Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India/Index of Contents

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Nagas, The Ancient Rulers of India, Their Origins and History

(The History of the Indigenous people of India Vol. 2),

Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052. ISBN 81-7536-287-1

Index of Contents

Contents Page
1. The Mythical Origin of the Naga Race. 1
The Mahabharat. 1
Takshila, the Original Seat of Nagas. 4
Serpent Worship in Iran. 6
Origin of Naga Worship in Western Asia. 9
The Serpent Worship in Babylon, Sumer and Akkad 13
The Serpent Worship in Egypt 14
The Serpent Worship in Greece 14
Summary and Conclusion 16
References 17.
2. The Expansion of Serpent workship and Naga Race in India 19
Kashmir. 19
Himachal Pradesh. 20
The North-Eastern region. 21
The Naga tribes of Manipur. 22
The Khasi Nagas. 23
Takshila and Panjab. 27
Rajasthan 27
Kathiavar or Sourashtra. 28
Maharashtra and Vidarbha. 29
South India. 30
The Expansion of Chera (Sera), Nevar, Kirita Nagas in India. 32
Summary and Conclusion. 34
References. 35.
3. The Megalithic culture,its Origin and Expansion in India 38'
The Megaliths. 38
The Origin. 38
The Theory of Central Asian origin. 39
Allchin's Theory. 39
Leshnik's theory. 39
The Revocation of Central Asian Theory by Gupta. 40
The Theory of Persian Gulf, Yemen and Arab. 40
The Theory of Mediterranean Sea Board. 41
The Causative Factors of Increasing of Trade Activities. 42
Deporting of the Israelite to Mesopotamia. 42
The Discovery of Iron in Asia-Minor, 43
Trade relations of India with Assyria and other Countries of Western Asia. 43
Evidence of Trade relations with the South India. 44
The theory of Diffusion of Megaliths in India. 46
The Chronology. 47
The Expansion of Iron and Megaliths in India. 48
Summary and Conclusion. 50
References, 52.
4.The Civilizations of the Dark Age and Megalithic culture; An Archaeological Review. 55
The Sequence of the Cultures in India. 55
The Indus Valley. 55
Sequence of Cultures in Northern India. 56
The South and the Central Indian Cultures of Chalcolithic. Age (Ahar, Kayatha, Malava). 57
The Jorve Culture. 58
The Neolithic Chalcolithic Culture in Eastern India. 58
The Megalithic Culture. 59
The mode of Disposal of Dead, Aryan and non-Aryan. 59
The Aryans not Builders. 60
Etymology. 61
Type of Megaliths. 62
Pit Burials. 62
Cist Burials. 62,
Square and rectangular cists without slab projections. 63
Oblong cists. 63
Svastika Patterned cists, Transepted cists 63
Dolmenoid cists. 63
Rock-cut Chambers. 63
Sarcophagus burial. 64
Urn burials. 64
Protective and Memorial Markings. 64
Stone circles. 64
Slab circles. 64
Cairn Burials,Dolmens, Menhirs and anthropomorphlic representations, The Evolution and the Distribution of main centres of Megaliths in India. 65
Kashmir and Swat valley. 66
Were the Cemeteries of Swat Valley Aryans ? 67
South-Eastern Region of Uttar Pradesh (Vindhya). 68
Kakoria. 68
Kotia. 69
The Megalithic sites of Southern India. 70
Brahmagiri. 70
The Rouletted wares (Andhra-Satavahana Age Wares). 71
Halingali. 71
The Hallur Culture. 72
The Environment. 72
Payampalli. 73
Nagarjun Konda. 74
Adichanallur. 74
Sites in Maharashtra (Vidarbha) Kaundinyapur, Mahurjhari. 74
Khapa. 75
Takalghat. 75
Paunar. 76
The Cultural unity of Eran and Malhar from early Megalithic-Period to |Historical Period. 76
The cultural unity in Vidarbha from Megalithic to the Satavahana Age. 79
The Economic life and Agro-Industrial setup. 80
The Evolution of Megalithic tradition into the Buddhist Stupa Tradition. 82
Megalithic a Naga Culture. 83
Summary and Conclusion. 84
References. 86
