|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)|
The Hindu Shahi (870-1000 AD), a term used by history writer Al-Biruni  to refer to the ruling Hindu dynasty that took over from the Turki Shahi and ruled the region during the period prior to Muslim conquests of the 10th and 11th centuries.
The term Hindu Shahi was a royal title of this dynasty and not its actual clan or ethnological name. Al-Biruni used the title Shah for many other contemporary royal houses in his descriptions as well.
- 1 Formation of Hindu Shahi dynasty
- 2 In Rajatarangini
- 3 Move to Kabul; dynastic continuity
- 4 Laliya Sahi Jat of Kabul
- 5 Their wars with the Arabs
- 6 Shahi rulers
- 7 हिन्दुशाही राज्य की स्थापना
- 8 हिन्दू शाही के अगवा राजा
- 9 References
- 10 Notes
- 11 Further Reading
- 12 External links
Formation of Hindu Shahi dynasty
In the wake of Muslim invasions of Kabul and Kapisa in second half of 7th century (AD 664), the Kapisa/Kabul ruler called by Muslim writers Kabul Shahi (Shahi of Kabul) made an appeal to the Kshatriyas of the Hind who had gathered there in large numbers for assistance and drove out the Muslim invaders as far as Bost.This king of Kapisa/Kabul who faced the Muslim invasion was undoubtedly a Ksatriya.
In AD 645, when Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang was passing through the Uttarapatha, Udabhanda or Udabhandapura was the place of residence or secondary capital of emperor of Kapisa which then dominated over 10 neighboring states comprising Lampaka, Nagara, Gandhara and Varna (Bannu) and probably also Jaguda. About Gandhara, the pilgrim says that its capital was Purushapura; the royal family was extinct and country was subject to Kapisa; the towns and villages were desolate and the inhabitants were very few. It seems that under pressure from Arabs in the southwest and the Turks in the north, the kings of Kapisa had left their western possessions in the hands of their viceroys and made Udabhanda their principal seat of residence. The reason why Udabhandapura was selected in preference to Peshawar is at present unknown but it is possible that the new city of Udabhanda was built by Kapisa rulers for strategic reasons.
Rajatarangini writes - Didda's nephew, Kshamapati, ascended the throne in 1003 A. D. and reigned till 1028 A. D. Tunga, who had been the favorite of Didda, was all powerful during the reign of her nephew, and went out with a Kashmirian army and Rajput and other subsidiary forces to help the Shahi king against the attack of the Turashkas. We shall quote Kalhana's account of the event from Mr. Jogesh Chunder's translation:
" The Kashmirians crossed the river Toushi, and destroyed the detachmant of soldiers sent by Hammira to reconnotire. But though the Kashmirians were eager for the fight, the wise Shahi repeatedly advised them to take shelter behind the rock, but Tungga disregarded the advice, for all advice is vain when one is doomed to destruction. The general of the Turks was well versed in the tactics of war and brought out his army early in the morning. On this the army of Tungga immediately dispersed, but the troops of the Shahi fought for a while."
The heroism of the Shahi king, however, was unavailing he was beaten, and his kingdom was destroyed for ever.
