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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Sonitpur district map

Sonitpur (शोणितपुर) is a district in the state of Assam in India. The district headquarters is located at Tezpur. Sonitpur is ancient name of Guwahati, Assam;

2. Sonitpur is also name of Sojat city in Pali district Rajasthan;

3. Sonitpur is a village near Sohagpur railway station in Madhya Pradesh.


The name Sonitpur is derived from a mythological story found in Hindu epics -Śivapurāṇa 2.3.15, Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Dākṣinātya Pāṭha, Chapter 38. The Sanskrit word Śōṇita means blood. The etymology of Tezpur, the headquarter of this district is also based on the mythological story.




Community Development(C.D.) Blocks = 1. Borchalla, 2. Dhekiajuli, 3. Bihaguri, 4. Gabharu, 5. Balipara, 6. Rangapara & 7. Naduar

Legend in Sonitpur

The name `Sonitpur’ as well as Tezpur literally means "the city of blood". It reminds of the romantic legend of Usha and Anirudha. The legend revolves around Banasura, the great Asura king of ancient Tezpur, his beautiful daughter Usha and her friend Chitralekha. The princess saw a handsome prince in her dreams and fell in love with him. Chitralekha, a talented artist, not only painted his portrait from Usha's description but recognised him to be Aniruddha, the grandson of Lord Krishna and ruler of Dwarka. Using her magical powers, Chitralekha spirited Aniruddha away to the princess' boudoir where the two married each other according to Gandharva rites, without the knowledge of the king. When Banasura learnt of the clandestine romance, he imprisoned Aniruddha, which led to the arrival of Lord Krishna to rescue his grandson. A fierce battle followed and the entire city was drenched in human blood, hence the name Sonitpur or Tezpur, i.e. ‘the city of blood’ . The story of eternal love between Usha and Aniruddha finds expression in many stories, novels, dramas, dance-dramas, movies.[1]


Sonitpur district was once part of the kingdom of Kamarupa. A plate dated to the 11th century CE, during the reign of the Pala dynasty, records a land grant to a Brahmin. Descriptions in the plate indicate the region was ruled by a relatively powerful monarch with a well-organized administration. It was occupied by the Baro-Bhuyan feudal lords in the 14th century.[2]

In the 16th century, the eastern part of the district, up to the Kameng river, was conquered by the Ahoms. In 1523, they deported a large number of Chutia families to a place on the east bank of the Kameng. In 1532, they defeated a Mughal army sent against them at the banks of the Kameng.

Starting in the 16th century, under the reign of Nara Narayan, the Koch kingdom expanded to a great extent. Several years after the Ahom victory at the Kameng, Nara Narayan sacked the Ahom capital at Gargaon and forced the Ahoms to pay tribute. Its eastern conquests were completed by Raghudev, the nephew of the king and heir as Nara Narayan had no son. However eventually one of Nara Nayaran's queens gave birth to a child, Lakshmi Narayan. Raghudev rebelled, supported by the Ahoms, but was eventually defeated. In response Nara Narayan gave Koch territory east of the Sankosh river to Raghudev and the rest to Lakshmi Narayan. Raghudev's kingdom became known as Koch Hajo, and quickly fell under Ahom hegemony, while the western Koch Bihar kingdom fell under Mughal influence. Koch Hajo's boundary with the Ahoms was at the Kameng river, also known as the Bareli, which flowed through the middle of what is now Sonitpur district.[3]

Soon war broke out between Raghudev and Lakshmi Narayan. Lakshmi Narayan was defeated and appealed to the Mughals for help. The Mughals sent a large force and defeated Raghudev, although Sonitpur was on the eastern boundary and so was not conquered. Raghudev's brother Bali Narayan then fled to his Ahom overlords for help, and when the Mughals demanded his return, the Ahoms refused. This led to several wars between the Ahoms and Mughals, most of which were in lower Assam. In 1615, a Mughal army advanced as far as the Kameng, but was soon defeated on both land and water. In 1637, the Mughals defeated and killed Bali Narayan and in the treaty that followed, the entirety of Sonitpur came into Ahom possession. During the chaos that followed the death of Shah Jahan in 1658, the Ahoms tried to push their boundary to the Sankosh river but were pushed back by Mir Jumla, who captured Gargaon. On their advance, the Mughals took a fort near Silghat while the Ahoms evacuated the Chandara fort near Tezpur. However the rains that set in during their retreat, as well as the dieases, took a huge toll on the Mughal army, and the Ahoms soon took back Guwahati and kept it.[4]

