Shalva

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Shalva (शाल्व) was an ancient janapada, people and king of Mahabharata period. Shalva (शाल्व) janapada has been mentioned by Panini (IV.2.135). It was confined to limited geographical horizon in the central and north eastern Punjab. Shalva may coincide with the territory extending from Alwar to north Bikaner. [1]

Variants of name

Jat Gotras from Shalva

  • Shak (शक) Shaka (शक) are Descendants of Majaraja Shalva (शाल्व). Shaka province has also been mentioned in Mahabharata. [2]
  • Shalv (शाल्व) Shalva (शाल्व) is gotra of Jats. This gotra originated from place name Sol Nagar (सोल नगर), capital of Samudra Kukshi (कुक्षी). [3]

History

V. S. Agrawala[4] writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentions janapada Sālva (शाल्व) (IV.2.135). It was confined to limited geographical horizon in the central and north eastern Punjab. Shalva may coincide with the territory extending from Alwar to north Bikaner. Salvas were ancient people who migrated from west through Baluchistan and Sindh where they left traces in the form of Śālvakāgiri, the present Hala mountain, and then advancing towards north Sauvira and along the Saraswati and finally settled in north Rajasthan.


V. S. Agrawala[5] writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentions janapada Sālvāvayava (साल्वावयव) - Several members were grouped in this confederacy which include, 1. Udumbara, 2. Tilakhala, 3. Madrakāra, 4. Yugandhara, 5. Bhūliṅga, 6. Śaradaṇḍa


The Salvas were a branch of the Madras and were ruling at Sialkot. We know that the Madras were Vahikas and Jartas. Since according to grammatical illustration of Chandra-gomin the Jarta defeated the Huns, which means Skanda Gupta defeated the Huns. Hence Jartas are Jats. [6]

Shalva people

The Shalvas are mentioned in Late Vedic texts as a non-Vedic people that invaded Kurukshetra and defeated the Kuru Kingdom,[7] probably c. 900 BCE.[8] Shalvas appear to have been associated with the Trigarta Kingdom and the Punjab region.[9] After invading the Kuru kingdom, the Salvas settled along the Yamuna river[10] and the Alwar region of Rajasthan (near the Matsya Kingdom),[11] and by the end of the Vedic period they had eventually adopted Vedic culture as they coalesced with the remaining Kurus and the Surasena mahajanapada.[12] A passage in the Karna Parva of the Mahabharata praises the Salvas for following the "eternal Law of Righteousness" but also says that they "need full instruction," unlike the more perceptive Kurus and Panchalas who can "gather the sense from half-expressed words."[13]

In Mahabharata

Shalva (शाल्व) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.13.25), (II.31.9),(IV.1.9),(V.53.17),(V.158.20), (VI.10.37), (VI.18.13),(VI.20.12),(VI.68.8),(VI.112.110), VIII.4.40), (VIII.30.60),(VIII.30.79),


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 13 mentions the clans who fled out of fear of Jarasandha. Shalva (शाल्व) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.13.25).[14]..... The eighteen clans of the Bhojas, from fear of Jarasandha, have all fled towards the west; so also have the Surasenas, the Bhadrakas, the Vodhas, the Shalvas, the Patachcharas, the Susthalas, the Sukuttas, and the Kunindas, along with the Kuntis. And the king of the Salwayana tribe with their brethren and followers; and the southern Panchalas and the eastern Kosalas have all fled to the country of the Kuntis.


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 31 mentions the Kshatriyas who brought tributes on Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira. Shalva (शाल्व) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.31.9).[15]....and Yajnasena with his sons, and Shalvas that lord of earth and that great car warrior king Bhagadatta of Pragjyotisha accompanied by all Mlechcha clans inhabiting the marshy regions on the sea-shore;


Virata Parva, Mahabharata/ Book IV Chapter 1 mentions how Pandavas pass their days undiscovered in Viratanagara. Shalva (शाल्व) is mentioned in Mahabharata (IV.1.9). [16]....Arjuna replied, "Even by virtue of Dharma's boon, we shall, O lord of men, range about undiscovered by men. Still, for purposes of residence, I shall mention some spots that are both delightful and secluded. Do thou select some one of them. Surrounding the kingdom of the Kurus, are, many countries beautiful and abounding in corn, such as Panchala, Chedi, Matsya, Surasena, Pattachchara, Dasarna, Navarashtra, Malla, Shalva, Yugandhara, Saurashtra, Avanti, and the spacious Kuntirashtra. Which of these, O king, wouldst thou choose, and where, O foremost of monarchs, shall we spend this year?"


