes) and if not obliged,punishes himself with a Shankal (a ring with iron spokes). The moment is surcharged with emotions for the onlookers.
  • Mawliaji - also called Mahamaya Ji is goddess mother of children;there is a Than of the deity two kms. south of the village,along with a pasture land of some 30 bighas attached to it. The place of the deity is one of its kind in the area and devotees from hundreds of kms. come to it for worship and to pray for the well being of their newly born babies. One time worship of the goddess is considered mandatory for every newborn baby.
  • Village deity :
    • Gudganvwali Mata for the clan of Harjans,
    • Karni Mata for the clan of Rajputs,
    • Sedh Mata,
    • Malasi ka Mamliaji,
    • Khetarpalji,
    • Bhomiaji & Peerji (peerji ka jaant at Manglaram Tetarwal ka Kheda) and Netji are village deity;
    • Netji and Harsh are also clan deities for Poonia
    • Gusainji is kuladevata for Ishrans.

Water resources

Underground water is saline. Underground wells and johdas were main source of water for animals and domestic requirements. Drinking water was fetched from the nearby village Inderpura.

A Kui (कुई) (a narrow vertical tunnel dug to the underground water level) on the west of bodia kua (बोड़िया कुआ) was built 200 years ago. During the severe drought of Vikram Samvat 1995 to 1996, under the inspiration of ch. Chimnaram Tetarwal, a 'pakka kua’ was built by Seth Jaydyalji Goenka of Churu. Later a 60x60x15 (feet cube) size pakka johda along with a 30x15x10 ft size Gaughat were built.

There were 4 community kuis of Poonia, Sunda, Thakur, and Tetarwal.The well was operated though bid system. Livestock heads were counted and per head bidding rates invited. Water was drawn with the help of bullocks. The well was operated daily in the morning and evening.The echo of the sweet songs by thekuadia (कुआडिया) ( two men operating the well)at 4 am were used to be very refreshing and enlightening. In the evening, operating time of the well was very lively and entertaining. Both of the elders and the youth would gather in the Guaad (गुआड़) (courtyard in the common land); overtly gossiping and discussing village news. But their main attraction would be the Paniharins (पनिहारीं) (the newly wed brides in a flock along with their young sisters-in-law going to fetch water from the well). They used to dress themselves in the best of their decorated traditional attires and ornaments. The elders stealthily glancing and the youths openly and closely; but the moments would be exotic to both.

During the month of Falgun, the Rasiyas(the men in a group dancing, singing and playing on 'Damphs'- circular drums- on the eve of Holi festival) performing with all the vigour and gusto at the time of panghat( the system of fetching water from the village well), the occasion becomes frenetic, memorable to any body to the extent of envy.

There were only three Kunds of Poonia, Tetarwal & Meghwal. They were underground tanks with tomb shaped "Dhoala" & pakka catchment area to store rain water, the tanks were cylindrical shaped to withstand pressure of water & their inner sides were coated with a Sunla of Singraj powder to stop leakage of water. The tanks were main source of precious drinkable water and were cleaned of dirt annually and occasionally sprayed with "Gangajal" to prevent pollution.

In 1974-75, Under the inspiration of Prof. [[Shiv Ram Poonia[[, a new well was constructed by Seth Kanhailal Dugar of Sardarshahr and handed over to Public Health Engineering Department (PHED). Almost every house of the village was connected to the storage tanks through pipelines. Recently the village as been connected to German water supply system.


The village was electrified in 1980 due to personal efforts by the villagers under the leadership of late ch. Rikhuram Poonia. The villagers bought Rural Electrification Bonds of Rs.5,000 (then five thousand!) in order to get electric connectivity;the bonds are still pending redemption due to negligence of the descendants of the buyers.