The rajas of Darrang quickly became reduced in territory to a small area around Mangaldoi. In 1792, the Moamoria rebellion broke out, and fighting soon ensured the entirety of Ahom territory fell into anarchy. Several outside kingdoms, including Manipur, attempted to send help but could not do much. The Moamorias raised a Ahom prince to kingship, and in 1786 conquered Rangpur, the Ahom capital. The Ahom raja Gaurinath Singh was forced to flee. While the Ahoms were beset by the Moamoria rebellion, the Darrang raja and a descendant of Bali Narayan, Krishna Narayan, tried to reassert their independence with the help of Bengali mercenaries. However in 1792, a British force sent to help the Ahom kings managed to take back Guwahati and defeated Krishna Narayan. In 1794, they retook Rangpur. However much of the kingdom was still only under weak Ahom control, and subject to constant raids from the surrounding hill-tribes like the Nyishis. In 1818, the Burmese invaded to restore their preferred monarch on the throne, and forced out the Ahom king and took over his land. The Burmese occupation of Assam resulted in massive death and destruction. In 1826, the British declared war on Myanmar and defeated them in the first Anglo-Burmese War. In the subsequent Treaty of Yandabo, the territory came under British control.[5]

Darrang, including present-day Sonitpur district, became a separate district in 1833, and the capital was shifted to Tezpur in 1835. The British introduced tea plantation to the district, and imported large numbers of labourers from the tribal belt of Chota Nagpur to the Sonitpur area.[6]

Pre British History

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It was during the Mleccha dynasty or the line of Salastambha (from the last part of the 7th Century A.D. to the 10th century A.D), that the city was known as Haruppesvera or Hadapervara or Hadapesvara or Hatapesvara. The Tezpur Rock Inscriptions of Harjar Varma is of 829-30 A.D. The Tezpur and the Parbatia Copper Plates of Vanamats (middle of the 9th century A.D.), the Bargaon Grant of Ratnapala (circa 1035 A.D.) also reflect the city’s historical importance. Da-parbatia Door frame located at Da-parbatia near Tezpur is regarded as one of the excellent pieces of monumental art in stone in Assam.

Although the city lost its importance during the medieval era, it was soon to regain it when the British came. Considering its strategic importance the colonial rulers first made it in to a garrison town. Gradually it became an important centre of trade and commerce, used as a river port for the surrounding tea gardens and other colonial commercial ventures in the hinterland.

In 1835, Tezpur became headquarter of Darrang District. In the 1962 Chinese aggression, the city faced the apprehension of invasion, and bears a Memorial near the Circuit House as a testimony of that. In 1983, the Darrang District was partitioned, and Tezpur became the headquarter of Sonitpur District.

Sir Edward A. Gait (1897) had made reference to the nine line inscription of Harjjar Varma in his 'A History of Assam.' The inscription is the first recorded history of Assam and dates back to 829 A.D. The inscription was found engraved on a massive stone some two kms away from Tezpur town situated near a temple called Rudrapad.

Salastambha dynasty ruled Kamarupa from seventh to Tenth century A.D. The accurate boundary of their kingdom is debatable. But the erstwhile Darrang was certainly a part of the kingdom. They shifted their capital from Pragjyotishpura to Haruppeswara, or Hatappeswara- the present day Tezpur. The famous King of the dynasty Harjjar Varma, besides other things had excavated a large pond in 70 acres of land, later came to be known as Hajara Pukhuri (Harjjara Pukhuri). Pal dynasty ruled Haruppeswara till the 12th century. The most famous ruler of the Pal dynasty was Brahmapal.