Udyoga Parva/Mahabharata Book V Chapter 53 describes the Country of the Kurus, including the region called Jangala; Matsyas, Panchalas, Shalvas, Surasenas...Shalva (शाल्व) is mentioned in Mahabharata (V.53.17). [17]....The Matsyas, the Panchalas, the Shalvas and the Surasenas, all decline to pay thee homage now and all disregard thee.


Udyoga Parva/Mahabharata Book V Chapter 158 mentions gambler's son (Uluka) addressing Yudhishthira repeating the words of Duryodhana. Shalva (शाल्व) is mentioned in Mahabharata (V.158.20).[18]....why dost thou not realise the strength of this assembled host of monarchs, which resembleth the very celestial host, and which is protected by these kings like the gods protecting theirs in heaven, and which, swarming with the kings of the East, West, South, and North, with Kambojas, Sakas, Khasas, Shalwas, Matsyas, Kurus of the middle country, Mlechchhas, Pulindas, Dravidas, Andhras, and Kanchis, indeed, with many nations, all addressed for battle, is uncrossable like the swollen tide of Ganga?


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Shalva (शाल्व) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.10.37).[19]....the Kuru-Panchalas, the Shalvas, the Madreyas, the Jangalas,....


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 18 describes the large armies of the Kurus and the Pandavas ready for war. Shalva (शाल्व) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.18.13).[20]....The Abhishahas, the Surasenas, the Sivis, and the Vasatis, the Shalvas, the Matsyas, the Ambashtas, the Trigartas, and the Kekayas, the Sauviras, the Kitavas, and the dwellers of the Eastern, Western, and the Northern countries,--these twelve brave races were resolved to fight reckless of the lives. And these protected the grandsire with a multitudinous array of cars.


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 20 describes the warriors in Bhisma's division. Shalva (शाल्व) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.20.12). [21].....Varddhakshatri, Sarvasena, Bhurisrava, Purumitra, Jaya, Shalva, Matsya, Kekaya,....


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 68 mentions Shalva (शाल्व) in Mahabharata (VI.68.8). [22]....And those invincible warriors, viz., Satyaki and Chekitana, and the mighty son of Subhadra, proceeded against Shalya and the Kekayas.


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 112 mentions tribes fighting the Mahabharata War. Shalva (शाल्व) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.112.110). [23].....


Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 4 mentions the warriors who are dead amongst the Kurus and the Pandavas after ten days. Shalva (शाल्व) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VIII.4.40). [24].....King Shalva of mighty arms and fierce deeds, who was a great bowman both in name and feats, hath been slain by Bhimasena.


Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 30 mentions the tribes who are not followers of Brahmanism. Shalva (शाल्व) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VIII.30.60).[25].....The Kauravas with the Panchalas, the Shalvas, the Matsyas, the Naimishas, the Koshalas, the Kashi, the Kalingas, the Angas, the Magadhas, and the Chedis who are all highly blessed, know what the eternal religion is.


(शाल्व) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VIII.30.79) [26]....The Magadhas are comprehenders of signs; the Koshalas comprehend from what they see; the Kurus and the Panchalas comprehend from a half-uttered speech; the Shalvas cannot comprehend till the whole speech is uttered.

