Prabhas Patan

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Junagadh district map

Prabhas Patan (प्रभास पाटण), known popularly as Somnath Patan, is situated in Gujarat (Saurashtra), 7 km. from Veraval (Vallabhipur). This is a place of pilgrimage, or Tirtha, of the most popular Jyotirlinga of Lord Shiva, i.e., Somanath.



It is located halfway between Veraval and Somnath.


In Mahabharata

Prabhasa (प्रभास) in Mahabharata (I.60.17), (1.66), (I.60.19), (1.66), (III.13.13), (III.80.77), (III.86.17), (III.130.7), (IX.44.64), (XIII.26.9), (XIII.26.51), (XIV.84.12),

Anusasana Parva/Book XIII Chapter 26 mentions the sacred waters on the earth. Prabhasa (प्रभास) is mentioned in Mahabharata (XIII.26.9).[1].....By bathing in Pushkara, and Prabhasa, and Naimisha, and the ocean, and Devika, and Indramarga, and Swarnabindu, one is sure to ascend to heaven being seated on a celestial car, and filled with transports of joy at the adorations of Apsara.

Anusasana Parva/Book XIII Chapter 26 mentions the sacred waters on the earth. Prabhasa (प्रभास) is mentioned in Mahabharata (XIII.26.51).[2]..... One who bathes with restrained senses on the day of the new moon in the tirtha known by the name of Prabhasa, is sure, O thou of mighty arms, of at once attaining to success and immortality.

End of Vrishnis

After the death of Duryodhana in Mahabharata, Krishna received the curse of his mother. She bewailed the death of her son and of friend and foe; then recognizing Hari as the Prime Mover, the One behind All, she cursed him for letting such things befall. This was her curse: that after 36 years Krishna should perish alone miserably and his people, the Vrishnis, should be destroyed. These things in due time came to pass. A madness seized the people of Dwaraka so that they fell upon one another and were slain, together with all sons and grandsons of Krishna. Only the women and Krishna and Balarama remained alive.

Death of Balarama: Then Balarama went to the forest, and Krishna first sent a messenger to the Kuru city, to place the city and women of Dwaraka under the Pandavas protection, and then took leave of his father; afterward he himself sought the forest, where Balarama awaited him. Krishna discovered his brother seated under a mighty tree on the edge of the forest; he sat like a yogi, and behold, there came forth from his mouth a mighty snake, the thousand headed Naga, Ananta, and glided away to ocean. Ocean himself and the sacred rivers and many divine Nagas came to meet him.

Death of Krishna : Thus Krishna beheld his brother depart from human world, and he wandered alone in forest. He thought of Gandhari’s curse and all that had befallen, and he knew that the time had come for his own departure. He restrained his senses in yoga and laid himself down. Then there came a hunter that way and thought him a deer, and loosed a shaft and pierced his foot; but when he came close the hunter beheld a man wrapped in yellow robes practicing yoga. Thinking himself an offender, he touched his feet. Then Krishna rose and gave him comfort, and himself ascended to Heaven.[3]

The place where Jara hunter pierced Krishna's foot and Krishna ascended to Heaven is known as Bhalka Tirtha situated in Prabhas Patan (Verawal).

Arjuna went to Dwaraka and brought away the women and children of the Vrishnis, and set out for Kurukshetra. On the way a band of warriors attacked the cavalcade and carried away a great part of women. Arjuna established the others with the remnants of Krishna’s descendants in new cities; but Rukmini and many others of Krishna’s wives became Sati, burning themselves on pyre, and others became ascetics and nuns. The waters of ocean advanced and overwhelmed Dwaraka so that no trace remained.[4]

In Chauhan records

Dasharatha Sharma in "Early Chauhan Dynasties" [180-191] writes about Jalor Chauhan ruler - Samantasimha and Kanhadadeva.