Rajatarangini tells that Then the virtuous and truthful Gopalavarmma (902-904), began to reign under the direction of his mother Sugandha. Though he was yet a boy, and lived among the vile and the seduced, yet he did not contract any bad habit. His mother was now a widow, and living in luxury, asked Prabhakaradeva, a minister (treasurer), to her embrace, and bestowed on her paramour wealth, rank, and three good districts. The treasurer robbed the queen of much wealth and built a town Bhandapura at Shahirajya. The reigning Shahi disobeyed his orders to build the town, on which he changed the name of the country to Kamalaka, and gave it to Tomarana the son of Lalliya. (Book V,p.122)
Rajatarangini writes - [p.172]: Trilochanapala the Shahi having asked for help against his enemy, the king of Kashmira sent Tungga to his country in the month of Mārgashirsha. He was accompanied by a large and powerful army with feudatory chiefs and ministers and Rajpoots. The Shahi welcomed them to his country, and advanced to meet them ; and they spent five or six days in pleasure and congratulation. Shahi saw their want of discipline and told them that since they did not mean to fight with the Turushkas, they might remain at ease at the flank of a hill. But Tungga did not accept this good advice and he as well as his army was anxious for the battle. The Kashmirians crossed the river Tonshi, and destroyed the detachment of soldiers sent Hammira to reconnoiter. But though the Kashmiriaus were eager for the fight, the wise Shahi repeatedly advised them to take shelter behind the rock, but Tungga disregarded the advice, for all advice is vain, when one is doomed to destruction. The General of the Turks was well versed in the tactics of war and brought out his army early in the morning. On this the army of Tungga immediately dispersed, but the troops of the Shahi fought for a while. When these latter fled, three persons were still seen in the field, gallantly fighting against the cavalry of the enemy. They were Jayāsinha , Shrivardhana and Vibhramārka the Damara. And there too was the valiant Trilochanapala, whose valor passes description and who, though Overwhelmed by unequal numbers remained unconquered.
[p.173]: His body bled, and he looked, like Mahadeva wrapt in the flames of the last fire with which the world is to be destroyed. After facing his numerous foes clad in mail, he at last retreated, and the enemy overran a large tract of the country. Hammira though victorious in the field felt himself ill at ease on witnessing the super-human heroism of Trilochanapala. The Shahi took shelter in Hāstika and made great efforts to retrieve his fortune.
Thus have I briefly narrated the fall and extinction of the line of Shahi, and now the very existence of his kingdom of which I have spoken in the history of Shangkaravarmma, had become an object of doubt. Fate accomplishes what appears improbable even in dream, and what cannot even be conceived.
Move to Kabul; dynastic continuity
In subsequent years, the Muslim armies returned with large reinforcements and Kabul was swept when the Shahi ruler agreed to pay tribute to the conquerors. For strategical reasons, the Shahis, who continued to offer stubborn resistance to Muslim onslaughts, finally moved their capital from Kapisa to Kabul in about AD 794. Kabul Shahis remained in Kabul until AD 879 when Ya'qub-i Laith Saffari, the founder of the Saffarid dynasty, conquered the city. Kabul Shahis had built a defensive wall all around the Kabul city to protect it against the army of Muslim Saffarids. The remains of these walls are still visible over the mountains which are located inside the Kabul city.
The first Hindu Shahi dynasty was founded in AD 870 by Kallar alias Lalliya (c. 890-895) of Kabul. The kingdom was bounded on the north by the Hindu kingdom of Kashmir, on the east by Hindu kingdoms, on the south by the Muslim Emirates of Multan and Mansura, and on the west by the Abbasid Caliphate.
According to the confused accounts recorded by Alberuni which are chiefly based on folklore, the last king of the first Shahi dynasty, Lagaturman (Katorman) was overthrown and imprisoned by his Brahmin vizier Kallar, thus resulting in the change-over of dynasty.
Alberuni also records in "Tarikh-al-Hind" that the Kabul Shahi rulers claimed descent from Kanik (believed by some to be Kanishka of Kushana dynasty) and further also boast of their Tibetan origin 
It is very remarkable that according Kalhana (c. 12th century), the author of Rajatarangini (written in AD 1147–49), refers to the Shahis and does not maintain any difference or distinction between the earlier Shahis (RT IV.143) and the later Shahis or does not refer to any supplanting of the dynasty at any stage as Alberuni does in his Tarikh-al-Hind. etc., unbroken to as far as or earlier than AD 730. It is also remarkable[according to whom?] that Rajatrangini and all other sources refer to the Shahi rulers of Udabhandapura/Waihind as belonging to the Kshatriya lineage in contrast to Alberuni who designates the earlier Shahi rulers as Turks and the later as Brahmins. Dr D. C. Sircar says: "It will be seen that the Kashmirian who knew the Shahis from before 730 AD down to 12th c AD regarded them as Kshatriyas, although Alberuni refers to the Hindu Shahis of Tibetan origin and their successors of Brahmana origin. That the early Shahis were regarded as Kshatriyas in India is also indicated by another evidence.