5. The Origin of the Naga culture in the, Western Asia and its Transfer to Indus Valley 90
Arrival of Sumerians and Semites in Mesopotamia. 90
Invasion of the Semites or Hyksos on Egypt. 92
Dates of Invasion of Hyksos and their Sun Deity Baal. 93
The Origin of the Cult of Mother Goddess and Matriarchal form of Family. 95
Matriarchal Families Among the Semites. 96
Matriarchal Society in Egypt 97
Crete Island and the Cult of Mother Goddess. 99
Mother Goddess; the real lord of Royal Wealth and Revenue 100
The Cult of Mother Goddess in Indus Valley and Matriarchal System. 101
The Patriarchal form of families among the Aryans. 102
The Matriarchal Inheritance among the Nagas and non-Aryan Tribes. 102
The Ikshwakus of Kausal and Kashi, a Matriarchal family 103
Satavahana a Matriarchal family 104
The Ikshwakus of Sriparvata, Matriarchal family 105
The Khasi Naga of Assam, a Matriarchal Tribes. 105
Causes of Rise and Fall of Matriarchal tradition. 106,
God-King or Raj-Rishi Tradition in Sumer 107
Development of the System 108
The National kingdom or Republic Confederacy in Sumer 109
City-States and God-kings in Indus Valley 109
God-Kings Tradition in later Indus Valley Period L09 Social system in Sumer; three classes. 111
Common-man Warrior. 112
King's Public Assemblies 112
Buddhist and Jain Religions, Indigenous 113
The Ikshwakus, Dravidians of Naga Race. 114
Homogeneity in Iranian and Indian Cultures. 115
Summary and Conclusion. 117
References. 119
6. The Sanghas or Republics in India. 124
Types of Sangha. 124
Tribal origin. 125
Transfer of the Guild System from Western Asia. 126
Crafts and Trade Establishments in the Indus Valley 126
Evolution from Family to Clan 128,
The Republican Confederacy 129,
Type of Republics in Sanskrit Scripture. 130,
Kulikas or kings as the Members of Assemblies or Republican Confederacies. 132
How the Chiefs were Elected ? 133
Characteristics of Sangha or Republic System. 133
The Citizen's Army or Nation-in-Arms. 133
The Wealthy Guilds. 134,
Moral Assets. 135
Principle of Equality and Casteless Society 135
The Non-Aryan Origin of Republicans. 137
Fundamental Principle of Equal Distribution of Rashtri or Gana-Bhumi 140
The Origin and History of some of the Important Republics or Sangha. 142
The Sanghas or Republics in North East of Gangatic Valley. 143
The Sanghas or Republics of North and West Region. 143
The Takshak or Taka (Vahika) of Panjab. 144
The History 144
The Bharsiva Naga Royal family of Padmavati a Taka family. 147
The inscriptions. 148
The Expansion of the Taka Naga Rulers and their different Branches. 149
The Modern off shoot of Takshakas. 150
History of weaving, dyeing and Printing technology 151
Weaving and Dyeing Industry in Indus valley 152
Enhancement in General Demand of Clothing and flourishing of Guilds. 152
Etymology 154
The language (Taka or Takshali) 156
The Script, Takari (Munde or Lande) 156
The Coins. 157
The Lichchhavis of Vaisali. 161
The Sakyas. 164
The Art of silpa and use of Arms compulsory for Sakya youths. 165
Supremacy or rule of Head of the clan. 166
The Madras 167
The Kamboja. 168
The Kshudrakas and Malavas. 168
The Ambasthas and Agrasenis. 169
Patala. 170
The Glory of Sangha culture. 171
How the strongest and the best system was destroyed. 173
Summary and Conclusion. 174
References. 177
7. Pishachi, the Mother of Pali, Prakrit and Maharashtri 184
Pishachi an Aryan Language, view point of Grierson 184
Revoking of the Viewpoint of George Grierson 186
Sanskrit,an Aryan Language of Literature only 187
Prakrit and Pali Languages of Natives. 187
The origin. 188
Two groups of Languages in North India 188
The Concluding Theory of George Grierson 189