शाल्व

शाल्व: विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[27] ने लेख किया है ... अलवर, राजस्थान के परवर्ती प्रदेश का प्राचीन नाम, जिसका उल्लेख महाभारत में भी है। शाल्व नरेश ने, काशी के राजा की सबसे बड़ी कन्या अंबा का, जो उससे विवाह करने की इच्छुक थी, भीष्म द्वारा हरण किये जाने पर उनके साथ युद्ध किया था, जिसका वर्णन महाभारत, आदिपर्व 102 में है। राजा शाल्व के पास सौभ नामक एक अद्भुत नगराकार विमान था। इस विमान की सहायता से उसने श्रीकृष्ण की द्वारिका पर आक्रमण किया था। (महाभारत, वनपर्व 14 से 22 तक)


'बुद्धचरित' (बुद्धचरित 9,70) में शाल्वाधिपति 'द्रुम' का उल्लेख है- 'तथैव शाल्वाधिपतिर्द्रु माख्यो वनात् ससूनुर्तगरं विवेश।' महाभारत, वनपर्व (महाभारत, वनपर्व 294,7) के अनुसार, सावित्री के श्वसुर द्युमत्सेन शाल्व देश के राजा थे- 'आसीच्छाल्वेषु धर्मातमा क्षत्रियः पृथिवीपतिः द्युमत्सेन इतिख्यातः पश्चादन्धो बभूव ह।'

अलवर का प्रचीन नाम शाल्वपुर कहा जाता है। संभव है, अलबर 'शाल्यपुर' का अपभ्रंश हो। शाल्व निवासियों का विष्णुपुराण (विष्णुपुराण 2,3,17)में भी उल्लेख है- 'सौवीरा सैंधबाहूणाः (p.897) शाल्वाः कोशलवासिनः।'

महाभारत में शाल्व को 'मार्तिकावतक' का राजा कहा गया है। इस देश की स्थिति अलवर के परिवर्ती प्रदेश में मानी जाती है। किंवदंती में प्राचीन शाकल या वर्तमान स्यालकोट से भी राजा शाल्व का संबंध बताया जाता है।

सौभ = सौभनगर

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[28] ने लेख किया है .....सौभ = सौभनगर (AS, p.996): महाभारत में कृष्ण के शत्रु शाल्व के नगर को सौभ कहा गया है. शाल्व ने शिशुपाल के वध के उपरांत उसका बदला लेने के लिए द्वारका पर आक्रमण किया था. सौभ को श्रीकृष्ण ने घोर युद्ध के पश्चात नष्ट कर दिया था-- 'शाल्वस्य नगरं सौभं गतोऽहं भरतर्षभ, निहन्तुं कौरवश्रेष्ठ तत्र मे शृणु कारणम्'. वनपर्व 14,2.

शाल्व को सौभराट् कहा गया है-- 'मया किल रणे युद्धं काङ्क्षमाणः स सौभराट्' वन पर्व 14,11. किंतु महाभारत के वर्णन से यह भी जान पड़ता है कि सौभ वास्तव में एक विशालकाय विमान था जो नगर की भांति ही जान पड़ता था. इसी में स्थित रहकर उसने द्वारकापुरी पर आकाश [p.997]: से ही आक्रमण किया था, 'अरुंधत्तां सुदुष्टात्मा सर्वत: पांडुनंदन, शाल्वो वैहायसं चापि तत् पुरं व्युह्य विष्ठित:' अर्थात उस दुष्ट आत्मा शाल्व ने द्वारका को चारों तरफ से घेर लिया. वह स्वयं उस आकाशचारी नगर (सौभविमान) पर व्यूह रचना करके स्थित था. सौभ को सुदर्शनचक्र से कृष्ण ने नष्ट कर दिया था, 'तत् समासाद्य नगरं सौभं व्यपगतत्विषम्, मध्येन पाटयामास क्रकचो दार्विवोच्छ्रतम्'. कुछ विद्वानों के मत में सौभनगर में मार्तिकावतक देश की राजधानी थी किंतु उपर्युक्त विवरण से ज्ञात होता है कि यह नगर वास्तव में एक विशाल गगनविहारी विमान था जिसकी विशेषता यह थी कि यह आकाश में एक स्थान पर ठहरा रह सकता था और कामगामी (इच्छाचारी) था. 'सौभं कामगमं वीर मोहयन्मम चक्षुषी' वनपर्व 22,9; 'एवमादि महाराज विलप्य दिवमास्थित: कामगेन स सौभेन क्षिप्तवा मां कुरुनंदन' वनपर्व 14,15. (दे. शाल्व, शाल्वपुर)