Since the change of Shahi capital from Kabul to Waihind or Uddhabhandapura had also occurred precisely around this period, it is probable that the narrator of the folklore/tellatale to Alberuni had confused the "change of capital" issue with the "supplanting of Kabul Shahi dynasty" since the incidence of shift had occurred remotely about 200 years prior to Alberuni's writing (AD 1030). There is no doubt, as the scholars also admit, that the change in dynasty is effected by "a common legend of eastern story", which surely bears the express mark of folklore for the previous history of Kabul Shahis, hence obviously speculative and not much worthy of serious history.
The system of naming the kings of the so-called Turki Shahi dynasty and the Hindu Shahi dynasty is also similar for which reason it is very likely that the caste of the two might also have been same, i.e., Kshatriya . Thus, if we follow Kalhana, then the ancestors of Shahi kings Lallya, Toramana, Kamalu, Bhimadeva, Jaipala, Anandapala, Trilochanapala etc may be traced back to the Kshatriya ruler of Kapisa/Kabul (AD 644–45) mentioned by Hiuen Tsang and also probably to prince Guna Varman (AD 424), a princely scion of the Kshatriya rulers ruling at the start of 5th century in Kapisa (Ki-pin) as mentioned in the Chinese Buddhist records.
The Hindu Shahis became engaged with the Yamini Turks of Ghazni over supremacy of the eastern regions of Afghanistan initially before it extended towards the Punjab region. They briefly recaptured the Kabul Valley from the Samanid successors of the Saffarids, until a general named Alptigin drove out the Samanid wali of Zabulistan and established the Ghaznavid dynasty at Ghazna.(Wink, pp 125-126) Under his general and successor Sabuktigin the Ghaznavids had begun to raid the provinces of Lamghan and Multan.[Wink, pp 125-126] This precipated an alliance first between the then King Jayapala and the Amirs of Multan, and then in a second battle in alliance with Delhi, Ajmer, Kalinjar, and Kannauj which saw the Hindu Shahi lose all lands west of the Indus River.[Wink, pp 125-126] His successor Anandapala arrived at a tributary arrangement with Sebuktigin's successor, Mahmud of Ghazni, before he was defeated and exiled to Kashmir in the early 11th century.
Al-Idirisi (AD 1100-1165/66) testifies that until as late as the 12th century, a contract of investiture for every Shahi king was performed at Kabul and that here he was obliged to agree to certain ancient conditions which completed the contract. Kalhana remarked: "To this day, the appellation Shahi throws its lustre on a numberless host of kshatriya abroad who trace their origin to that family".
The kings of Kashmir were related to the Shahis through marital and political alliance. Didda, a queen of Kashmir was a granddaughter of the Brahmin Shahi Bhima, who was married to Kshemagupta (r. 951-959). Bhima had visited Kashmir and built the temple Bhima Keshava.
Laliya Sahi Jat of Kabul
The famous Panjtar stone inscription, now in (Pakistan), written in the year 122 of Saka era. It referse to one “ Lala, the protector of the Kushana dynasty of Maharaja Kanishka” . This Lala, was a Lalli “Jat” It also refers to the gift of two trees by one Moika in the eastern region of “ Kasua”. That last word Kasua is the same as Kasuan the name of the Kushana clan (and territory) which is still existing. 