The Evolution from Pishachi to Prakrit and its Relation with the Dravidian Languages. 190
The Various Branches of Prakrit Language. 191
Grammarian Vararuchi. 191
The Literature 193
Magadhi Prakrit 192
Maharashtri and other Prakrit Languages 192
The Principle of Lyavant in Pishachi Languages 196
Summary and Conclusion 199
References 201
8. Who were the Nagas ? Their Ethnical identity 204
Buddhist Stupas direct Descendant of the Megaliths 204
Examination of Bas-reliefs and statues of Buddhist Stupas of Amaravati and Sanchi 205
The Anthropological Evidences 207
The Ethnical Relation of People of Brahmagiri and Alpines of Harappan Cemeteries H and G 210
Revoking of theory of Kappers and S. S. Sarkar; pitfall of Anthropology. 216
The Physical Type; A meaningless concept 218
Was Naga Race of Turanian origin? 219
Was Scythian Tribe, Serpent Worshipper? 220
Summary and Conclusion 221
References 224
9. The Black and Red ware culture, its relation with the Yadavas and the Naga Race 226
The totemistic tradition among the Aboriginal Tribes 226
Serpent totem and Naga Race 227
The Harappan Civilization and Cult of Naga Worship. 228
Description of Nagas or Serpents in Vedas 229
The Rigveda. 229
The Atharva-Veda 230
The Black and Red Ware Culture and its Relation with the Western Asia. 230
The Distribution of the Culture 231
Foreign Element in Band R Ware culture and Presence of Iron 233
The Black and Red Ware Culture at Ahar and its Relation with the Western Asia 233
Alpine Race original Inhabitant of Western Asia 235
The movement of Alpine Race from the West 236
Identification of Alpine Race as Yadus etc 237
The Excavation of Prabhas-Patan, its Relation with the Puranic Tradition and Yadavas 238
Hostility of Yadavas and Aryans, Rigvedic Evidence 239
The Racial Type; Ethnical Identification 240
Evidence of Horse and Association of Yadavas with Kathiavar 241
The Yadava a Naga Race 242
Genealogy of Chandra Bansha 242
Summary and Conclusion. 245
References. 247
10. The Downfall of Vedic Culture and Rise of Shraman Naga Culture 250
The Racial distribution of the people in Ancient India (1600 BC-500BC) 250
Last Longer conflict Between the Aryans and the non-Aryan 252
Decline of the Vedic Culture 255
Decline of the Power of Aryan Kshatriyas 255
The Revival of Naga Power (1100-500) 256
The Development of Shraman Culture 256
Neminath and Parashwanath 257
Buddha and Mahabira 259
The Movement of Nagas from Takshila towards Hastinapur in terms of Archaeology 260
Relation of Kurus and Nagas 262
The Rise of Nagas and Capture of Hastinapur, Kashi and Videha. 262
The kingdom of Ahichchhatra its Capture by the Nagas of Jain Tradition 263
Visvamitra and Rajrishi Tradition in Indigenous Culture 265
The Revolution and Change of Power in Magadha. 270
Summary and Conclusion. 272
References 274
11. The Satavahanas and the other Naga rulers of South 278
The Andhra or Satavahana 278
Etymology of the Word Satavahana 278
Legend of Birth of Salivahana. 281
The original home of the Race of the Satavahana 282
The Origin of Power (beginning of Rule). 283
Andhra Vellari 284
Venakataka and Vidarbha 285
Close Relation of Satavahana and Vidarbha. 286
Findings of Forts. 287
The Western Region or Maharashtra, Paithan 288
Andhra Valley 289
Original Founder of the Satavahana Rule 290
Relation between the Satavahanas and the Megalithic Culture 293
Pedigree and Chronology 294
Non-Aryan Origin 296
Matriarchal System 296
Evidence of Coins. 297
The Evidence of Inscriptions and Literature 297
Gana state or Tribal republic state 298
Were the Satavahanas Brahmans ? 301
Satavahana; a Maharathi Nag Family 302
The Satavahanas; Maharathi and Mahabhoja, their two components 303
The Ikshwakus of Sriparvata 304.