After the Pal dynasty, the royal dominance of the Koch Kings in the west and the Ahoms in the east started growing. During the 14th and 15th century a large part of the western bank of Brahmaputra from Singri in the west and Sootea in the east was ruled by the Bara-Bhuyans. The great saint poet Sri Sri Shankardeva belonged to Bara-Bhuyan family, who settled at Rowta in Darrang District. The Ahom King Suhungmung alias Dihingia Raja occupied the territories of the Bara-Bhuyans on the north in 1505 A.D.The Koch King Biswa Sinha rose to power in 1515 A.D. King Naranarayana who ascended the thorne in about 1540 A. D. divided his Kingdom into two parts. He had given the eastern part to the son of his brother Chilarai and the western part of the kingdom to his own son Lakshminarayana . But soon after their ascension as kings, fatricidal war broke out and Lakshminarayana sought refuge with the Mughals which eventually led to invasion of Kamrup by the Mughals. Balinarayana, one of the brothers of Pariksitnarayana fled away to Gorgaon to seek the help of the Ahom king Swargadew Pratapsingha. Pratapsingha christened Balinarayana as Dharmanarayana, made him the king of Darrang and declared war against the the Mughals (1616-1637 A.D.). The Ahoms defeated the mighty Mughals in the Bharali war and re-occupied Darrang from the Mughals. King Dharmanarayana made supreme sacrifice in Singari war in 1638. His son Sundarnarayana ascended the throne and became the king of Darrang.(excluding Tezpur). On the otherhand, the Ahoms ruled the eastern part of Darrang (present Sonitpur) through Kalia Bhomora Borphukan, stationed at Kaliabor. The Ahom Kings resettled many people in the southern part of Brahmaputra.

Story of Usha and Aniruddha

A Daitya princess named Usha, daughter of Banasura, fell in love with Aniruddha and had him brought by magic influence to her apartments in her father's city of Sonitpur in Assam. On discovering that Aniruddha had been carried away, Krishna, Balarama, and Pradyumna went to rescue him. Bansura was a great devotee of the god Shiva and had 1000 arms, as a result of which no one had ever been willing to fight him. Blinded by his pride, he asked Shiva to give him a chance to fight with someone as strong as himself. Shiva therefore cursed him to defeat in war by Krishna.

Only after some months Krishna came to know where his grandson was and launched an attack on Banasura with a big army. Thus a great battle was fought.

When the army laid siege to his city, Banasura staged a fierce counter-attack. At this point, Lord Shiva joined the battle against Krishna because he had promised protection to Banasura. The fight was intense in all directions, and Siva (also known as Mahesvara) caused a mighty fever with three heads and three legs (Mahesvari jvara). But Krishna generated a counter-fever. Ultimately Krishna’s forces were close to victory and Krishna himself was vigorously cutting off the myriad arms of Banasura. Siva again intervened because of his promise to Banasura.

Krishna, however, assured Siva that he had no intention of killing Banasura, but would leave him with only four arms so that his power would be limited. However, in honour of the demon’s boon from Siva, Krishna promised that Banasura would have nothing to fear from anybody in the future.

Gratefully, Banasura prostrated before Krishna and then had Aniruddha and his bride, Usha, brought to Krishna in a regal chariot. All then returned to Dvarka, where Krishna’s victory in the combat with Siva was celebrated with festivity.

Bana was defeated, but his life was spared at the intercession of Shiva, and Aniruddha was carried home to Dwaraka with Usha as his wife. He is also called Jhashanka and Ushapati. He had a son named Vajra, whose lineage is traced to the royal family of Bharatpur.

Usha in love with Aniruddha

Banasura had a beautiful daughter named Usha. When Usha became young, number of proposals came for her marriage but Banasura accepted none. Wary, that Usha might fall in love with men other than his choice, he kept Usha in a formidable fortress called 'Agnigarh 'with her friends. Usha one day saw a young man in her dream and fell in love with him. Chitralekha was a friend of Usha and daughter of Kumbhada, minister of Banasura. She was a talented artist who helped Usha to identify the young man seen in the dream of Usha by painting the portrait. He was Aniruddha, the grandson of Lord Krishna. Chitralekha through supernatural powers abducted Aniruddha from the palace of Krishna and brought him to Usha. Usha and Aniruddha secretly married and lived together as husband and wife in the Agnigarh.