Bhim Singh Dahiya has described about the history of Lohar clan. This clan is famous in Kashmir history and gave it a whole dynasty called Lohar dynasty. Their settlement in India was Loharin, in Pir Pantsal range. The Lohar Kot-fort of Lohars-is named after them. The famous queen Dida, married to Kshemagupta, was daughter of Lohar Kong Simha Raja, who himself was married to a daughter of Lalli (Jat Clan) Sahi king Bhima of Kabul and Udabhanda (Und, near modern Attock)
Bhim Singh Dahiya  argues as Sung-Yun says Laelih was made ruler of Gandhara by the Yethas, the Laelih was most likely the governor of Gandhara because the clan name of Toramana and Mihiragula was Johal or Jauvala. It is important to note here that "Lalli" too is a well known clan name of the modern Sikh Jats.  pronunciation of words "Laelih" and Lalli is almost identical. Furthermore, according to Sir Cunningham  a "Lalliya" Shahi king ruled west of the Indus river as late as A.D. 900 with Ohind as his capital. Cunningham quotes Troyer who calls this king "the illustrious Sahi, of the country of Lalli".
Bhim Singh Dahiya writes that the last Jat kingdom of Jabulistan, ultimately destroyed by the Mohammedans, was a kingdom of Lalli clan of Jats.  We have taken the following content about Lalli clan is from Bhim Singh Dahiya's book. 
Laliya Sahi Jat of Kabul by Bhim Singh Dahiya
This important dynasty under Kabul and Gandhara was founded in 477 A.D. under king Hephthal II, of Balkh. His coins have been found and show that Balkh was his capital, because the legend on the reverse of his coins, in Tokhri script, mention the name of Balkh city. In 456 A.D. the Iranian emperor Yezdegird II was still fighting with the Jats when the latter sent an embassy to the Chinese Court of Emperor Wei. This is further proof of the fact that Hephthal II was a sovereign ruler. In 457 A.D. the Jats crushed the power of Sassanid emperors and Yezdegird II was killed. It was during this period that one of their clans, the 'Jaula' occupied Gazni and adjoining areas. They conquered Gandhara in 477 A.D.; Kashmir was taken in 478 A.D.; and in 479 A.D. they occupied Sogdiana and before 500 A.D. they had taken over Turfan and Qarashahr.
This date of occupation of Gandhara in 477 A.D. is further proved by the Chinese pilgrim, Sung-Yun, who stated in 520 A.D. that the Yetha had conquered Ye-Po-Lo, about two generations ago. Here the Ye-Po-Lo of the Chinese stands for Jauval/Jabul and the Yetha, of course, stands for the Jats; the Chinese Ye, ilVing the sound of 'J'. It is interesting to note that Hephthal III, who defeated and killed the next Iranian emperor Peroz, in a decisive battle in 484 A.D., is called Ye-ta-i-li-to meaning (Jaṭlāṭa) the king of the Jats. 65 As shown above the Yetha/Yeta is the Chinese transliteration of the word Jat, and Lāṭa or Rāṭa is a
64. U. Thakur, The Hunas Inndia, pp. 109-110. 65. See Note I at the end of this section.
Scythian word for king. Buddha Prakash says that it is a manifestly non-Indian name, Rata being a suffix of foreign names.66
The Chinese sources further say that one, Laelih was made ruler of Gandhara by the Yetha. Now the name Laelih has not come down in coins or other literary works. However, the coins of a king named, Ramanila have been found and these coins are related to this very period. We know that the paramount ruling clan was the Jaula, the 'gotra' of Toramana and Mihiragula. It is also known that the ruler of Gandhara was a Tegin meaning Governor- a subordinate title. From these facts it is easy to conclude that paramount rulers had appointed Ramanila, a Jat of Lalli clan (Laelih of the Chinese) as Governor of Gandhara. Thus we find that 'Sung-yun was correct in naming the ruler of Gandhara but, as often, he gave the clan name and not the personal name of the ruler, the latter being Ramanila of the coins. This however, does not mean that Gandhara, Kabul and Gazni were not under the Jats earlier. We know that up to the first century B.C. it was continuously ruled by them and the Jaulas had only replaced the Kasvan Jats, the so-called later Kushana/Kidarites.67
However, It seems that when after Mihiragula and his son/ successor Ajitanjaya, their Indian empire was disintegrating the Jaula secured Jabulistan for themselves. As shown earlier, the word is Jauvlistan, the land of the Jauvlas, written as Jabulistan by the Arabs. 68 On this basis, its king was mentioned simply as Janbil by the Arabs. However, when Hiuen- Tsang visited this area in 644-45 A.D. he found that the king of Jabulistan had succeeded a long line of kings and he was a follower of the sun-god.69 Coins of a king of this dynasty, named Vakbha, have been found and the legends on these coins show that they had become markedly Indianised by this time.70
Their wars with the Arabs
The first war that these Jats had to fight with the rising power of Islam was in 654/655 A.D. only ten years after the visit of Hiuen-
- 66. SIH&C, p. 140.
