Ujhlan

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Ujhlan (उझलान), Ujh (उझ), Ujihana (उझिहाना), Ujjihana (उज्झिहाना), Ujalyan (उजलयान), Ujawal (उजवल) is a gotra of Jats found in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Its is avariants are Ojlan (ओजलान), Aujlan (औजलान) Oghlan (ओघलान)[1] Ojhlan (ओझलान)[2][3] Odhlan (ओधलान) [4] Aujhlan (औझलान) Ojh (ओझ)/Aujh (औझ)[5] Ajlan (अजलान) Aujjihan (औज्जीहान) Aujlane (औजलाने) Ojlane (ओजलाने) Agalassoi (अगलस्सोई)[6] is gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan and Punjab. Central Asian Ojh is the Ojhlan of India.[7]Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mentioned it as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia.[8]

Origin

History

Bhim Singh Dahiya writes: In Central Asia these people are still called Ujh and the Markandeya Purana mentions the people named Ujjihanas. Possibly there is a connection between the two people. [12]

Ujhlan and Ujalyan are same thing, just a spelling different due to different way of pronouncing the same.Ujalayan or Ujhlan & Ujawal found in village Chor Mau (Mavi Kalan) Baghpat District Uttar Pradesh.


Bhim Singh Dahiya[13] writes....A History of Persia throws light on the kingdoms of the Jats in the Central Asia in the fourteenth century A.D.

"The Governor of Mongolia or Jatah at this period was Tughluk Khan, who on seeing the state of anarchy into which Transoxiana had fallen, determined to annex it. He started on an expedition for this purpose in A.H. 761, (1360 A.D.) and marched on Kesh; Haji Barlas, deeming the odds too great offered no defence and fled to Khurasan (Persia) where he was after wards killed by brigands ... to save the situation, Tamerlane, decided to tender his submission to Tughluk Khan ... in the following years, the Khan of Jateh obtained possession of Samarkand and appointed his son Khoja alias Oghlan to the Governorship of Transoxiana with Tamerlane as his Counselor."

As mentioned above this dynasty was of the Oghlan clan of the Jats who were Buddhists at that time. It should be mentioned that Khan is not a Muslim title, it is a pre-Muslim Central Asian title adopted by many Buddhist kings. It is derived from Khakan/ Kagan/Khan. This title was being used in India, as late as the fourteenth century A.D. Kalhana's Rajatarangini mentions a king, Alakhan of Gujrat (Punjab), and Jonaraja's Chronicles show that at the time of its capture by Sultan Shihabuddin of Kashmir (1354-1373), the ruler of Udabhaṇḍa (modern Und, near Attock), was one Govinda Khan.196 It is also well known to historians that in 1289 A.D. Jat king Arghun, son of Abaga had proposed to the Christians of Khurasan area, a joint attack on the Muslims who were a new rising power in the Oxus region. It was his successor Ghajan Khan who upon his accession to the throne in 1295 A.D., proclaimed himself a Muslim. He was the first Jat king who embraced Islam, and this marked the beginning of the process of conversion of Central Asia to that faith.


Uxians or Uxii were a tribal confederation[14] of non-Iranian semi-nomadic people who lived somewhere in the Zagros Mountains. They were classified by Nearchus as among the four predatory peoples of the southwest along with the Mardi, Sousii, and Elymaei. They raided the settled people of Iran and raised sheep.


Arrian[15] writes that ....Uxians came to the aid of Darius-III (the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia) and were part of alliance in the battle of Gaugamela (331 BC) formed by Darius-III in war against Alexander the Great at Arbela, now known as Arbil, which is the capital of Kurdistan Region in northern Iraq.


Ojh Nadi River flows in Pakistan See Rivers in Pakistan.


Rio Oja is a river in the La Rioja province of northern Spain. It flows through the Oja Valley past the town and municipality of Ezcaray. The Oja flows into the Tirón River east of Cihuri, and the Tirón flows into the Ebro immediately north of Haro.