Samantasimha - [Page-180] The inscriptions of Samantasimha range from V. 1339 to 1362 and show Samantasimha ruling over almost the same territories as his father,Chachigadeva. Of Samantasimha's 16 inscriptions, four come from Bhinmal, three from the state of Sirohi, and the rest from various parts of the Jodhpur division of Rajasthan. About V. 1353, he associated his son, Kanhadadeva , with himself in the government of Jalor; The Jalor inscription of Samantasimha, V. 1353, refers itself to the reign of Maharajakula Sri-Samvatasimha, while Kanhadadeva was subsisting on his lotus like feet and bearing the burden of administration (EI, XI, pp. 61f.). Similarly the Chohtan inscription V. 1356, speaks of Maharajakula Sri-Samvatasimhadeva and Rajan Kanhadadeva.

In V. 1353 (1296 AD) the ruler on the throne of Delhi was Firuz's nephew and assassinator, Ala-ud-din Khalji, perhaps the greatest of Sultans of Delhi, whose avowed ambition was to end all Hindu principalities and kingdoms, and who had been advised by his trusted counselors to treat the Hindus as no better than slaves. Samantasimha of Jalor does not appear to

[Page-181] have been a man gifted or capable enough to fight against such a redoubtable adversary. It was good that he realised the need of some assistance, and acting probably on the advice of his people put the real direction of the affairs of the state into the hands of Kanhadadeva, then perhaps a young man of twenty five years or so.

Kanhadadeva - Kanhadadeva had not to wait long for a chance to prove his mettle. In the third year of his joint reign, i.e., 1298 A.D., Alauddin decided to conquer Gujarat and destroy the temple of Somanatha. As the best route for his army lay through Marwar, he despatched a robe of honour to Kanhadadeva and desired that he should permit the Khalji forces to pass through his territory. Worldly wisdom should have dictated instant submission to the imperial orders. But to the brave Kanhadadeva svadharma mattered more than worldly pleasures, or a kingdom or even his life. He therefore sent back Alauddin's messenger with the blunt answer,

"Your army would, on its way, sack villages, take prisoners, molest women, oppress Brahmanas and slay cows. This being against our dharma, we cannot accede to your request."

Though the refusal must naturally have angered Alauddin,he took no immediate steps against Jalor. The Khalji army, commanded by Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan, marched instead through Mewar. Like a storm of extreme fury, it laid low every state, every chiefship, every principality that lay across its path, conquered very soon the whole of Gujarat and Kathiawar, and destroyed the temple of Somanatha, in spite of the gallant opposition offered by the Jethava (जेठव), Vala (वला), Baja (बाजा) and Chudasama (चुडासामा). And then on its way back to Delhi, Ulugh Khan, either on his own initiative or acting on

[Page-182] instructions beforehand by Alauddin, decided to punish Kanhadadeva for the affront to Khalji authority. Victorious every where he marched through the Jalor. When the Khalji army reached Sakrana (tah-Ahore), a village 18 miles from Jalor, Kanhadadeva’s chief minister, Jaita Devada, conveyed his master’s message to Ulugh.

[Page-183] In a well planned raid led by Jaita Devada, Nusrat Khan’s brother, Malik Aizudin and a nephew of Alaudin were slain. Ulugh Khan barely escaped his life. They liberated thousands of Hindu prisnors and the rescue of an idol of Somanatha which was being carried to Delhi.

[Page-184] Kanhadadeva had its five fragments installed respectively at Prabhasa, Bagada, Abu, Jalor and his own garden. This rescue of Somanatha forms in the popular mind Kanhadadeva's best and greatest title to greatness.


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[5] ने लेख किया है ...1. प्रभास (AS, p.584): प्रभास अथवा 'प्रभासपाटन' अथवा 'प्रभासपट्टन' काठियावाड़ के समुद्र तट पर स्थित बीराबल बंदरगाह की वर्तमान बस्ती का प्राचीन नाम है। यह एक प्रमुख तीर्थ स्थान है। किंवदंती के अनुसार जरा नामक व्याघ का बाण लगने से भगवान श्रीकृष्ण इसी स्थान पर परम धाम सिधारे थे। महाभारत के अनुसार यह सरस्वती-समुद्र संगम पर स्थित प्रसिद्ध तीर्थ था- 'समुद्रं पश्चिमं गत्वा सरस्वत्यब्धि संगमम्' महाभारत 35, 77.

