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Marut (मरुत्) were republic people with Sangha form of Government known to Panini and mentioned in Ramayana/Mahabharata.

Variants of name

Jat clans

  • Pauvanya (पौवन्या) Panvadya (पांवडया) gotra of Jats are said to be descendants of Pavan or Marutas (मरुत) people. [1]
  • Dhayal - Some authors consider that Dhayal are descendants of Marutaganas (मरुतगण). Those cared by dhaya (धाय) were known as Dhayal.[2]

Mention by Panini

Marut (मरुत्) is name of a place mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi under Madhvadi (मध्वादि) (4.2.86) group. [3]

Marut (मरुत), warlike tribe, is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [4]

Marutvan (मरुत्वान्), name of Indra, is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [5]


V. S. Agrawala[6] mentions Sanghas known to Panini which includes - Marut (मरुत्) , under Parshvadi (पर्शवादि) (V.3.117).

V. S. Agrawala[7] mentions Ayudhajivi Sanghas in the Ganapatha, which includes - Marut : Unidentified but probably connected with Pathan tribe called the Marwats, now settled in the Marwat tahsil of Bannu district. (Imp. Gaz., VI.394).


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[8] ने लेख किया है ...मरुत् (AS, p.712): 'मारुता: धेनुकाश्चैव तंगणाः परतंगणाः, बाह्लिकास्तित्तिराश्चैव चोलाः पाण्ड्याश्च भारत'। महाभारत भीष्मपर्व 50,5. इस उद्धरण में भारत के सीमांत पर बसने वाली जातियों के नाम उल्लिखित हैं. प्रसंग से जान पड़ता है कि मरुत्-जनपद, जहां के निवासियों को यहां मारुता: कहा गया है, भारत की उत्तर-पश्चिमी सीमा के परे बसने वाली किसी जाति का निवास स्थान होगा. तंगण और परतंगण मरुत् के पार्श्ववर्ती प्रदेश जान पड़ते हैं. सभा पर्व 52,3 के उल्लेख में तंगण-परतंगण प्रदेश को शैलोदा नदी (=खोतन) की उपत्यका में स्थित बताया गया है.

उशीरबीज पर्वत

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[9] ने लेख किया है ... उशीरबीज पर्वत (AS, p.103) पांडवों की तीर्थ यात्रा के प्रसंग में उसीरबीज नामक पर्वत का उल्लेख है। 'उशीरबीज मैनाकं गिरिश्वेतं च भारत, समतीतोअसि कौंतेय कालशैलं च पार्थिव'। (महाभारत वनपर्व 139, 1.)

वनपर्व 139,2 में गंगा का वर्णन है- 'एषा गंगा सप्तविधा राजते भारतषभ'(वनपर्व 139,2)

इससे जान पड़ता है कि उसीरबीज तथा इसके साथ उल्लिखित अन्य पहाड़, गंगा के उद्गम से लेकर हरिद्वार तक की हिमालय पर्वत श्रेणियों के नाम हैं। वाल्मीकि-रामायण (उत्तर 18,2) में भी इसका उल्लेख है- 'ततो मरुत्तं नृपर्ति यजंतं सहदैवतैः उशीरबीजमासाद्य ददर्श सतु रावणः।'

यहां मरुत्त नामक नरेश के तप का वर्णन है जो उन्होंने उसीरबीज में देवताओं के साथ किया था। (दे. उसिरगिरि, उसिरध्वज)

Jat History

Bhim Singh Dahiya[10] states that Maruta was the first king of the Jats (Guti) in the third millennium B.C. These Gutians who became overlords of Sumer, Akkad, Lagash, Babylonia, etc., ruled for 125 years and 40 days. Twenty (or twenty-one) kings are listed, the first named being Muruta (Skt. Maruta). And their last king is named Trigan.

Bhim Singh Dahiya[11] writes that [p.307]: We have also seen that the first king of the Jats (Guti) in the third millennium B.C. was called Maruta. Now Maruta or Marut is an Aryan god also, who is the god of wind and rain. But there are other meanings given to the word Marut and on the whole it is clear that Marut is not only a god, but also a people with definite mode of living, particular dress, armaments and ideas of human equality with a kingless or republican form of government.