Ujh River (sometimes spelled Ujjh) is the second-most important river of Kathua district in Jammu and Kashmir. It rises from the Domal Structure of Seojdhar of the middle Himalayan ranges. The main tributaries of the Ujh river are the Naaz and Bhinni Nallahs of Billawar. Ujh Barrage is constructed on this river at Jasrota village. The water of Ujh river is used for drinking, irrigation and to feed a number of small canals and khuls of the district. It is also used to transport timber from hills to the plains and provides construction materials such as sand and stones Ujh is a branch of Ravi river that comes from Ramkot side of Jammu, passes through Kathua and enters Pakistan.[16]

उज्जिहाना

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[17] ने लेख किया है ...उज्जिहाना (AS, p.88) रामायण कालीन एक प्राचीन नगरी थी। वाल्मीकि रामायण में वर्णित है कि भरत केकय देश से अयोध्या आते समय गंगा को पार करने के पश्चात् पर्याप्त दूर चलने पर इस नगरी में पहुँचे थे। 'तत्र रम्ये वने वासं कृत्वासौ प्राङमुखो ययौ, उद्यानमुज्जिहानाया: प्रियका यत्र पादपा:।' (अयोध्या काण्ड वा. रा. 71, 12) उज्जिहाना नगरी वर्तमान रुहेलखंड, उत्तर प्रदेश में कहीं हो सकती है। यह ज़िला बदायूँ की उज्झेनी भी हो सकती है यद्यपि यह अभिज्ञान सर्वथा अनिश्चित है।

जाट इतिहास

ठाकुर देशराज[18] लिखते हैं कि अगलस्सोई जाति ने सिकन्दर का बड़ा भारी मुकाबला किया था। ये लोग बड़े देश भक्त और स्वाभिमानी थे। इन लोगों ने 40 हजार पैदल और तीस हजार सवार सेना के साथ सिकन्दर का मुकाबला किया था। यूनानी लोग जान पर खेले और ये लोग हार गये। दो हजार यूनानी मारे गये। सिकन्दर इनसे इतना चिढ़ा कि इनमें से हजारों को कत्ल करा डाला। हजारों को गुलाम बनाया। स्त्री और बच्चों के साथ भी दया न की। इन्होंने उससे दो स्थानों पर दो बार मुकाबला किया और अन्त तक लड़े। सिकन्दर ने जब इनके नगर को लूटने की इच्छा की तो नगर में आग लगा दी। उसमें इनके भी हजारों आदमी जल गये। अन्त समय में कुल तीन हजार शेष रहे थे। मातृभूमि की रक्षा के लिए इतना खून इन्हीं लोगों ने बहाया था। जातीय अपमान से ये मृत्यु को श्रेष्ठ समझते थे। इस तरह सर्वनाश के बाद राजस्थान और यू.पी. की ओर सरक आये। आज वे अपने जट (संघ) में ओजलान कहलाते हैं। ओजलान को ही यूनानी लेखकों ने अगलस्सोई लिखा है। संभवतः यह झेलम और चिनाब नदियों के बीच में रहते थे।


दलीप सिंह अहलावत[19] ने लिखा है: तैमूर का जन्म सन् 1336 ई० में मावराउन्नहर में केश नामक स्थान पर हुआ था जो समरकन्द से 50 मील दूर है। इसका पिता अमीर तुरगे (तराग़ी) तुर्कों के उच्चवंश गुरकन शाखा का प्रधान था। 33 वर्ष की आयु में वह चगताई तुर्कों का प्रधान बन गया। उसने समरकन्द को अपनी राजधानी बनाया। बाल अवस्था में ही उसकी एक टांग लंगड़ी हो गई थी इसलिए उसे तमर लंग या तैमूर लंग कहते हैं। (नोट - यह चगताई जाटवंश है जो कि चट्ठा जाटवंश का अपभ्रंश है। इसके लिये देखो अध्याय 3, चगता जाटवंश प्रकरण)।