Tezpur has several places to visit:

Agnigarh Hill, Tezpur

Agnigarh: This hillock on bank of river Brahmaputra is the site of legendary romance of princess Usha (the only daughter of King Banasura) and Aniruddha, the grandson of Lord Krishna. According to legend, Usha was kept on this hillock which was surrounded by fire, hence the name of Agnigarh.[7]

Agnigarh is the site of the fortress which was built by Banasura to keep his daughter Usha in isolation. The name itself is derived from the words 'Agni' (meaning fire) and 'garh' (meaning fortress or wall) in Sanskrit.

Legend: Legend has it that this fortress was surrounded by fire at all times so that nobody could go in or out of the perimeter without permission. Usha fell in love with Aniruddha in her dreams, not knowing that he was the grandson of Krishna. Her companion Chitralekha identified him by painting his portrait from Usha's description. Chitralekha Udyan in Tezpur also known as 'Cole Park,' the biggest park in Tezpur, is named after her. Chitralekha was not only an artist but one possessing mystical powers. Anirudddha was Krishna's grandson and Usha, the daughter of an Asura king, therefore was no way any side would consent to their love. She flew one night and brought Aniruddha to Usha's place while he was still sleeping, using her powers. When Aniruddha opened his eyes and saw Usha, he fell in love immediately. However, Banasura was furious on knowing this, and tied him with snakes and imprisoned him. Lord Krishna, however had agreed for their marriage and had wanted for Banasura to consent for the same. Banasura was a great devotee of Lord Shiva, and as a boon had asked him and his entire family to guard the gates of his city, Tezpur. He therefore was not at all scared by Lord Krishna's wrath. A war ensued between the Hari (Lord Krishna and his followers) and the Hars (Lord Shiva and his followers), rivers of blood flowed and the city was named Tezpur (City of Blood). Both sides were nearly wiped out and a final battle followed between Lord Shiva and Lord Krishna, Lord Brahma requested both of them to stop the war by putting him between them. A discussion followed in which Lord Krishna made Lord Shiva see that Banasura was acting wrongly in imprisoning his grandson, and had even disrespected Lord Shiva himself in asking him and his family to be his gate keepers. Lord Shiva agreed, and Banasura was brought. Fearing his life he immediately agreed to the marriage.

Lord Shiva- Lord Krishna War, Sculpture on Agnigarh (Tezpur)

The stone sculptures on the Agnigarh hill portray this entire picturesque story of love and great war.[2]

Mahabhairab Mandir, Tezpur

Mahabhairav Temple: The ancient temple of Mahabhairab stands to the north of Tezpur town. According to legend, the temple is believed to have been established by king Bana with a Siva lingam. Formerly, this temple was built of stone but the present one is built of concrete. During the later years, the Ahom kings donated devottar land for the Temple and Pujaris and Paiks were appointed to look after the temple.[8]]

Bamuni Hill sculptural remains

Bamuni Hills: The ruins of Bamuni Hills are famous for their exemplary artistic finesse. The sculptural remains date back to the ninth and tenth century A.D.[9]

Chitralekha Udyan (Cole Park): It is one of the most beautiful places in Tezpur. Established by a British Deputy Commissioner, Mr. Cole in 1906, the park has two massive ornamented stone pillars, and other sculptural remnants . It was renovated and revitalized in 1996 under the stewardship of the then Deputy Commissioner, Mr. M.G.V.K.Bhanu, IAS. It has water sports facility, walk ways, restaurant and open air stage.[10]

Padum Pukhuri: This is a beautiful lake with an island. The island has been developed into a beautiful park with a musical fountain. There is an iron bridge to take you to the island. On the lake one can boat.[11]

Trimurty Udyan: This is a park along Borpukhuri. This has been named after the three jewels of Assamese culture: Rupkowar Jyoti Prasad Agarwalla, Kalaguru Bishnu Prasad Rabha and Natasurjya Phani Sarmah.[12]

Rudrapada Temple: To the east of Tezpur town, on the bank of river Brahmaputra the Rudrapada temple is situated. It is believed that Rudra (Lord Shiva) had left the print of his left foot (pada) on a stone found in the temple. It is believed that Mahadeva showed his real self to king Bana here. Rudrapada temple was later built by Siva Singha in the year 1730. The main temple was destroyed, due to erosion of river Brahmaputra.[13]