  • (i) They do not care about their bodies. (तनूषु न कि: येतिरे Rig. 8/22/12).
  • (ii) They decorate their bodies with strange ornaments. (चित्रै: अञ्जिभि: Rig. 1/64/4),

55. ABORI, 1940, Vol. XXI, pp. 157-191. 56. Bibliotheca Indica, Vol. III. p. 450.


  • (iii) They bear spears on their shoulders.
  • (iv) They have movable bows (on their bodies) and immovable bows on their chariots. 57 These chariots are drawn by horses or stags.58 रथेषु पृषती: Their chariots are full of arrows and food.
  • (v) They have golden turbans or head dress on their heads. (शिप्रा शीर्षन् हरिण्ययी: Rig. 8/7/25).
  • (vi) They have whips (producing sound) in their hands. (हस्तेषु कशावदान् Rig. 1/37/3).
  • (vii) They feel pleasure in wars. (विदथेषु मदन्ति Rig. 1/85/4).
  • (viii) They are the sons of Rudra. (रुद्रस्य सूनव:).
  • (ix) Indra is surrounded by Maruts.59
  • (x) They believe in human equality. They have no superiors among them, nor inferiors. All are equal and move with their group strength.
  • (xi) They are "well born" (sic) Su-Jātasah and they call the earth, their mother.
  • (vii) They are brave among men. 60
  • (xiii) They call each other 'brothers'.61
  • (xiv) The whole world is afraid of them. (मरुद्भय विश्व भुवनानि-भवन्ते)
  • (xv) They are like kings (राजान: इव ) but kingless (अराजिन:).
  • (xvi) They have no higher (अकनिष्ठास:) or middle (अमध्यसास:) or lower (अचरमा:) among them; yet they are superior in qualities (sic) (ज्येष्ठास:),
  • (xvii) They do not bow before anybody (अन्-आनत:)
  • (xviii) They keep horses (अश्वयुज :), especially red coloured horses. (अरुनाश्व: रोहित:)
  • (xix) They are invincible, and indestructible (न स: जीयन्ते;न हन्यते).

They look ferocious.62 (त्वेष संद्रिश: नर:, Rig. 1/85/8)

57. Rig Veda, 8/20/12. 58. ibid., 1/85/4. 59. ibid., VI, 5/6/2. 60. ibid., 5/59/6 .. 61. ibid., 1/60/5. 62. ibid., 1/85/8,

[p.309]: Now who are these brave, fearless, kingless but kinglike horse-owning warriors, hunters wearing head dress, spears and bow, moving in horse or stag-drawn chariots (wagons), soldiers of Indra, sons of Rudra having no superiors or inferiors among them, who address each other as brothers, who live and fight in large groups, and who call the earth their 'mother'? They cannot be native to India because stag-drawn wagons are unthinkable in the Indian context, and this single fact, points out, unmistakably, towards the Siberian plains. It is well known that the Scythians used stags for driving their wagons and the Eskimos still do. The very name Shalva meaning a stag or gazelle, is of Scythian origin,63 and is the name of a Jat clan, the present Syal. Russian scholar Nicholas Marrr, was of the view that stag was used for riding before the use of horse, and his view has been confirmed by archaeology.64 Every single characteristic mentioned above gives the one and only one answer. They are the Scythians, the Getae of northern plains of Asia! Their federal or communistic living and war habits, their democratic, kingless government, their presence feared by the world, is very apt indeed. It is significant that they are called here, Sujata and Jyestha, because both these names are associated with the origins of Jats in the Puranas.

They are the soldiers of Indra; they are the Aryans; they are the Guts, about whom the authors of the Sumerian kings list queried, "who was king? who was not king", because they were kingless (अराजिन:)-All were kings and no one was king!

This identification of Maruts, sons of Rudra, with the Scythian Getae finds further confirmation from the Vedic literature. Satapatha Brahmana mentions a king, Marutta Aviksita, performing a horse sacrifice in which the Maruts act as his body guards, the Agni (fire) acts as his Chamberlain and all the gods (visve-devas) as his courtiers. 65

Here we find a king named Marutta, and of course, the Marut bodyguards are his soldiers, and horse sacrifice is a Central Asian custom, followed by the Mandas, the Scythians and the Hunas. Now these Maruts are described as "Sons of Rudra" and Rudra

63. JA, 1929, pp. 312-325. 64. American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 37, p. 30. 65. Satopathu Brahmana, XIII, 5/4-6.