- 67. See Note II at the end of this section.
- 68. Sec Note III at the end of this section.
- 69. BRWW, Vol. II, p. 285/86.
- 70. R. Ghirshman, La Chionites-Hephthalites, p. 45.
Tsang. It was beaten back. Another war and defeat of the invaders is noted from Kholau-Sul-ul-Akbar.71 Obaidullah, Governor of Seistan, was ordered by his superior, Hejauge, ruler of Khorasan, to invade Kabul. The ruler of Kabul is named as Retpeil (Ratha Pal ?). The war was fought in 697 A.D. and Rath Pal, "artfully retiring, drew the Mohammedan army into the defiles, and blocking up the rear, cut off their retreat, and Obaidullah was compelled to purchase his liberation by the payment of seven hundred thousand dirhams". The repeated attacks of the Arabs were fought back; and when it became necessary to solicit help, they found that their traditional and nearest helper, viz., Iran, was already under the Arabs and therefore any help from these quarters was out of question. The only other source was Chinese and it is to the Chinese that the Jats sent repeated embassies up to the year 755 A.D. But no help came and they had to fight with their own resources. The Indian nation shall be indebted to these Jats for stopping the Arabs from entering Kabul from 654 to 870 A.D. In 870/71 A.D. the Arab General, Yaqubb-in-Laith overthrew this kingdom of Kabul by treachery. The Persian work, Jama-al-hikayat-wa-lawama-al-Rawayat. of 1232 A.D., states that when Yaqub found that his army was no match for that of the Jats of Jabulistan, and could not defeat them in a field of battle, Yaqub invited the latter to meet him as a friend. At the meeting however, Yaqub resorted to Taqia and treacherously killed the king. Thus Kabul was lost by 871 A.D. Gandhara and Peshawar area, however, still remained with them till 1021 A.D. It does not mean that heroic efforts were not made to take back Kabul and Ghazni. Babar, relates a story of an attack on Ghazni by "The Rai of Hind" at the time of Subaktegin, when the latter put dead flesh (obviously cows) and impurities into their water supply and the "Rai" withdrew.72
- 71. Col. Tad, op., cit. Vol. II, p. 244.
- 72. ibid., p. 244 note.
Note I - In fact, the Chinese used two words for the purpose, viz., Yetalito and Yue-che wang. The first is a transliteration of jatrat, and the second is a sort of translation of the same word, i.e. Guti-wang or Guti king or Jat king.
Note II: Of tremendous historical importance is the search for the proceedings of the fourth Buddhist Council believed to have been engraved on copper plates, by Kaniska, the Kushana emperor, and buried in steel boxes, somewhere in Kashmir. If found, these documents will certainly revolutionise the Indian and Central Asian history! Reporting about the excavation work done near Pahalgam (Kashmir), the Hindustan Times (New Delhi) of 26/27.7.1978, mentions about some of the findings:
- "The arc shaped tiles recovered near Hoi-Nar village of Pahalgam depict hunting scenes in two panels, showing a deer being struck with a spear by a hunter clad in Kushan-type dress. The hunter with hands raised skyward is a picture of joy.
- The right corner of some tiles depicts the eight-spoked Chakra (wheel) of law common to the Buddhists. According to a director of the department, Mr F.M. Hassnain, the Kharoshti numerals on the tiles and their motifs take Kashmir's history back to the period when the valley formed part of the Kushan empire, and had close cultural and political relations with regions now forming Central Asia."