Johds (Common grazing land)

The johdas are earthen ponds with large catchment areas meant for storage of rain water inside Charagah (grazing) lands for animals. The Johdas include

  • Kalra कालरा (biggest and best with kalar clays famous for preserving water up to 9 months a year and connected to village with Goha गोहा (a wide strip of land meant for animal transit).
  • Kesana (best pasture land) was connected to village with a Goha. *Sujania सुजानिया,
  • Mawliaji ki johadi मावलिआजी की जोहड़ी are located at village kankad कांकड़ (border).
  • Others are- Ram talai राम तलाई, Gangania गंगानिया, Khatayani खातायानी, dumani डुमानी, Pichparani पिचपरानी, Johadia जोहडिया and village Beed बीड़.

The total area under these johra जोह्ड़ा was roughly 500 bigha but due to negligence of the villagers and carelessness of the administration, nearly 100 bigha land of common village pastureland stands encroached for farming. The Johria जोहडिया, village beed बीड़, and the gohas गोहा are completely encroached while others are only peripherally encroached.

Society and culture

Village society is governed solely by Hindu rituals although the younger generation has been affected by western cultural influences. Parda, the practice of using veils to cover the face and other parts of the body is discouraged.


Villagers celebrate all major Hindu festivals. Some of the major festivals are Holi, Deepawali, Makar Sankranti, Raksha Bandhan, Sawan, Teej, and Gauga Peer, Gangaur.

The saying 'तीज त्योंहरा बावड़ी हाड़ो ले डूबी गंगोर' (festivals begin with Teej and end with Gangor)speaks chronology of Hindu festivals. Each of the festival has its own peculiarity and logic regarding time of observance, motive, celebration and usefulness.


  • The 3rd day of the Shrawan month, the day of 'surangi'(colorful)Teej; middle of rainy season; greenery all around; rows and columns of dark clouds disbursing rains everywhere. The festival celebrates the youthfulness of the nature and humanity. The newlywed daughters are brought to their parental homes. They, singing folk songs on the theme of love and nature, go to village ponds and take bath. Young ladies in pairs can be seen taking ride on "Jhula" (swing made from grass rope, two ropes suspended from a branch of a tree and tied to a foot board to stand on). Kheer is cooked in every home.


The 15th day of Kartik-month at the beginning of winter season, Khareef crops are ready for harvesting, local fruits are ready in plenty, sisters are brought to parental home from their in-laws place, all the members working away from home in foreign lands return home. The festival is observed to worship Goddess Laxmi- seeking wealth, prosperity and peace; celebrations begin from "Dhan Teras" followed by Kanti Dipawali. On the night of 15th, every house is illuminated with "Diya"(small earthen lamps lighted with ghee/oil). Worship is performed by hanging pictures of Laxmi along with Lord Ganesha and putting jewelry and cash interspersed with 'roli', incense, 'prasad'( of cooked rice with ghee and 'shakkar'- powdered gur), dipak of ghee and an ember. The family members dressed in best attires assemble, head lady offers ghee on the ember, if the emerging flame is connected to the flame of the dipak goddess is supposed to be attentive for worship. The lady calls the family members one by one, ties a"Suha naal"(auspicious coloured thread) on the wrist and applies "Tilak"(spot of liquid vermilion/roli on the fore head) or "vibhuti'(burnt ash of the auspicious ember) on the fore head) and the member prays for prosperity/ individual aspirations.

  • "Dhan Teras" - (13th, the auspicious day for wealth), people buy precious metals, new utensils, vehicles etc.
  • Kanti Dipawali- 14th is day for Kanti Dipawali (dipawali without lights).
  • Govardhan-The next day to Dipawali is for "Govardhan”( Lord of the most useful animal- cow) worship and "Raam-rumi"(greeting in the name of lord Rama). A heap of cow dung along with local fruits is put at the gate of every house. The villagers take ferry to each other's house ,say raam-rumi and accept sweets.
  • The last of the celebrations is "Bhaiya-dooj"(the 2nd day of dipawali for brothers); sisters oblige brothers for remembering and bringing them to parental home to participate in the celebrations.
  • The boys of the village start playing of "Hidda-lighting'(tied beams of straws) 15 days before dipawali. In the early night, they gather at the out skirts of the village; light their hiddas, dance, race and sing folk songs. Nice opportunity to prove one's efficiency, making friends and entertaining. How colorful, attractive and purposeful the festival! Children used to count months and days ahead of Dipawali. Interesting to note that in contrast to the cities, no crackers were exploded in the villages during diwali celebrations.