[p.310]: himself is defined as "one who makes his enemies weep". But we find a significant passage in Atharva Veda, which says that Rudra is the king of a people called 'Garta' or Garta-Sada (or Sad).

स्तुहि श्रुतं गर्तसदं जनानाम् राजानं भीममुपहत्नुमुग्रम
मुडा जरित्रे रुद्र स्तवानो अन्यमस्मत्ते नि वपन्तु सेन्यम (18.1.40)

Here Rudra is called "Gartasadam Jananam Rajanam". S.D. Satavalekar translates this word 'Gartasadam' asadan as "one who lives inside everybody".66 But this is manifestly incorrect; because the king of the people "who live inside everybody" does not make sense. Satavalekar is conscious of this fact, and he says that "the words" Jananam Rajana Rudram "carry special importance, all people have one king, Rudra". He is again dissatisfied and says that the word "Gartasad" requires consideration, with reference to other words, and he finally takes 'Garta' as equivalent to a cave (Guha). But 'Garta' is the same as 'Asi-garta' of Iran; Sagarta of the Greeks. Chitra Takhma the opponent of Darius the Great, is called an Asagarta. Asi, the name of the people, means 'horse' and 'Garta' stands for Jat, so Asigarta means horse-owning Jat or Jat horse, like the later Skinners' Horse of the British Indian Army.

The old name of Hunas, as per Herodotus, is Arimaspa, which means Arima = first + Asp. =Horse, i.e. the "First Horse". It is significant that the area around Jullundur/Kangra inhabited by the Jat is named 'Tri-garta' in the Puranas. Obviously it is named after the three clans of the Jats, though in the time of Panini, the three had become six (clans). 67 Now Aitereya Brahmana mentions a person, ShunahShepa, who is the son of Aji-garta. Here Aji-garta has to be compared with Asigarta/Asagarta. This Sunahsepa, whose name is rather Persian, was adopted as a son by Visvamitra, son of Gathi, (Gathin). Referring to this episode, R.S. Sharma, says this is "an early example of the priestly ingenuity in the invention of genealogies" of the foreigners.68 Obviously, Ajigarta and his son were not Indian.

The hymn of Atharva Veda quoted above, has its parallel in the Rig Veda where the phrase "Gartasadam Jananam Rajanam" is modified into "Gartasadam Yuvanam mrigam na". The earlier

'66. Daivata Samhita, Vol. II, pt. 7, p. 6. 67. See also Sukumar Sen, Old Persian Inscriptions (1941). 68. Sudras in Ancient India, p. 65.

[p.311]: hymn of Rig Veda (2/33/10) after mentioning the arms and armaments of Rudra, says that "no one is more brave than ye, 0 Rudra."69 (तवत् ओजीयो न वा अस्ति)

G.P. Upadhyaya in his Hindi edition of Satapatha Brahmana (Vol. I) translates the word 'Sad din' as horse-rider, the word Asad is mentioned as 'on foot', obviously, the word Sad, as antonym of Asad means one who is not on foot, i.e., a horse or chariot rider. SED' defines Sada as sitting on horse-back, riding.70 Sadin is defined as horseman. Sadya is defined as riding-horse. Garta is defined as a high seat, or throne; the seat of a chariot. Gartasad is defined as sitting on the seat of a chariot. 71 Thus, the word Gartasad, used for a people can be taken as chariot. or horseriding people- a definition which exactly fit the Scythians or the Massagetae.

Rig Veda mentions the stags used as horses, as Prisad-Ashva. The Maruts are called as those who use stags as horses.71 Sadya is mentioned in the Ashvalayana Sutra as a riding-horse. Sujata is mentioned in the Rig Veda as a title of people.

