Marubhumi

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Marubhumi (मरुभूमि) was a Country mentioned in Mahabharata subjugated by Nakula in his victory march. It is identified with Marwar region of Rajasthan.[1]

Origin

Variants

History

In Mahabharata

  • Marubhumi (मरु भूमि) (II.29.5), (V.19.29),
  • Marubhauma (मरुभौम) (VI.10.46),

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 29 mentions the Countries subjugated by Nakula in West. Marubhumi (मरु भूमि) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.29.5). [2]....And the encounter the son of Pandu had with the Mattamayurakas of that country was fierce. And the illustrious Nakula after this, subjugated the whole of the desert country (Marubhumi).


Udyoga Parva/Mahabharata Book V Chapter 19 mentions Kings Who joined Kauravas for war. ... Marubhumi (मरु भूमि) is mentioned in verse (V.19.29).[3] ...there was no space in the city of Hastinapura even for the principal leaders of Duryodhana's army. ...And for this reason the land of the five rivers, and the whole of the region called Kuru-jangala, and the forest of Rohitaka (Rohitakaranya) which was uniformly wild (Marubhumi), and Ahichhatra and Kalakuta, and the banks of the Ganga, and Varana, and Vatadhana, and the hill tracts on the border of the Yamuna--the whole of this extensive tract--full of abundant corn and wealth, was entirely overspread with the army of the Kauravas.


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Marubhauma (मरुभौम) is mentioned in (VI.10.46). [4]... Aparandhras, the Shudras, the Pahalvas, the Charmakhandikas; the Atavis, Shabaras, Marubhaumas, Marishas...


Marudha (मरुध) were The Mahabharata Tribe Defeated by Sahdeva in the south (II.28.7), they may be the Madhka in Yudhisthira's army. Both 'Maru' and 'Mada' are found in inscriptions; could refer to Jodhpur and Jaisalmer states (modern Marwar). Marudhanva is a term for desert and Marudha may, derive from it.

Jat History

Yaudheyas are identified with the Jats clan Joiyas or Johiya[5] of Bahawalpur and Multan Divisions (Pakistan) and Bikaner, Rajasthan (India). Yaudheyas were the rulers of South-Eastern Punjab and Rajasthan. Even today these areas are inhabited by the Johiyas.

Alexander had heard about a very powerful people beyond the river Beas. Arrian describes them as gallant fighters, good agriculturists and having constitutional government. [Ibid.] Though they have not been specifically named, there is little doubt in their being Yaudheyas. [6], [7] It is said in the Adi Parva of Mahabharata that Yaudheya was son of Yudhishthira by his Shivi wife. [8] They find mention in the Sabhaparva of the Mahabharata under different name-Mattamayura. It is said that starting from Khandavapratha Nakul marched towards west and reached Rohitika-beautiful, prosperous and rich in cattle and horses and dear to Kartikeya. He also captured Marubhumi and Bahudhanya. Because these three places had been the chief centres of Yaudheyas and also because Kartikeya finds depiction on the Yaudheya coins, Mattamayura is merely another name for the Yaudheyas. This ancient name is preserved in Jat gotra as Mori, Maur, Mor. [9]

It appears that the political power of the Yaudheyas was eclipsed under the Mauryas. But after their decline the Yaudheyas again became politically dominant and had their heydays up to the rise of the Guptas. [10][11]

During the glorious period of the Yaudheyas their neighbours in Rajasthan were Malavas (Jaipur, Tonk, Ajmer), Shivis (Chittor), Matsya (Alwar) and Maukharis (Kota). The Yaudheyas probably formed a confederacy with these and others and, as Atlekar suggests, gave a final blow to the tottering Kushan Kingdom.[12] The Yaudheya chiefs who bore the titles Maharaja Senapati appear to have been chosen for this purpose by Yaudheya gana. During this period they might have developed some contacts with the Vakatakas, Bharashivas and other Naga families, under the subjugation of the Guptas, they must have developed closure toes with the Guptas. It is probably during these centuries that they absorbed some elements of their neighbours. The Jat Gotra names Malava, Mokhar, Makhar, Machchar, Bharshiv, Nag, Dharan may be understood against this back ground. [13]

मरुभू = मरुभूमि

मरुभू = मरुभूमि AS, p.713): राजस्थान का मरूप्रदेश या मारवाड़. महाभारत सभा पर्व 32,5 में मरुभूमि के नकुल द्वारा जीते जाने का वर्णन है--'यत्रं युद्धं महच्चासीच्छूरैर मत्तमयूरकैः, मरुभूमिं च कार्त्स्न्येन तदैव बहु धान्यकम्'. (II.29.5) विष्णु पुराण, 4,24,68 से सूचित होता है कि गुप्तकाल से कुछ पूर्व है मरुभू (=मरुभूमि) पर आभीर आदि जातियों का प्रभुत्व था--'नर्मदा मरुभूविषयांश्च आभीरशूद्राद्या भोक्ष्यन्ति'. [14]

External links

References

  1. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.713
  2. तत्र युद्धं महद वृत्तं शूरैर मत्तमयूरकैः, मरु भूमिं च कार्त्स्न्येन तदैव बहु धान्यकम (II.29.5)
  3. ततः पञ्चनथं चैव कृत्स्नं च कुरुजाङ्गलम, तदा रॊहित कारण्यं मरु भूमिश च केवला (V.19.29)
  4. अपरन्ध्राश च शूद्राश च पह्लवाश चर्म खण्डिकाः, अटवी शबराश चैव मरु भौमाश च मारिष Mahabharata (VI.10.46)
  5. Cunningham , A. Coins of Ancient India, London, 1891,pp. 75-76
  6. Brahma Purana, Ch. 13
  7. Harivansha, Ch. 32
  8. Mahabharata ch. 95, 76
  9. Maheswari Prasad, “Jats in Ancient India”:The Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Vol.I, p. 23
  10. Maheswari Prasad, “Jats in Ancient India”:The Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Vol.I, p. 23
  11. History of the Jats, Pages 108-110
  12. A.S. Atlekar and R.C. Majumdar, The Vakataka Gupta Age, p.27
  13. Maheswari Prasad, “Jats in Ancient India”:The Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Vol.I, p. 25
  14. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.713