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Bahlika

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Bahlika (बाह्लिक) was an Ayudhajivi Sangha mentioned in the Ganapatha, Identified as Balkh in the extreme north of Afghanistan, in Panini’s time. It was reckoned as a satrapy of the empire of Darius, a little before Panini’s time. [1]


Variants

Mention by Panini

V. S. Agrawala[2] mentions Sanghas known to Panini which includes - Balhika (बाल्हीक), under Parshvadi (पर्शवादि) (V.3.117).


Bahlika (बाह्लीक), a war like tribe, is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [3]

Jat clans

Genealogy of Vahlika

Ancestry of Vahlika as per Bhagavata Purana

Genealogy of Bahlika as per Bhagavata Purana[6] RikshaSamvarana (m. Tapati) → KuruJahnuSurathaVidurathaSaryabhaumaJaya SenaRadhikaAyutayuAkrodhanaDevatithiRikshaDilipaPratipaVahlikaSomadattaBhuri + Bhurisravas + Sala

History

Tej Ram Sharma on Vahlika

लौह स्तम्भ पर अंकित सन्देश
यस्य ओद्वर्त्तयः-प्रतीपमुरसा शत्त्रुन् समेत्यागतन् वङ्गेस्ह्वाहव वर्त्तिनोस्भिलिखिता खड्गेन कीर्त्तिर् भुजे,
तीर्त्वा सप्त मुखानि येन समरे सिन्धोर् ज्जिता वाह्लिकायस्याद्य प्यधिवास्यते जलनिधिर् व्विर्य्यानिलैर् दक्षिणाः,
खिन्नस्य एव विसृज्य गां नरपतेर् ग्गामाश्रितस्यैत्राम् मूर्(त्)या कर्म्म-जितावनिं गतवतः कीर्त्(त्)या स्थितस्यक्षितौ,
शान्तस्येव महावने हुतभुजो यस्य प्रतापो महान्नधया प्युत्सृजति प्रनाशिस्त-रिपोर् य्यत्नस्य शेसह्क्षितिम्,
प्राप्तेन स्व भुजार्जितां च सुचिरां च ऐकाधिराज्यं क्षितौ चन्द्राह्वेन समग्र चन्द्र सदृशीम् वक्त्र-श्रियं बिभ्राता,
तेनायं प्रनिधाय भूमिपतिना भावेव विष्नो (ष्नौ) मतिं प्राणशुर्विष्णुपदे गिरौ भगवतो विष्णौर्धिध्वजः स्थापितः
महरौली स्थित चंद्र का लोहस्तंभ अभिलेख [7]

Tej Ram Sharma [8] mentions with reference to 22. Vahlika (वाहलिक) (Meharauli Posthumous Iron Pillar Inscription of Chandra, L.2:तीर्त्वा सप्त मुखानि येन समरे सिन्धोर् ज्जिता वाह्लिकायस्याद्य प्यधिवास्यते जलनिधिर् व्विर्य्यानिलैर् दक्षिणाः).

The Meharauli Pillar Inscription (No.20) describes the digvijaya of a king named Chandra (i.e. Chandragupta II) in the first verse as stated below : "He, on whose arm fame was inscribed by the sword, when, in battle in the Vanga countries, he kneaded (and turned) back with (his) breast the enemies who, uniting together, came against him; he, by whom, having crossed in warfare the seven mouths of the (river) Sindhu, the Vahlikas were conquered; he, by the breezes of whose prowess the Southern ocean is even still perfumed". [9] We find various readings of the name Vahlika in literature which are : Vahlika, Bahlika, Vahlika and Bahlika. In our inscription (No. 20) Vahlikah i.e. Vahlika in plural denotes the people of Vahlika i.e. Bactria (modern Balkh) region on the Oxus in the northern part of Afghanistan. [10]

Mislead by a verse in the Ramayana, D.R. Bhandarkar [11] places Vahlikas in the close proximity of the Vipasa,, the modern Beas. The reading Vahlikan in the passage quoted from the Ramayana is a mistake for Vahikan. Numerous passages can be quoted from the Epic, Puranic and classical Sanskrit literature to prove that the Punjab =Pañcanada, 'the land of five rivers', was in ancient times called the Vahika country. [12]

'Vahika' was, in fact, a general term for the whole of Punjab. We know Sakala as Vahika-grama from Patanjali and also Patanaprastha which is modern Pathankot by the same term. Moreover, Vatsyayana in his Kamasutra and Rajasekhara in his Kavya-mimamsa mention the people of Bahlika and Punjab as two separate entities. [13]

There is, however, one verse in the Karnaparvan of the Mahabharata which suggests that Vahika was originally the name of a country or people on the Vipasa, (the Beas) : "In the Vipasa, there were two Pisacas named Vahi and Hika; their descendants are called Vahikas who are not the creation of Prajapati".[14]


168 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions


Later on the sense of the word expanded to cover all the tribes living in the Punjab. It is interesting to note that the Mahabharata sometimes uses the terms Vahika, Madra, Jartika, Aratta and Pancanada synonymously. It appears that the lands of these tribes which lived close to one another became in course of time moulded into a big kingdom under the powerful kings of Sakala (Sialkot). As Vahika was beyond Kurukshetra and, therefore, outside the boundary of Brahmavarta, its analogical connection with the word 'bahis' may have been another cause of the expansion of its geographical sense. [15] This is also reflected in the Varttikas of Katyayana who derives the wordVahika' from "vahis" or 'bahis' , meaning 'outside' (the pale of Aryandom). [16]

Some scholars [17] rely on the description of the Bahlikas as the offspring of two Pisachas, Bahi and Hika, as given in the Mahabharata. Buddha Prakash holds that fresh stream of the Bactrian people which swooped over the Punjab came to be known as Balhikas; their name which became a general designation for the people of Punjab was later corrupted as Vahika. [18] But we have already shown that the two were separate entities.