The Puranas derived the word Jat from Sujata. We have already seen that, according to Unadi Vritti, the word Jat means king, i.e. a title. HVI, however, says that it would not be proper to take Sujata as royal or special people as agaaist common people.72 Buddha Prakash equates the Indian word Mashaka with Massagetae.73 The word Mashaka is the name of a country in Sakadvipa, inhabited by Kshatriya.74 Panini mentions a river, Mashakavati, obviously in the same region. There was, however, not much of a difference between the Massagetae and the Scythians although they were fighting each other on occasions. But such fighting seem to be a regular phenomena in the lower Siberian plains, and these disruptions of peaceful existence, affected the history of Asia and Europe. This was so right from the movements of Aryans and up to the movements of the Mughals.

69. SED, p. 1139. 70. ibid., p. 349. 71. HVI, Vol. II, p. 22. 72. ibid., Vol. II, p. 501. 73. P&SM, p. 40. 74. SED, p. 793.

In Vedas

In Vedas, the Marutas , also known as the Marutagana and sometimes identified with Rudras,[12] are storm deities and sons of Rudra and Prisni and attendants of Indra. The number of Marutas varies from 27 to sixty (three times sixty in RV 8.96.8).

They are very violent and aggressive, described as armed with golden weapons i.e. lightning and thunderbolts, as having iron teeth and roaring like lions, as residing in the north, as riding in golden chariots drawn by ruddy horses.

Hymn 66 of Mandala VI of the Rig Veda is an eloquent account of how a natural phenomenon of a rain-storm metamorphose into storm deities.[13]

In the Vedic mythology, the Marutas, a troop of young warriors, are Indra's companions. According to French comparative mythologist Georges Dumézil, they are cognate to the Einherjar and the Wild hunt.

According to the Rig Veda, the ancient collection of sacred hymns, they wore golden helmets and breastplates, and used their axes to split the clouds so that rain could fall. They were widely regarded as clouds, capable of shaking mountains and destroying forests.

According to later tradition, such as Puranas,[14] the Marutas were born from the broken womb of the goddess Diti, after Indra hurled a thunderbolt at her to prevent her from giving birth to too powerful a son. The goddess had intended to remain pregnant for a century before giving birth to a son who would threaten Indra.

In Ramayana

the Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 42 mentions that Sugreeva sends troops to west side to search for Seetha under the leadership of Sushena, the father of lady Tara. Describing the various provinces like Surashtra, Balhika and Chandrachitra (Mathura), Western Ocean, River Sindhu and magnificent mountains that are situated at the northwest of India, cities like Murachi, Jatapura, Avanti and Angalepa and also the ocean down south to it, namely the present Arabian Sea and almost up to Persian provinces, he orders monkey troops to return within one month's time.

The verse (4.42.41, 42) in this sarga mentions the location of Marutas along with Vasavas...."On their coming to that unique mountain Mt. Meru Saavarni at vespers Vishvedeva-s, Vasava-s, Marut-s, and the other celestial will bide their time for the dusking Sun, and when they all have worshipped him, the Sun goes to the Mt. Astagiri, the Dusking Mountain, and vanishes for all beings for that day. (4.42.41, 42).[15]

In Mahabharata

Maruta (मारुत) have been mentioned in Mahabharata (I.60.37), (I.61.73),(I.61.76), (I.90.69), (III.154.61), (III.164.11), (IX.44.6), (XII.29.16), (XII.29.19), (XII.29.20), (XIV.8.6), (XIV.8),

Marudgana (मरुद्गण) (III.164.49), (IX.46.27), (XIII.26.37),

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 60 mentions genealogy of all the principal creatures. Maruta are mentioned in verse (I.60.37)...."The Rudras, the Saddhyas, the Maruts, the Vasus, the Bhargavas, and the Viswedevas are each reckoned as a Paksha." [16]

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 61 gives Genealogy of the Danavas, Asuras, Kauravas, Pandavas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Rakshasas. Maruts are mentioned in verse (I.61.73)...."And he who was Satyaki of sure aim, that upholder of the pride of Vrishni race, that oppressor of foes, begotten of the portion of gods called the Maruts. [17]

Maruts are again mentioned in verse (I.61.76)...."And that royal sage also, Virata by name, the scorcher of the kingdoms of others, and the great oppressor of all foes, was born of the portion of the same gods." [18]

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 90 gives History and family tree of Puru, Bharatas and Pandavas commencing from Daksha. Maruta is mentioned in verse (I.90.69)......."And Kunti said, 'Let it be', So she raised up offspring. By Dharma she had Yudhishthira; by Maruta, Bhima: and by Sakra, Arjuna." [19]

Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 154 mentions Jatasura abducts Yudhishthira and killed by Bhima. Marutas are mentioned in verse (III.154.61)...."Having slain Jatasura, Bhima presented himself before Yudhishthira, and the foremost Brahmanas began to eulogise him (Bhima) even as the Marutas (eulogise) Vasava."


Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 164 mentions Marutas in verse (III.164.11) ...."And ascending celestial cars, there approached the Marutas and the followers of Mahendra and the dwellers of heaven." [21]

Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 164 mentions Marutas in verse (III.164.49) ...."Then I saw the Vasus, and the Rudras, and the Sadhyas with the Marutas, and the Adityas, and the two Aswins and worshipped them." [22]

Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 170 mentions about Marutas in verse (III.170.64)...."And with the Marutas, hearing of the destruction of Hiranyapura, of the neutralisation of the illusion, and of the slaughter of the highly powerful Nivatakavachas in fight, the prosperous thousand-eyed divine Purandara was well pleased..." [23]

Shalya Parva, Mahabharata/Book IX Chapter 44 mentions the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo (सेनागणाध्यक्ष), the diverse gods, various clans who joined it. Maruts are mentioned among the diverse gods in verse (IX.44.6)-...."Rudras, the (eight) Vasus, the (twelve) Adityas, the (twin) Ashvinis, the Viswedevas, the Maruts, the Saddhyas, the Pitris,...."[24]

Shanti Parva Mahabharata Book XII Chapter 29 tells us about Marutta. Verse (XII.29.16) mentions ..."O Srinjaya, that there was a king of the name of Marutta who was the son of Avikshit. [25] Verse (XII.29.19) mentions ....... "The learned Vrihaspati, from desire of doing good unto Indra, had refused to officiate at Marutta's sacrifice."[26]Verse (XII.29.20) mentions ...... the Maruts acted as distributors (of food and presents) and the high-souled Sadhyas were also present. In that sacrifice of Marutta, the Maruts drank Soma."[27]

Anusasana Parva/Book XIII Chapter 26 mentions the sacred waters on the earth. Marudgana (मरुद्गण) are mentioned in Mahabharata (XIII.26.37).[28].....Bathing in the tirtha that is sacred to the Maruts, as also in that which is situate in the retreat of the Pitris, and also in that which is known by the name of Vaivaswata, one becomes cleansed of all one's sins and becomes as pure and sanctified as a tirtha.

In Islam

Harut and Marut (Arabic: هاروت وماروت) are the two angels mentioned in the second surah of the Qur'an who were present during the reign of the prophet Solomon and according to some narratives those two angels were in the time of Hazarat Idrees and were located at a location called Babel. The Qur'an indicates that they were a trial for the people and through them the people were tested with sorcery. (Sura Al-Baqara, verse 102).

European interpretations: William St. Clair Tisdall claims that Harut and Marut are two ancient Armenian deities, worshipped by the Armenians before their conversion to Christianity. They are said to be assistants of the goddess Spandaramit. They were the special promotors of the productiveness and profitableness of the earth. Horot and Morot also appear in the Avesta as Haurvat (or Haurvatat) and Ameretat, "abundance" and "immortality".[29]

The English orientalist and scholar David Samuel Margoliouth asserted that Harut and Marut were none other than Jannes and Jambres, the two magicians mentioned in II Timothy 3:8 as being the Egyptian magicians who withstood the prophet Moses in the court of the pharaoh in Exodus 7:8-12.[30]

The story of Harut and Marut has a parallel in the apocryphal Jewish text The Book of Enoch, however, in that book the angels are named “Uzzah, Azzah and Azael." They are described teaching sorcery to the generation of Enoch which allows them to summon the “sun and moon, star and constellations” down to serve their idols.” [31]

Further reading

Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), Book by Bhim Singh Dahiya, IRS, First Edition 1980, Publisher: Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd, AB/9 Safdarjang Enclave, New Delhi-110064