The end of Falgun month; lively fauna and flora; spring season spreads its smell all around; villagers having harvested their crops in leisure ready to enjoy the season. The occasion is Holi festival; the festival of revelries for toiling masses in contrast to Dipawali for affluent ones.

  • According to mythology Holika, sister of mighty demon Hiranyakashipu, had a magical "Choonri"(a decorated colured cloth for woman to cover head and wrap around the body)with a boon that anything covered with it would be immune to fire. She tried to burn child " Bhakat" (devotee and worshiper of any god) Prahalad by covering herself with the 'choonri' and taking the child in her laps and setting fire on but the child remained unscathed while Holika burnt to ashes. The victory of truth(Prahalad) over evil(Holika) is legend of celebrating Holi. Victory of prahalad but celebration in the name of Holika, perhaps due to feudal influence in latter stage.
  • Holi celebrations start from "fullariya-dooj"(the 2nd day of Falgun when flowers are in full bloom), playing on chang or "Daph"(a drum of round circular frame of wood covered with skin of sheep) starts from this day. The Daph is held on shoulder near the ear and beaten/struck with the flap of the palm of hand/fingers. Every evening, a group of people (called 'Rasiya') play on daph while dancing on knees and singing folk ballads in a rhythm at different pitches. The saga is called "Dhamal". Young girls play "Loor"(a dance with measured steps and stanza of a song by each participant). On the day of Holi ,a small tree of khejri is planted in the midst of "Bhintka"(a heap of straws of a thorny bush) on the out skirts of the village. In the evening, the villagers gather at the spot; the girls throw 'Badkulia' बड्कुलिया ( a garland of cow dung pieces)on the Holika, the village head offers a coconut, the 'rasiyas' play on daph, the children explode crackers and Holi is set on fire. Meanwhile unmarried youth, aspirant of marriage at the earliest, takes out the planted tree(Prahalad) and 'holika' is burnt to ashes. The wise farmers read omens from the direction of the flames of burning 'Holika' and voice of birds etc.; others symbolically plough their farms and throw their 'Matira' ( a fruit of watermelon category)through the flames and thus the celebration is over. The sweet diet is rice with ghee- shakar.
  • At night all the villagers gather in the village courtyard to play "Gindhad"(Dandya dance in circle around the 'Nagara'- a big drum). The next day is observed as 'Dhulandi'. All the villagers along with 'rasiyas' take a ferry(procession called 'Gehar') to each house demanding sweats and wine on this or that count. Thus Holi, the most important festival of the villagers, is a good forum for entertainment and strengthening brotherhood.

Makar Sankranti

  • In the month of Magh, every year fixed on 14th of January, when the sun has entered the zodiac sign of capricorn, signaling end of winter in the northern hemisphere, the festival of makar-sankranti is observed to propitiate the sun god to protect us from the evil effects of astral bodies. Oil based foods-'bada','Gudgala','Pua', cheelda','Pakodi','Gur-papda' etc.are cooked. What a taste of hot oily dishes during the winter days! But the craze and charm of kite- flying prevalent in the cities on this occasion is virtually non- existent in the villages.


The last of the village festivals in a calender year;the 21st day of Chaitra month';spring season at the end of its full bloom, aura of smell and greenery;festive atmosphere at the time of equinox; villagers in leisure ; the occasion is festival of Gangaur,predominantly a function of females like 'Teej'.Literally "gangaur' means goddess Parvati mother of 9 'Gans'( nine basic traits of human conscience-owned by lord ganesha son of parvati).