Bhomoraguri: It is a mammoth stone inscription made by the Ahom General Kalia Bhomora Borphukan, who planned to construct a bridge over Brahmaputra. Almost two centuries later, a bridge at the same site now stands completed. The 3.015 km bridge, named after the great Ahom general, connects Silghat of Nagaon district with Tezpur.[14]

The Hazara Pukhuri: It is a large tank in name of Harjar Varman in Tezpur. It was excavated in the early part of the 9th century.[15]

Gupteswar temple, Singri, Tezpur

Singri - Singri is a beautiful place situated on the bank of river Brahmaputra, in Sonitpur district, Assam. Main attraction of the place is Gupteswar temple. As mentioned by the great master Jigme Lingpa in the 18th century, Singri has been the pilgrimage site for Tibetans and Bhutanese, since the 14th century.

The Singri Temple is towards west of Tezpur town and is located on the bank of river Brahmaputra, within a distance of about 45 km .This temple has been mentioned in the Kalikapuran as Shringatak. It is said that one can attain penance worshipping it. As the Shiva Linga of this temple revered as God remains under water, the temple is also known as Gupteshwar. Derived from the word "Gupta" which means hidden and "Eshwar" denotes God. A big mela organised on Sivaratri in the Temple draws number of devotees to Singri.[16]

The people

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The major communities inhabiting the District are: The Assamese. The majority people inhabiting the District are Assamese. They are among the original inhabitants of the place, and the typical culture of the place grew with them.

Religion: While a majority of them follow Hindu religion, a significant portion of them are also Muslims. A few of them are also adherents of Sikhism, Christianity, and Buddhism.

Caste: Prominent castes among the Assamese include Brahmins, Kalitas, Baishya, Koch, Ahoms, Yogis, the Scheduled Castes, et al.

Religion: While a majority of them follow Hindu religion, a significant portion of them, especially the tribes, are Buddhists.

The Bengalis: The Bengali community came from erstwhile undivided Bengal, as officials and clerks of the British administration and the Tea Industry; and stayed back. Later, on account of the partition of India, people coming as refugees added significantly to the community. Language~ They speak Bengali, a language of the Indo-Aryan family. Of course, they use Assamese as a lingua franca.They follow the Hindu religion.

The Nepalis: The Nepali community is fairly dominant in the central and southern part of the District. Language~ They speak Nepali, a language of the Indo-Aryan family. Of course, they use Assamese as a lingua franca. Religion~ While a majority of them follow Hindu religion, a significant portion of them, especially the tribes, are [[]].

The Adivasis ( Tea-Tribes): The Adivasi people were brought by the British from Chotanagpur area and Orissa to serve as labourers in the Tea Gardens. In course of time, they assimilated themseves in the greater Assamese society, while retaining their basic cultural traits. The Jhumur dance is their contribution to the culture of Assam. Language~ They have adopted Assamese as their language, but have retained the language of their forefathers. Religion~ They are Hindus and Christians.

Muslims: The district has a considerable Muslim population. Majority of muslims have immigrated from erstwhile East Bengal (present Bangladesh). They fill up a large portion of riverine areas of the district. Language~ Over the years they have adopted Assamese language.


1. Mishings: The Mishing people live in a scattered manner in the northern part of the Naduar.

2. The Bodos: The Bodo dominated areas include the northern part of Dhekiajuli,Thelamara, Chariduar & Naduar Circle.

Language: They generally speak the Bodo language, belonging to the Sino-Tibetan family. But the Assamese language is the lingua franca for them.

Religion: While a majority of them follows Hindu religion along with its variant forms, a certain portion of them follow Christianity. The Bodos perform Bathow puja. They have their own distinct culture, but many of them have also adopted Assamese ways.

3. Other Tribes: Other major tribes of the District include the Rabhas, Mechs, Nyishis, Garos, Adis, Apatanis, Lamas etc. Their population is sparse, and mainly confined to the foothills of the Himalayas near Arunachal Pradesh.

Language: They speak either their tribal language, or their variant of Assamese. Of course, they use Assamese as a lingua franca.

Religion: The Rabhas and Mechs follow Hindu religion; Lamas and Nyishis are Buddhists; Garos are Christians; Adis and Apatanis either follow their traditional form of religion .