  1. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya etc,: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 263
  2. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas,p.258
  3. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.505
  4. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.448
  5. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.356
  6. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.500
  7. India as Known to Panini,p.448
  8. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.712
  9. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.103
  10. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Antiquity of the Jats, p.294
  11. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Antiquity of the Jats,pp.307-311
  12. Max Müller. Vedic Hymns. Atlantic Publishers. p. 352.
  13. Max Müller, Hermann Oldenberg. Vedic Hymns: Part I. Library of Alexandria. p. 177.
  14. Tamra Andrews. Dictionary of Nature Myths: Legends of the Earth, Sea, and Sky. Oxford University Press. p. 116.
  15. त्वयि ये च अपि वत्स्यन्ति देव गन्धर्व दानवाः । ते भविष्यन्ति भक्ताः च प्रभया कांचन प्रभाः ॥४-४२-४०॥ विश्वेदेवाः च वसवो मरुतः च दिव ओकसः । आगत्य पश्चिमाम् संध्याम् मेरुम् उत्तम पर्वतम् ॥४-४२-४१॥ आदित्यम् उपतिष्ठन्ति तैः च सूर्यो अभिपूजितः । अदृश्यः सर्व भूतानाम् अस्तम् गच्छति पर्वतम् ॥४-४२-४२॥
  16. रुद्राणाम अपरः पक्षः साध्यानां मरुतां तथा, वसूनां भार्गवं विद्याद विश्वे देवांस तथैव च (I.60.37)
  17. सात्यकिः सत्यसंधस तु यॊ ऽसौ वृष्णिकुलॊद्वहः, पक्षात स जज्ञे मरुतां देवानाम अरिमर्दनः (I.61.73)
  18. मरुतां तु गणाद विद्धि संजातम अरिमर्दनम, विराटं नाम राजर्षिं परराष्ट्र परतापनम (I.61.76)
  19. सा तत्र पुत्रान उत्पादयाम आस धर्माद युधिष्ठिरं मारुताद भीमसेनं शक्राद अर्जुनम इति (I.90.69)
  20. तं निहत्य महेष्वासॊ युधिष्ठिरम उपागमत, सतूयमानॊ थविजाग्र्यैस तैर मरुथ्भिर इव वासवः (III.154.61)
  21. मरुतां च गणास तत्र थेव यानैर उपागमन, महेन्थ्रानुचरा ये च थेव सथ्म निवासिनः (III.164.11)
  22. ततॊ ऽपश्यं वसून रुथ्रान साध्यांश च समरुथ्गणान, आथित्यान अश्विनौ चैव तान सर्वान परत्यपूजयम (Mahabharata:III.164.49)
  23. हिरण्यपुरघातं च मायानां चनिवारणम, निवातकवचानां च वधं संख्ये महौजसाम (Mahabharata:III.170.63) तच छरुत्वा भगवान परीतः सहस्राक्षः पुरंदरः, मरुद्भिः सहितः शरीमान साधु साध्व इत्य अदाब्रवीत (III.170.64)
  24. 6 रुद्रैर वसुभिर आदित्यैर अश्विभ्यां च वृतः परभुः, विश्वे देवैर मरुद्भिश च साध्यैश च पितृभिः सह (IX.44.6)
  25. आविक्षितं मरुत्तं मे मृतं सृञ्जय शुश्रुहि, यस्य सेन्थ्राः स वरुणा बृहस्पतिपुरॊगमाः (Mahabharata:XII.29.16)
  26. आविक्षितस्य वै सत्रे विश्वे थेवाः सभा सथः, मरुतः परिवेष्टारः साध्याश चासन महात्मनः (Mahabharata:XII.29.19)
  27. मरुद्गणा मरुत्तस्य यत सॊमम अपिबन्त ते, थेवान मनुष्यान गन्धर्वान अत्यरिच्यन्त थक्षिणाः (Mahabharata:XII.29.20)
  28. मरुद्गण उपस्पृश्य पितॄणाम आश्रमे शुचिः, वैवस्वतस्य तीर्थे च तीर्थभूतॊ भवेन नरः (XIII.26.37)
  29. William St. Clair Tisdall, The Original Sources of the Quran
  30. David Samuel Margoliouth. Originally published in The Muslim World, Vol. XX, 1930, pp. 73-79.
  31. Reed, A. Y.

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