Note III: Vincent Smith implies that the word, Jaula, was a Huna title.87 But Hoernle says, correctly, that it was the name of a tribe. 88 Ibbetson does not admit the existence of any Jaula tribe, 89 obviously because he had not heard about the Jaula or Johla Jats in the Punjab. As Jaulistan is mentioned on the coins of Vasudeva,90 they, the Jaulas, must have come to India,
- 87. JRAS, 1909, p. 268.
- 88. JRAS, 1905, p. 3.
- 89. Tribes and Castes, p. 40. ?O. ibid., p. 40, .
along with the Kushanas (Kasvan Jats) in the first century AD. "Cunningham's identification of Jaulistan with Jabultstan is incontrovertible, and Bhandarkar takes that to be Zabulistan-an equation which appears hardly open to dispute." 91
- 91. ibid.
- Khingala of Kapisa (7th c.)
- Patoladeva alias Navasurendradiyta Nandin of Gilgit (6-7th c.)
- Srideva alias Surendra Vikrmadiyta Nandin of Gilgit (6-7th c.)
- Patoladeva alias Vajraditya Nandin of Gilgit (6-7th c.)
- Lalliya (c. 890-895) of Kabul
- Kamaluka (895-921)
- Bhima (921-964), son of Kamaluka
- Ishtthapala (?)
- Jayapala (964-1001)
- Anandapala (1001-c.1010), son of Jayapala
- Trilochanapala (ruled c.1010-1021-22; assassinated by mutinous troops)
- Bhimapala (died in 1022-1026)
हिन्दुशाही राज्य की स्थापना
हिन्दुशाही राज्य की स्थापना राजा जयपाल ने महमूद ग़ज़नवी के आक्रमण का सामना करने के लिए उत्तर-पश्चिमी पकिस्तान तथा अफगानिस्तान में की थी.
असतपाल के पुत्र जयपाल थे तथा उनके पुत्र आनंदपाल थे. वह शाहीराजा भीमदेव (964 AD) के उतराधिकारी थे. भारत कोश वेबसाईट (http://www.bharatdiscovery.org/india/) के अनुसार सन 1000 ई. में महमूद गजनवी का भारत पर (काबुल में) प्रथम आक्रमण हुआ. उसने स्थानीय जनता पर लूट-पाट तथा धर्म परिवर्तन किया. महमूद ने पहला आक्रमण हिन्दू शाही राजा 'जयपाल' के विरुद्ध संवत 1058 (29 नबंवर सन 1001) में किया. उन दोनों में भीषण युद्ध हुआ, परन्तु महमूद की जोशीली और बड़ी सेना ने जयपाल को हरा दिया . इस अपमान से व्यथित होकर वह जीते जी चिता पर बैठ गया और उसने अपने जीवन का अंत कर दिया. जयपाल के पुत्र आनन्दपाल और उसके वंशज 'त्रिलोचनपाल' तथा 'भीमपाल' ने कई बार महमूद से युद्ध किया. आनन्दपाल हिन्दूशाही राजवंश के राजा जयपाल का पुत्र था. वह 1002 ई में सिंहासन पर आसीन हुआ था. आनन्दपाल ने उज्जैन, ग्वालियर, कन्नौज, दिल्ली और अजमेर के हिन्दू राजाओं का संघ बनाकर सुल्तान की सेना का पेशावर के मैदान में सामना किया। हिन्दूशाही राजधानी 'वैहिंद' (पेशावर के निकट) में महमूद और आनन्दपाल के बीच 1008-1009 ई. में भीषण युद्ध हुआ। दोनों ओर की सेनाएँ 40 दिन तक एक-दूसरे के सामने डटी रहीं. अन्त में भारतीय सेना ने सुल्तान की सेना पर हमला बोल दिया और जिस समय हिन्दुओं की विजय निकट मालूम होती थी, उसी समय एक दुर्घटना घट गई. जिस हाथी पर आनन्दपाल बैठा था, वह पीछे मुड़कर भागने लगा। यह देखते ही भारतीय सेना छिन्न-भिन्न होकर भागने लगी. इस युद्ध में उत्तर-पश्चिमी भारत के कन्नौज और अजमेर के राजाओं के अलावा कई हिन्दू शासकों ने भाग लिया. 