उस समय में मध्यएशिया में जाटों की बड़ी शक्ति थी जिनसे तैमूर को युद्ध करना पड़ा। फारस के इतिहास के अनुसार -

“उस समय मंगोलिया या जाटेह का राज्यपाल तुग़लक़ खां था जो औधलान गोत्र का जाट था और बौद्ध-धर्म का अनुयायी था। उसको ज्ञात हुआ कि समरकन्द पर बलवा (अशासन) से अधिकार कर लिया है तो उसने इसे लेने का विचार किया। इस उद्देश्य से उसने सन् 1360 ई० में केश स्थान पर प्रस्थान किया। वहां पर तैमूर का चाचा हाज़ी बरलास था जो आक्रमण से डरकर फारस में खुरासान को भाग गया जो बाद में वहां मारा गया। तुग़लक खां ने समरकन्द पर अधिकार कर लिया। कुछ समय पश्चात् तैमूर ने तुग़लक़ खां से उसका सेवक रहने की प्रार्थना की। उसने अपने पुत्र खोजा (औधलान) को समरकन्द का राज्यपाल तथा तैमूर को उसक मन्त्री नियुक्त कर दिया।” [20]

Ch.8 Description of Darius-III's Army at Arbela against Alexander

Map - Location of Arbīl

Uxians came to the aid of Darius-III (the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia) and were part of alliance in the battle of Gaugamela (331 BC) formed by Darius-III in war against Alexander the Great at Arbela, now known as Arbil, which is the capital of Kurdistan Region in northern Iraq.

Arrian[21] writes....Alexander therefore took the royal squadron of cavalry, and one squadron of the Companions, together with the Paeonian scouts, and marched with all speed; having ordered the rest of his army to follow at leisure. The Persian cavalry, seeing Alexander, advancing quickly, began to flee with all their might. Though he pressed close upon them in pursuit, most of them escaped; but a few, whose horses were fatigued by the flight, were slain, others were taken prisoners, horses and all. From these they ascertained that Darius with a large force was not far off. For the Indians who were conterminous with the Bactrians, as also the Bactrians themselves and the Sogdianians had come to the aid of Darius, all being under the command of Bessus, the viceroy of the land of Bactria. They were accompanied by the Sacians, a Scythian tribe belonging to the Scythians who dwell in Asia.[1] These were not subject to Bessus, but were in alliance with Darius. They were commanded by Mavaces, and were horse-bowmen. Barsaentes, the viceroy of Arachotia, led the Arachotians[2] and the men who were called mountaineer Indians. Satibarzanes, the viceroy of Areia, led the Areians,[3] as did Phrataphernes the Parthians, Hyrcanians, and Tapurians,[4] all of whom were horsemen. Atropates commanded the Medes, with whom were arrayed the Cadusians, Albanians, and Sacesinians.[5] The men who dwelt near the Red Sea[6] were marshalled by Ocondobates, Ariobarzanes, and Otanes. The Uxians and Susianians[7] acknowledged Oxathres son of Aboulites as their leader, and the Babylonians were commanded by Boupares. The Carians who had been deported into central Asia, and the Sitacenians[8] had been placed in the same ranks as the Babylonians. The Armenians were commanded by Orontes and Mithraustes, and the Cappadocians by Ariaoes. The Syrians from the vale between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon (i.e. Coele-Syria) and the men of Syria which lies between the rivers[9] were led by Mazaeus. The whole army of Darius was said to contain 40,000 cavalry, 1,000,000 infantry, and 200 scythe-bearing chariots.[10] There were only a few elephants, about fifteen in number, belonging to the Indians who live this side of the Indus.[11] With these forces Darius had encamped at Gaugamela, near the river Bumodus, about 600 stades distant from the city of Arbela, in a district everywhere level;[12] for whatever ground thereabouts was unlevel and unfit for the evolutions of cavalry, had long before been levelled by the Persians, and made fit for the easy rolling of chariots and for the galloping of horses. For there were some who persuaded Darius that he had forsooth got the worst of it in the battle fought at Issus, from the narrowness of the battle-field; and this he was easily induced to believe.