  • According to mythology, Parvati had worshiped lord Shiva to have him her husband.Therefor, all the aspirant brides worship goddess mother Parvati praying for providing them with husband of their choice. Some 15 days ahead of the festival, each day early in the morning the girls go to outskirts of the village, collect green branches of the local bush 'Fog' full of smell with its flower 'Ghintal'( by the way ' the smell of the 'ghital' of the then densely found bush in the desert areas in the month of 'Chaitra-maas' used to be all pervasive making the surroundings lively and festive. but, alas!,with fast disappearing of the bush it is no more there!); offer water to the branches and worship Parvati.
  • On the day of the festival in the evening,competitions of wrestling, kabadi, horse and camel race are organised. The youths of the village participate enthusiastically.The idols of the Gaur are thrown in the village well to get them submerged in the fresh water of the well. A legend also goes that a Rajput lady Gangaur while at her parental home jumped in the village well followed by her husband Hada and therefore since then the festival is observed. But it might have been added during feudal period just to give the festival a touch of the authority of the ruling class. The special diet on the occasion is 'Dhokla'(berry like pieces of the dough of millet cooked in the steam of water)along with 'Kheer'.It's also note worthy that the girl who worshiped 'Gangaur' is considered duty bound to do 'Gaur-ujna' after her marriage as an offering for fullfilment of her prayers before marriage.

Music and Entertainment

Folk songs are sung by women during weddings and on other social occasions. Menfolk sing dhamaal ( traditional Holi songs). Many villagers own TV's as well as radios and satellite dishes. The sound of popular Hindi music emanating from stereos and other devices is heard from different houses during the afternoon and evening.

  • Customary songs by woman
    • at birth- Hullariya and Jachcha in praise of newborn male infant and his mother respectively,
      • Jalwa and Kuwa-pujan (worship of water & well for the newborn at the time of Chhuchhak- birth celebration)
    • at marriage-
      • Banada/Banadi and Banori ( songs in the praise of bridegroom/bride)
      • Toontia (drama songs at the night when the men are away at marriage party - may be to keep the women awakened and united to guard against possible robbery in the absence of the men))
      • Bhaat(songs to welcome the parental members of the mother of the bride/ groom),
      • Ankhadli (songs to welcome son-in laws),
      • songs at the time of applying lotion( pithee- maslna),
      • songs at the time of tying nuptial knot( phera,chanwari and sakhachar),
      • seethna (fun songs at the time of samthuni - disbursement of gifts)
      • Vidai (at the time of departure of the bride),
      • arta (at the time of return of the marriage party to welcome the bride and to praise the groom for his triumph - keshario banado jeetgyo...)and
      • Devi/Devta ( to worship local deities by the newly weds)and
      • rati jaga/Raati-Yoga (songs to propitiate the gods especially Rati- the goddess of sex; the songs continue till morning and may be the raati joga program in the ancient times could have originated to guard the bride from possible abduction)).
    • At death: 'Harjas/Hari-yash'(in the praise of Hari-the God).
    • Others: Olyun (when the lady departs to his husband's house),
      • Badhawa (when a lady departs for her parental home)and
      • Janwai/Jeeja jakdi (when a son-in-law comes to parental house of his wife) and the festival specific songs. The women songs on these occasions make the functions colurful and lively.
  • Organisation of folk dances and songs by men:-
    • Jagan/Jagarans (awareness camps at night):by individuals/village devoted to a specific deity such as Gogaji, Balaji (god Hanuman), Karni Mata, Gudganwa wali Mata, Netji, Gusainji;a party of singers(called Swaiya) is contracted to perform the jagran; villagers are invited;
      • in the Gauga -jagaran, the singers while dancing and beating Damru (a small handy drum) with small curved stick, sing ballads of Gogaji; rhythmic dance and beat of the drum produces a hype in the audience,reverence for the god and singers is aroused automatically.
      • In the jagran for gudganwa wali Mata,professional singers called Kamdia sing legends and the audience stands ruptured out of raptures generated thereby.The famous Kamdia Chimandas is still a household name in the area.
      • Reading of Fadd (a pictorial painting presenting the story of the legendary Pabuji (a local deity- lord of camels) on a long canvass is another interesting jagaran;in it the Bhopa and Bhopi (members of a nomadic tribal clan claiming to be followers of Pabuji- a local hero of Didwana, Nanaur) perform the jagaran; the Bhopa while playing on Rawan-Hatha (a musical instrument of violin family)initiates the raga and the Bhopi extends the song; the intermittent nudging of the Bhopi by the Bhopa to press her to raise the pitch is characteristic.
    • satsangs (religious congregations)are also important source of entertainment;in a satsang, saintly people sermon by means of Bhajans ( religious songs).
    • Story telling by the Badwas/ Bahibhats (ancestress recorders)is also entertaining; almost every clan has its own 'Badwas' who make a yearly trip to their 'Yajmans'(sponsor of the event),read the ancestress of the clan and record the accretion for each family, get handsome tips; virtually they camp for days and during the stay they tell entertaining stories based on the themes of legend, history, mythology, fiction etc.;they are expert at narration and comics.
    • swangs ( fancy dress)and mimicry at the time of holi -festival are full of recreation and ridicule.
    • Village ferry by Harhariya (devotees of God- Hari): the summer season near its end in the months of Jyestha/Asaadh; wee hours of nights;villagers almost completing their sleep; refreshing cool hours of hot summer nights, and the pleasant and appealing voices of 2-3 saintly people dressed in saffron attire chanting mantras in rhythm and rhyme are most entertaining and reassuring. The harhariya used to be unknown philanthropic missionaries roaming village to village and taking a ferry through the out skirts of the village; the ferry was supposed to be meant for safe guarding the village against the evil spirits and bad omen; in turn the villagers would offer doles in cash/kind.
    • Ram Bhanna/Bhajna (remembering Rama/Truth with reverence):during the period of harvesting, peasants usually work in groups in order to alleviate tiredness and burden of hard work they sing folk songs about legends/folk life titled such as Bagh, Ramdhaniya, Heer and Gaurband lumalo etc.;during ploughing of farms singing ballads of Veer Tejaji (was a Jat chieftain of Nagaur, fought valiantly against the plunders and was blessed to be lord of snakes; is worshiped as a snake deity all over western Rajasthan)is most popular and entertaining.