महमूद की यह ऐसी विजय थी जो उसे दैवयोग से मिल गई। 400 हिजरी के करीब जब आनन्दपाल मर गया तो उसके बेटे राजपाल का पुत्र जयपाल भटिंडा का मालिक हुआ। राजपाल आनन्दपाल के आगे ही मर चुका था। महमूद ने 404 हिजरी में, जबकि जयपाल भटिंडा में मौजूद था, उसकी राजधानी को लूट लिया। जब जयपाल को इसकी खबर लगी तो उसने महमूद को किला नूहकोट में जा घेरा, किन्तु महमूद ने उसकी फौज पहुंचने से पहले ही गजनी को कूच कर दिया था। इससे अगला आक्रमण महमूद का ग्वालियर का हमला हुआ, तो जयपाल ने ग्वालियर वालों की मदद की। इसे हम द्वितीय जयपाल कह सकते हैं। यह जब तक जिन्दा रहा मुसलमानों का सामना करता रहा। (जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृ.218-19)
चौहानों ने अरब सेनाओं के मुकाबले बहुत बलिदान किये हैं, अंतिम युद्ध जो कि बड़ा भयंकर था, में चौहान बहुत बड़ी संख्या में जुझार हुए. इनके कई पुत्र युद्ध में काम आये. एक सात वर्ष का पुत्र लाड भी काम आया. चौहानों के पराजित हो जाने पर साम्भर में स्त्रियों ने जौहर किया. अरबों ने नगर को लूटा और उसे विध्वंस कर दिया. समूचा साम्भर बर्बाद हो गया.
हिन्दू शाही के अगवा राजा
- राजा जयपाल (r.964-1001)
- आनंदपाल (r.1001-c.1010)
- त्रिलोचन पाल (r.1010-22)
- भीमपाल (r.1022-1026)
- विजयराव - भाटना नामक स्थान में विजयराव नाम का एक बड़ा वीर राजा राज्य करता था, जो कि जयपाल के सम्बन्धियों में से था। उसने सरहद पर जो मुसलमान हाकिम रहते थे, उनको मार भगाया था। महमूद इसी बात का बदला लेने के लिए उस पर चढ़के आया। उसकी बहादुरी और युद्ध के सम्बन्ध में ‘गजनवी जहाद’ में हसन निजामी को विवश होकर लिखना पड़ा है कि - “राजा अपनी फौज और हाथियों की अधिकता के कारण बहुत अभिमान करता था। वह फौज लेकर मुकाबले के लिए निकला। दोनों फौजों में तीन दिन तक अग्नि वर्षा होती रही। विजयराव की फौज ऐसी वीरता और साहस से लड़ी कि इस्लामियों के छक्के छूट गए।” इस लड़ाई में सुल्तान महमूद को अपनी भुजाओं के बल का विश्वास छोड़कर दरगाह में खुदा और रसूल के आगे घुटने टेकने पड़े। बेचारे की डीढ़ा पर मिन्नत के समय टप-टप आंसू गिरते थे। गजनी उसे बहुत दूर दिखलाई देता था। विजयराव युद्ध करता हुआ वीर गति को प्राप्त हुआ। (जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठ-217-218)
- राव बुरड़कदेव (b. - d.1000 AD) - महमूद ग़ज़नवी के आक्रमणों के विरुद्ध राजा जयपाल की मदद के लिए लाहोर गए. वहां लड़ाई में संवत 1057 (1000 AD) को वे जुझार हुए. इनकी पत्नी तेजल शेकवाल ददरेवा में तालाब के पाल पर संवत 1058 (1001 AD) में सती हुई.
- समुद्रपाल बुरड़क - राव बुरड़कदेव के बड़े पुत्र समुद्रपाल के 2 पुत्र नरपाल एवं कुसुमपाल हुए. समुद्रपाल राजा जयपाल के पुत्र आनंदपाल की मदद के लिए 'वैहिंद' (पेशावर के निकट) गए और वहां पर जुझार हुए. संवत 1067 (1010 AD) में इनकी पत्नी पुन्याणी साम्भर में सती हुई.