Ikshwaku a non-Aryan Royal Family 307
The Naga Rulers of South India 309
The Cholas. 310
The Pallavas 311
The Kadambas 311
The Ratta Nagas of South 313
The Chalukyas 314
Kashyapa Gotra 315
Manavya Gotra 316
Cultural Homogeneity and Cult of Mother Goddess (Bhumata) or Haritimata among the Nagas. 317
Were Haritiputra, Manavya Gotri, Chutus, Kadarnbas, Chalukyas, Vedic Aryan Brahmans ? 319
Summary and Conclusion 322
References 324
12. The Naga Rulers of the North and Central India 330
Nagas of Vidisa 330
The Nava Naga or Bharsiva 332
Re-establishment of Nagas 333
Bharasivas Rise at Kantipuri 333
Bharsivas of Padmavati; A Confederacy of Naga Rulers of North. 334
An Invincible and Prosperous Confederacy 335
Padmavati; The capital of Bharsivas 336
Virasena 337
Bhava Naga 337
The Vakatakas 338
Were Vakatakas Aryan Brahmans ? 339
The Theory of [[Jayaswal 339
Revoking of the Theory of Jayaswal by V. V. Mirashi 340
The Vakatakas Taka Nagas Origin 342
Glory of Taka Royal Family and tradition of using Family Name with the Names of Places etc as Suffix or Prefix 343
Haritiputra 346
Homogeneity of the coins of Bharsiva Naga and Vakatakas 346
The Gupta Royal Family, a Native Naga Origion 349
The Bhojas 351
Confederacy of Yaudheya, Kuninda and Arjuneya Republics 351
The Gonanda Dynasty of Kashmir and Meghavahana 352
The Karkotas of Kashmir (625-885AD) 354
The origin 354
The Pedigree. 355
Lalitaditya. 356
Campaign in Central Asia. 357
Death of Lalita-ditya 358
The Naga Kings of Kalinga and Mahakausala. 358
The Rashtrakutas, their Origin. 360
Summary and Conclusion. 360
References. 362
13. The Guild Based trade and Industry during the Megalithic and Buddhist Age 368
Discovery of Iron and Development of its Technology in Asia Minor; Beginning of Iron Age in India 368
Craft Guilds or Guild Based Occupations 369
Craft Guilds in the North 370
Craft Guilds in the South. 371
Local and Foreign Trade 372
Wealthy Merchants and Bankers 373
The Sarthavaha or Carvaneers 374
The Banik Traders a non-Aryan Naga Race. 374
The Pani in the Rigveda. 374
The Bal deity. 376
The Agrasreni or Agraseni and Alexander 377
Excavation of Agroha 378
The Banik, a Naga Race. 379
The Urbanization. 380
The Glorious Achievements of Naga Culture. 382
Summary and Conclusion. 384
References. 385
14. The Megalithic Culture, its Relation with the Buddhism and Naga Race. 388
Spreading of Buddhism in Vidarbha During the Life lime of Buddha. 388
Tooth Relics of Buddha and Nag Bhumi. 390
Nagpur Region; The Original Nagbhumi 393
The Excavation of Stupa of Pauni and its Relation with the Band R Ware Culture. 394
Relation of Nagas with the Buddhist Stupas. 397
The fall of Buddhism in Maharashtra. 399
Summary and Conclusion. 399
References. 401
15. The Ethnical Identity of People ofMaharashtra during the Historical Period and their Relations with the Naga Race. 403
Etymology of the Words "Maharashtra" and "Rashtri". 404
Ethnical Indentity of Rashtrika and Pctrinika with the Mahar Nagas 405
The Ethnical Indentity of Mahar or Rattha Naga with the Marathas. 407
Nava Nagas 407
The Satavahana Age. 407
The Muslim Period. 410
The British Period, 410
The Expansion of Nagas and Mahars in the South 410
The Aryanization. 411
Hiranya Garbha Ceremony. 412
Incident of Coronation of Shivaji. 413
Summary and Conclusion. 413
References. 414
Epilogue. 417
Selected Bibliography. 422
Original text Books. 422
List of Journals. 423,
Modern Works 424
General Index 433

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