Source -


Śoṇitapura (शोणितपुर) or simply Śoṇita is the name of an ancient town, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.15 (“The penance and reign of Tārakāsura”).—Accordingly, after Tāraka requested boons from Brahmā: “O excellent sage, thus requested by that demon, I granted him two boons and hastened back to my abode. Securing the excellent boon in accordance with his cherished desire, the demon was very glad and went to the town Śoṇita [i.e., śoṇitapura—śoṇitākhyapuraṃ]. That great demon was crowned the king of the three worlds with the permission of Śukra, the preceptor of the demons. [...]”.[17][18]

Śoṇitapura (शोणितपुर).—The capital city of Bāṇāsura. This city was protected by Śiva, Kārttikeya, Bhadrakālī, Agni and other divinities. In the battle between Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Bāṇa, the former defeated all the sentries and entered the city through the northern gate. Within the fort, Bāṇa was defeated. Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Dākṣinātya Pāṭha, Chapter 38 mentions that Śrī Kṛṣṇa released Aniruddha and Uṣā from their prison.[19][20]

Śoṇitapura (शोणितपुर).—Built by Maya at the command of Bhaṇḍa; a city of Bāṇa; visit of Jarāsandha to: Aniruddha taken to; besieged by the Vṛṣṇis when Bāṇa had imprisoned Aniruddha, and Nārada reported it to them. Bāṇa's army beaten back into the city.[21][22]

Jat History

Shonitapura (शोणितपुर) was the capital city of Bāṇāsura. This city was protected by Śiva, Kārttikeya, Bhadrakālī, Agni and other divinities. All these divinities are considered ancestors of Jat people. [23][24]

Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Dākṣinātya Pāṭha, Chapter 38 mentions that Banasura was the king of Shonitapura. [25]

Banasura was a powerful and great Asura. Non Aryan Kings in that age were termed as Asuras or daityas. All people even the king of earth and Devas of heaven were afraid of him. Bana was a follower of Shiva. Banasura ruled with his capital at Sonitpur. [26].

The word Bāṇeya is used for the adherents of Banasura. [27]. The present Bana Jat clan may be identified with them. [28]

Bana is a gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh in India. Bana Jats are descendants of King Banasura.

Bana (बाना) Village is situated in Dungargarh tahsil in Bikaner district in Rajasthan. It is situated 10 km south of Sri Dungargarh city. Its founders were Bana Jats. Bana village is inhabited by Bana clan Jats' 550 families in all.

It is a matter of research how and why the descendants of Banasura migrated to North-West India?

बाना जाटवंश

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[29] के अनुसार बाना चन्द्रवंशी जाटवंश सुप्रसिद्ध नरेश बाणासुर के नाम से प्रचलित हुआ। बयाना, जो जिला भरतपुर में है, इस वंश के क्षत्रियों की राजधानी थी। यहां की राजकुमारी उषा का विवाह श्रीकृष्ण जी के पौत्र तथा प्रद्युम्न के पुत्र अनिरुद्ध से हुआ था। उषा का स्मृति मन्दिर बयाना में आज भी विद्यमान है। बाद में इस नगर पर वरिक2 (जाटवंश) और फिर सिनसिनवारों (जाटों) का आधिपत्य स्थिर हुआ।

बाना जाटों का राज्य भारतवर्ष की पश्चिमी सीमा पर भी रहा है। जाट्स दी ऐनशन्ट् रूलर्ज पृ० 224 पर बी० एस० दहिया ने लिखा है कि “अहलावत व बाना जाट भारतीय सीमा पर शत्रु को रोकने वाले द्वारपाल थे।” (हवाला अलबुरुनीज् इण्डिया बाई सचाऊ पृ० 193)।

यह बाना वंश शुद्ध वैदिकधर्मी रहा। सिक्खों और मुसलमानों में इनकी सत्ता नहीं है। अजमेर के समीप व्यावर में, जिला बीकानेर में भदानार, कड़ियार, खाण्डा, जिला मेरठ में गिरधरपुर, चित्तौली, चंदौड़ी आदि गांव बाना जाटों के हैं।

बाना लोग बानगंगा (बयाना क्षेत्र) के किनारे से उठकर ईरान देश में गये। वहां जाकर बस्ती आबाद की जहां उनके नाम पर वहां की नदी का नाम बाना नदी पड़ गया3