All these traditional sources of entertainment also worked to generate cooperation, unity, unison, and bonds of cohesion and brotherhood among the villagers. But with the spread of education and the advent of TV/mobile connectivity the cultural saga of the villages is losing its shine and is on the way out much to the chagrin of elderly populace.

Games and sports

Nowadays most of the children play cricket. Some villagers also play volleyball and football. Villagers can be seen playing cards in chaupal (village common area) and "chausar'(choppad-pasa)in some houses. Some of the traditional games & sports are also prevalent.

  • Folk games :
    • 'Kabadi'(played between two teams, each team having 7 players,one team operates as raiders and the other catchers, if the raider is caught he is out but if he manages to over power the catchers and comes to the central line, all the catchers touching him are out.
    • 'Ghoda- kabadi(a variation of kabadi) is also popular.
    • 'Peewani'( a variation of hockey, played at night during 'holi- dipawali' days).
    • 'Hardada'(a variation of cricket, played during 'Holi' days.
    • 'Guntha'(a variation of golf)
    • 'Dharsunda'(seven players in a ring and seven out side it, each of the outside players raids the ring and tries to throw out as many opponents as possible but the opponents are free to hit/catch/fell him and if he is unable to come out of the ring he is out).
    • 'Lala-liter'( players sitting in a circle, one of them with a concealed shoe with him and chanting 'Lala- liter 'lewun ke dewun' takes round of them and puts stealthily the shoe behind any of them,if the person comes to know of it he can beat the raider with the shoe otherwise he is beaten with the shoe and given out to function as next raider).

The games were played by children/ youths either at night or during slack season; apart from providing recreation, they also provided fine opportunity to prove one's superiority, make friends and get training for team work. But now they are on the wane- occasional glimpses is the most we can hope for.

External links


  • Shivram Poonia - From Ginari Tibba, tahsil Churu, Senior most retired principal from government P. G. College. As a principal he served in Sardarsahar, Didwana, and Churu before retiring in 2010. Address: 14 Vanvihar Churu, Raj. Phone: 09414465510


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