- Kalhana Rajatarangini referred to them as simply Shahi and inscriptions refer to them as Sahi (Wink, p 125).
- Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, xxxvi, Dr N Ahmad, 1988, i, NWF Regions of Pakistan, Geographical Tribes and Historical Perspective, p 53
- The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 126, Charles Frederick Oldham — Serpent worship.
- Comments Charles Frederick Oldham: "Whether this king of Kabul was same Ksatriya chief who had entertained Chinese pilgrim is uncertain; but he too must have been a Ksatriya, or the warriors (Ksatriyas) of Hind would have taken little notice of his appeal for assistance (op cit, p 126, Charles Frederick Oldham.
- The Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 292-93, Dr D. C. Sircar.
- Modern day Und, also called Waihind by Al Biruni (Wink p 125).
- Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Preface,p.xxvi
- Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book V,p.122
- Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book VII,p.172-173
- Kohzad, Ahmad Ali, "Kabul Shāhāni Berahmanī", 1944, Kabul
- Tarikh-al-Hind, trans Sachau, 1910, vol ii, p 13, Abu Rihan Alberuni.
- The Pathans, 1958, pp 108-09, Olaf Caroe; cf: Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Punjab, 1971, p 135, Dr Buddha Prakash.
- (sic) (Alberuni's Indica, A Record of the Cultural History of South Asia, 1973, p 38, Ahmad Hasan Dani, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Bīrūnī, Eduard Sachau; History of Mediaeval Hindu India, 1979, p 199, Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya; The Shahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab, 1973, p 51, D. B. Pandey).
- Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 291, Dr D. C. Sircar; Hindu Sahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab, 1972, p 5, Yogendra Mishra.
- Cf: Rajatrangini, IV, 140-43, Kalhana; Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 292, 293, Dr D. C. Sircar.
- Adyapi dyotate sahevahvayena digantare, Tatsantana bhavonantah samuhah Ksatrajanamanam || (Kalahana's Rajatrangini, New Delhi, 1960, VIII, 3230, M. A. Stein (Editor).
- The Hindu Sahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab, A.D. 865-1026: A phase of Islamic advance into India, 1972, p 3, Yogendra Mishra; Cf: Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, 2002, p 125-26, André Wink.
- Hindu Sahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab, 1972, p 5, Yogendra Mishra
- The Ghaznavids or Turushkas by Kalhana.
- Al-Idrisi, p 67, Maqbul Ahmed; Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, 1991, p 127, Andre Wink.
- Kalhana's Rajatangini, VIII, 3230; Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Punjab, 1971, p 147, Dr Buddha Prakash.
- EI, Vol.XIV, p-134
- RAJAT, VI, 355 and VII, 1284
- For details see, RAJAT, Vol II, p. 293; Steins note. E
- Jats: The Ancients Rulers, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1980, pp. 170-171, 77, 174-230, 22, 35-37.
- The History and study of the Jats. By Professor B.S Dhillon. ISBN-10: 1895603021 or ISBN-13: 978-1895603026. End of Page 46
- Cunningham, A. (Sir), Later Indo-Scythians, from the Numismatic Chronicle 189394, edited by Prof. A.K. Narain, reprinted by Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1979, pp. 94-95, 99, 112, 121, 271, 255, 247, 188, 176-177, 189.
- Jats: The Ancients Rulers, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1980, pp. 68
- Jats: The Ancients Rulers, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1980, pp. 221-223
- भारत कोश:महमूद ग़ज़नवी
- कु. देवी सिंह मंडावा (सम्राट पृथ्वीराज चौहान, प.१५)
- Wink, André,Al Hind: the Making of the Indo Islamic World, Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, ISBN 90-04-09249-8.
- Coinage of the Hindu Shahi period from Mardan, Pakistan. Treasures of Kashmir Smast.