1. जाटों का उत्कर्ष पृ० 330, लेखक योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री।
2. देखो तृतीय अध्याय वरिक वंश प्रकरण।
3. जाट इतिहास (उत्पत्ति और गौरव खण्ड) पृ० 150 लेखक ठा० देशराज।

जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-305


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर [30] ने लेख किया है ...1. शोणितपुर (AS, p.912): प्राचीन किंवदंती के अनुसार महाभारत में ऊषा-अनिरुद्ध उपाख्यान के संबंध में वर्णित ऊषा के पिता बाणासुर की राजधानी। कहा जाता है कि कृष्ण के पौत्र अनिरुद्ध ने ऊषा का हरण इसी स्थान पर किया था और यहीं उनका बाणासुर से युद्ध हुआ था। महाभारत, सभापर्व 38 में बाणासुर को शोणितपुर का राजा कहा गया है- 'तस्माल्लबध्वा वरान् बाणो दुर्लभान् स सुरैरपि, स शोणितपुरे राज्यं चकाराप्रतिमो बली।' इस पुरी का वर्णन उपरोक्त अध्याय में (दाक्षिणात्यपाठ) इस प्रकार है- 'अथासाद्य महाराज तत्पुरीं ददृशुश्च ते, ताम्रप्रकार संवीतां रूप्यद्वारैश्च शोभिताम्, हेमप्रासाद सम्बाधां मुक्तामणिविचित्रिताम उद्यानवनसम्पन्नं नृत्तगीतैश्च शोभिताम्। तोरणैः पक्षिभिः कीर्णा पुष्करिण्या च शोभिताम् तां पुरीं स्वर्गसंकाशां हृष्टपुष्ट जनाकुलाम्।'

विष्णुपुराण 5, 33, 11 में भी बाणासुर की राजधानी शोणितपुर में बताई गई है- 'तं शोणितपुरं नीतं श्रुत्वा विद्याविदग्धया।'

शोणितपुर का अभिज्ञान कुछ विद्वानों ने असम की वर्तमान राजधानी गोहाटी से किया है। इसको प्राग्ज्योतिषपुर [p.913]: भी कहा जाता था।

श्रीमद्भागवत 10, 62, 4 में ऊषा-अनिरुद्ध की कथा के प्रसंग में शोणितपुर को बाणासुर की राजधानी बताया गया है- 'शोणिताख्ये पुरे रम्ये स राज्यमकरोत्पुरा, तस्य शंभोः प्रसादेन किंकरा इव तेऽमराः।' ऊषा की सखी सोते हुए अनिरुद्ध को द्वारिका से योग क्रिया द्वारा उठाकर शोणितपुर ले आई थी- 'तत्र सुप्तं सुपर्यंके प्राद्युम्निं योगमास्थिता गृहीत्वा शोणितपुरं सख्यै प्रियमदर्शयत्।' श्रीमद्भागवत 10, 62, 23

2. शोणितपुर (AS, p.913) = Sojat (सोजत)

3. शोणितपुर (AS, p.913) = इटारसी, म.प्र. से 30 मील दूर सोहागपुर रेल स्टेशन के निकट शोणितपुर स्थित है। स्थानीय जनश्रुति में इस स्थान को बाणासुर की राजधानी बताया जाता है। नर्मदा नदी ग्राम के निकट बहती है।

External links


  2. "Assam District Gazetteers Volume V: Darrang".
  3. "Assam District Gazetteers Volume V: Darrang".
  4. "Assam District Gazetteers Volume V: Darrang".
  5. "Assam District Gazetteers Volume V: Darrang".
  6. "Assam District Gazetteers Volume V: Darrang".
  17. Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation
  19. Source: Puranic Encyclopedia
  21. Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
  23. Source: Puranic Encyclopedia
  25. 'तस्माल्लबध्वा वरान् बाणो दुर्लभान् स सुरैरपि, स शोणितपुरे राज्यं चकाराप्रतिमो बली।'
  26. See Sanskrit English Dictionary, M. Williams, 1960
  27. See Sanskrit English Dictionary, M. Williams, 1960
  28. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Jat Clan in India, p.279
  29. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ.305-306
  30. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.912-913