यह विशिष्ट स्थल या देहोत्सर्ग तीर्थ नगर के पूर्व में हिरण्या, सरस्वती तथा कपिला के संगम पर बताया जाता है। इसे प्राची त्रिवेणी भी कहते हैं। युधिष्ठिर तथा अन्य पांडवों ने अपने वनवास काल में अन्य तीर्थों के साथ प्रभास की भी यात्रा की थी- 'द्विजै: पृथिव्यां प्रथितं महद्भिस्तीर्थ प्रभासं समुषजगाम' महाभारत, वनपर्व 118, 15. इस तीर्थ को महोदधि (समुद्र) का तीर्थ कहा गया है- 'प्रभासतीर्थ संप्राप्य पुण्यं तीर्थ महोदवे:-वनपर्व 19, 3.

विष्णु पुराण के अनुसार प्रभास में ही यादव लोग परस्पर लड़-भिड़ कर नष्ट हो गये थे- 'ततस्ते यादवास्सर्वे रथानारुह्य शीघ्रगान, प्रभासं प्रययुस्सार्ध कृष्णरामादिमिर्द्विज। प्रभास समनुप्राप्ता कुकुरांधक वृष्णय: चक्रुस्तव महापानं वासुदेवेन नोदिता:, पिवतां तत्र चैतेषां संघर्षेण परस्परम्, अतिवादेन्धनोजज्ञे कलहाग्नि: क्षयावह:' विष्णुपुराण 5, 37-38-39-40. देहोत्सर्ग के आगे यादव स्थली है, जहाँ यादव लोग परस्पर लड़भिड़ कर नष्ट हो गए थे। प्रभासपाटन का जैन साहित्य में 'देवकीपाटन' नाम भी मिलता है।दे. तीर्थमाला चैत्यवन्दन -- 'वंदे स्वर्णगिरौ तथा सुरगिरौ श्री देवकीपत्तने'।

2. प्रभास (AS, p.584)= पभोसा जिला इलाहाबाद, उ.प्र., शुंग काल (दूसरी शती ई.पू.) के अनेक उत्कीर्ण लेख इस स्थान से प्राप्त हुये हैं. यह प्राचीन नगर कोसांबी के निकट स्थित था. (दे. पभोसा )

पभोसा, पभोसी

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[6] ने लेख किया है ...पभोसा , पभोसी, जिला इलाहाबाद, उ.प्र., (AS, p.528): भरवारी स्टेशन के निकट है यहां प्रभास क्षेत्र नामक एक पहाड़ी पर एक प्राचीन जैन मंदिर है जिसका संबंध जैन तीर्थंकर पद्मप्रभु से बताते हैं. यह नगर शुंग काल में प्रभास कहलाता था. यहां से प्राप्त एक अभिलेख में शुंग वंशीय नरेश बृहस्पति मित्र (दूसरी शती ईसा पूर्व) का उल्लेख है. इस के सिक्के कौशांबी तथा अहिच्छत्र में भी मिले हैं. संभवत: मोरा ग्राम (जिला मथुरा) से प्राप्त अभिलेख में भी इसी राजा का उल्लेख है. इसकी पुत्री यशोमती मथुरा के किसी राजा को गई थी. (देखें मथुरा-संग्रहालय-परिचयपृ.8) पभोसा कोसांबी से अधिक दूर नहीं है.


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[7] ने लेख किया है ...देवकीपट्टन (AS, p.441) वर्तमान 'प्रभासपट्टन' ही है। इसका जैन धर्म के तीर्थ के रूप में वर्णन 'तीर्थमालाचैत्यवंदन' नामक स्तोत्र ग्रंथ में इस प्रकार है- 'वंदे स्वर्णगिरौ तथा सुरगिरौ श्रीदेवकीपट्टने'

External links

See also


  1. पुष्करं च प्रभासं च नैमिषं सागरॊदकम, देविकाम इन्द्र मार्गं च स्वर्णबिन्दुं विगाह्य च, विबॊध्यते विमानस्थः सॊ ऽपसरॊभिर अभिष्टुतः (XIII.26.9)
  2. प्रभासे तव एकरात्रेण अमावास्यां समाहितः, सिध्यते ऽतर महाबाहॊ यॊ नरॊ जायते पुनः (XIII.26.51)
  3. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus and Bhuddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  4. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus and Bhuddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  5. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.584
  6. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.528
  7. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.441

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