1. Cf. Aelian (Varia Historia, xii. 38).

2. Arachosia comprised what is now the south-east part of Afghanistan and the north-east part of Beloochistan.

3. Aria comprised the west and north-west part of Afghanistan and the east part of Khorasan.

4. Parthia is the modern Khorasan. Hyrcania was the country south and south-east of the Caspian Sea. The Tapurians dwelt in the north of Media, on the borders of Parthia between the Caspian passes. Cf. Ammianus, xxiii. 6.

5. The Cadusians lived south-west of the Caspian, the Albanians on the west of the same sea, in the south-east part of Georgia, and the Sacesinians in the north-east of Armenia, on the river Kur.

6. "The Red Sea was the name originally given to the whole expanse of sea to the west of India as far as Africa. The name was subsequently given to the Arabian Gulf exclusively. In Hebrew it is called Yam-Suph (Sea of Sedge, or a seaweed resembling wool). The Egyptians called it the Sea of Weeds.

7. The Uxians occupied the north-west of Persis, and Susiana was the country to the north and west of Persis.

8. The Sitacenians lived in the south of Assyria. ἐτετάχατο. is the Ionic form for τεταγμἑνοι ἦσαν.

9. The Greeks called this country Mesopotamia because it lies between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. In the Bible it is called Paddan-Aram (the plain of Aram, which is the Hebrew name of Syria). In Gen. xlviii. 7 it is called merely Paddan, the plain. In Hos. xii. 12, it is called the field of Aram, or, as our Bible has it, the country of Syria. Elsewhere in the Bible it is called Aram-naharaim, Aram of the two rivers, which the Greeks translated Mesopotamia. It is called "the Island," by Arabian geographers.

10. Curtius (iv. 35 and 45) states that Darius had 200,000 infantry, 45,000 cavalry, and 200 scythed chariots; Diodorus (xvii. 53) says, 800,000 infantry, 200,000 cavalry, and 200 scythed chariots; Justin (xi. 12) gives 400,000 foot and 100,000 horse; and Plutarch (Alex., 31) speaks of a million of men. For the chariots cf. Xenophon (Anab., i 8, 10); Livy, xxxvii. 41.

11. This is the first instance on record of the employment of elephants in battle.

12. This river is now called Ghasir, a tributary of the Great Zab. The village Gaugamela was in the district of Assyria called Aturia, about 69 miles from the city of Arbela, now called Erbil.

p.154-157

Ch.17:Subjugation of the Uxians

Arrian[22] writes.... He (Alexander the Great) now set out from Susa, and, crossing the river Pasitigris,[1] invaded the country of the Uxians. Some of these people who inhabit the plains were under the rule of the viceroy of the Persians, and on this occasion surrendered to Alexander; but those who are called the mountaineers were not in subjection to the Persians, and at this time sent word to Alexander that they would not permit him to march with his forces into Persis, unless they received from him as much as they were in the habit of receiving from the king of the Persians for the passage through their mountains.[2] He sent the messengers back with instructions to come to the defiles, the possession of which made them think that the passage into Persis was in their power, promising them that they should there receive from him the prescribed toll. He then took the royal body-guards, the shield-bearing infantry, and 8,000 men from the rest of his army, and, under the guidance of the Susians, marched by night along a different road from the frequented one. Advancing by a route rough and difficult, on the same day he fell upon the villages of the Uxians, where he captured much booty and killed many of the people while still in their beds; but others escaped into the mountains. He then made a forced march to the defiles, where the Uxians resolved to meet him in mass in order to receive the prescribed toll. But he had already previously despatched Craterus to seize the heights, to which he thought the Uxians would retire if they were repelled by force; and he himself went with great celerity, and got possession of the pass before their arrival. He then drew up his men in battle array, and led them from the higher and more commanding position against the barbarians. They, being alarmed at Alexander's celerity, and finding themselves deprived by stratagem[3] of the position in which they had especially confided, took to flight without ever coming to close combat. Some of them were killed by Alexander's men in their flight, and many lost their lives by falling over the precipices along the road; but most of them fled up into the mountains for refuge, and falling in with Craterus, were destroyed by his men. Having received these gifts of honour[4] from Alexander, they with difficulty, after much entreaty, procured from him the privilege of retaining possession of their own land on condition of paying him an annual tribute. Ptolemy, son of Lagus, says that the mother of Darius,[5] on their behalf, entreated Alexander to grant them the privilege of inhabiting the land. The tribute agreed upon was a hundred horses, five hundred oxen, and 30,000 sheep a year; for the Uxians had no money, nor was their country fit for tillage; but most of them were shepherds and herdsmen.