See also

References

  1. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.55
  2. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 280
  3. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 280
  4. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.55
  5. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.56
  6. K.P. Jayaswal's book, History of India, PP 115-16
  7. Witzel, Michael (1995). "Early Sanskritization: Origin and Development of the Kuru state" (PDF). EJVS. 1 (4): 21
  8. Michael Witzel (1989), Tracing the Vedic dialects in Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes ed. Caillat, Paris, p.142
  9. Witzel (1989), pp.120 (footnote 320) and 142
  10. Witzel (1995), p.21
  11. H. C. Raychaudhuri (1972), Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of Calcutta, p.61.
  12. Witzel (1995), p.21
  13. Raychaudhuri (1972), pp.135-136
  14. शूरसेना भद्र कारा बॊधाः शाल्वाः पतच चराः, सुस्थलाश च सुकुट्टाश च कुणिन्दा: कुन्तिभिः सह (II.13.25)
  15. यज्ञसेनः सपुत्रश च शाल्वश च वसुधाधिपः, प्राग्ज्यॊतिषश च नृपतिर भगदत्तॊ महायशाः (II.31.9)
  16. सन्ति रम्या जनपथा बह्व अन्नाः परितः कुरून, पाञ्चालाश चेथिमत्स्याश च शूरसेनाः पटच्चराः, दशार्णा नव राष्ट्रं च मल्लाः शाल्व युगंधराः
  17. मत्स्यास तवाम अथ्य नार्जन्ति पाञ्चालाश च स केकयाः, शाल्वेयाः शरसेनाश च सर्वे तवाम अवजानते
  18. पराच्यैः परतीच्यैर अद थाक्षिणात्यैर; उदीच्यकाम्बॊजशकैः खशैश च, शाल्वैः समत्स्यैः कुरुमध्यदेशैर मलेच्छैः पुलिन्थैर द्रविडान्ध्र काञ्च्यैः (V.158.20)
  19. अत ऊर्ध्वं जनपदान निबॊध गदतॊ मम, तत्रेमे कुरुपाञ्चालाः शाल्व माद्रेय जाङ्गलाः (VI.10.37)
  20. शाल्वा मत्स्यास तदाम्बष्ठास तरिगर्ताः केकयास तथा, सौवीराः कितवाः प्राच्याः प्रतीच्यॊदीच्यमालवाः (VI.18.13)
  21. वार्थ्धक्षत्रिः सर्वसैन्यस्य मध्ये; भूरिश्रवाः पुरुमित्रॊ जयश च, शाल्वा मत्स्याः केकयाश चापि सर्वे; गजानीकैर भरातरॊ यॊत्स्यमानाः
  22. अभ्यवर्तन्त दुर्धर्षाः समरे शाल्व केकयान, सात्यकिश चेकितानश च सौभद्रश च महारदः (VI.68.8)
  23. शाल्वाश्रयास त्रिगर्ताश च अम्बष्ठाः केकयैः सह, अभिपेतू रणे पार्दं पतंगा इव पावकम (VI.112.110)
  24. उग्रकर्मा महेष्वासॊ नामतः कर्मतस तदा, शाल्वराजॊ महाराज भीमसेनेन पातितः (VIII.4.40)
  25. कुरवः सहपाञ्चालाः शाल्वा मत्स्याः सनैमिषाः, कॊसलाः काशयॊ ऽङगाश च कलिङ्गा मगधास तदा (VIII.30.60)
  26. इङ्गितज्ञाश च मगधाः परेक्षितज्ञाश च कॊसलाः, अर्धॊक्ताः कुरुपाञ्चालाः शाल्वाः कृत्स्नानुशासनाः
  27. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.896-97
  28. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.996-997

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