1. A river flowing through Susiana, formed by the junction of the Eulaeus and Coprates.

2. Cf. Strabo, xv. 3.

3. πλεονεκτούμενοι, with dative, defrauded of. Cf. Demosthenes, 1035, 26.

4. γἐρα. An Homeric expression.

5. Named Sisygambis (Curtius, v. 11).

p.174-175

Distribution in Uttar Pradesh

Mavikalan (Chor Mau), Sirsalgarh location link:- https://www.google.co.in/maps/place/Sirsalgarh,+Uttar+Pradesh+250345/@29.0638039,77.4033305,632m/data=!3m2!1e3!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x390c45a2c060f6d5:0x130c10b1e73c606e

Ujjwal Gotra Jats live in 8 villages mainly in Village Mavikalan Village Sirsalgarh in Baraut Tehsil of Baghpat distt. in Uttar Pradesh.

contact person from village Sirsalgarh:- siakujjwal@gmail.com

Villages in Bagpat district

Mavikalan (Chor Mau), Sirsalgarh,

Distribution in Madhya Pradesh

Ujjawal (उज्जवल) or Ujjwal (उज्जवल) is Gotra of Jats found in Ratlam district in Madhya Pradesh.

Villages in Ratlam district

Villages in Ratlam district with population of this gotra are: Ratlam (3),

Distribution in Punjab

Villages in Amritsar district

Ojh Jat clan is found in Amritsar in Punjab. [23],[24]

Notable persons

  • Rajkumar Chaudhary (Ujhlan)- chaudharyc@aol.com

External links

See also

References

  1. Bhim Singh Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats , p.67
  2. B S Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), p.241, s.n.163
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n.ओ-13
  4. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, p.376
  5. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n.औ-18
  6. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. अ-43
  7. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Appendices/Appendix II, p. 325
  8. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV (Page 342)
  9. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Jat Clan in India, p.279, s.n.80
  10. Bhim Singh Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Appendices/Appendix II,p.325, s.n.107
  11. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p. 224,s.n. 1
  12. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), p. 291, S.N.130
  13. Bhim Singh Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats , p.67
  14. "Achaemenid Empire, Tribal Confederations of Southwestern Persia and Seven Families". Iranian Studies. 50 (2): 173–197. doi:10.1080/00210862.2016.1243986. ISSN 0021-0862.
  15. The Anabasis of Alexander/3a, Ch.8
  16. "Official Site". Kathua.gov.in.
  17. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.88
  18. जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृ.-165,166
  19. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, p.376-383
  20. OP. cit, Vol. II, P. 119 के हवाले से (जाट्स दी ऐनशन्ट रूलर्ज पृ० 67 पर लेखक बी० एस० दहिया)।
  21. The Anabasis of Alexander/3a, Ch.8
  22. The Anabasis of Alexander/3b, Ch. 17
  23. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), Bhim Singh Dahiya, p. 334
  24. Rose:'Tribes and Castes', Vol. III, p. 176

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