We know that the Vahikas were the people living within the boundaries of the five rivers including the sixth Sindhu (Indus), [19] but according to the Meharauli Pillar Inscription Candragupta conquered Vahlikas after crossing the seven mouths of the (river) Indus (sapta mukhani sindhoh). [20] So Vahlika of our inscription' is certainly Balkh in the extreme north of Afghanistan.[21] Bajpai[22] opposes it on the ground that Chandragupta could not have gone to so far off a place as Bactria which is situated across the Hindukush and rejects the older contention of scholars that the Kusanas were ruling in Bactria during king Candra's campaign and that he crossed the Hindukush to crush them.

But the view of Bajpai is not tenable since it is clear from the lines in our inscription [23] that king Candra had conquered the Vahlikas after crossing the seven mouths of the river Indus.

So far as the literary evidence is concerned we find that Balhika is the name of a people in the Atharvaveda; [24] here


Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 169


the fever (Takman) is called upon to go to the Mujavants, the Mahavrsas, and the Balhikas. The Mujavants are quite certainly a northern tribe, and though the passage may contain a pun on Balhika as suggesting 'outsider' (from bahis, 'without'), [25] still there is no doubt that the name was chosen from a northern tribe.[26]

The Satapatha Brahmana[27] mentions a Kuru king named Balhika Pratipiya. It seems that Balhika was a descendant of Pratīpa. But there is no evidence to show why he bore the name Balhika. [28] He is perhaps the same as Maharaja Bāhlika Prātipeya of the Mahabharata. [29]

The Ramayana shows that the Royal Kuru family originally migrated from the Bahlika country. The passage in question [30] says that Ila, son of the Prajapati Kardama, who was the king of the Vahli country, gave up Bahlika in favour of his son Sasavindu, and founded a new city Pratisthanapura in the Madhya-desa, where his other son Pururava Aila continued to rule. This links up the Ailas, the progenitor of the Kurus, with the Kardama royal family of Bahli. H.C. Raychaudhuri [31] suggests that Karddama, the name of the ruling family of Vahlika, was obtained from the river of that name in Persia, and thus infers that the home of the Karddama king is to be identified with Bahlika or Balkh in Iran. This view was earlier advocated by Roth [32] and Weber.[33] But Zimmer [34] rightly shows that there is no need to assume any Iranian influence. [35]

We know Vahlika from the Puranic list of peoples. [36] The Account of fifty-six countries [37] is interesting as it mentions them with the Hunas, Kauravas, Gandharas and Vidarbhas among others. In the Saktisangama Tantra [38] Bahlika is described as famous for horses and situated to the east of Mahāmlechha and beginning with Kamboja. B.C. Law on the basis of reference in the Mahabharata Udyogaparvan: Of the Vahlika being famous for horses and the account given of Arjuna's digvijaya (sabhaparvan). places the Vahlikas in the neighbourhood of Gandhar and Kamboja.[39]

Katyayana (4th century B.C.) [40] mentions Bāhlāyana and derives it from the word Bāhli, a country also mentioned in the ArthaSastra of Kautilya. [41]

The Vayu Purana, Siva Purana, Kavya-Mimansa of Rajase- khara and the Ramayana [42] place the Vahlika country in the


170 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions


northern division. [43] Bahlika is the name of a person in the Visnu-Purana. [44] The NatyaSastra [45] of Bharata says that Bahlikabhasa was spoken by the northern people (Udicyas).

A similar reference is also to be found in the Sahitya-darpana. [46]

In the Kamasutra of Vatsyayana, [47] Bahlika is grouped with Strirajya, which occurs in the list of North-Western division. The peculiar custom in Bahlika of several young men being married to a single woman as in strirajya (strirājye ca Bāhlike ), appears to be an outlandish custom prevailing in the regions to the west of India. [48] The Jayamangala commentary also says that Bahlika was in Uttarapatha. [49]

We find the word Vahlika occurring in the Amara-kosa in two ways :

1. Bāhlika[50]

2. Bāhlīka[51]

The Amarakosa shows that Bahlika was famous for horses, saffron and Ferula Asafoetida (hingu).

The reference to saffron leads us to the filaments of saffron on the banks of Vanksu (oxus) where Raghu gave defeat to the Hunas as described in Kalidasa's Raghuvarhsa. [52] The reading Sindhu of the passage [53] is plainly a mistake for Vanksu which is corroborated by Ksirasvamin, the earliest commentator of Amara who clearly shows that the Bahlika country was bordered on the Oxus. [54]

The Brhatsamhita [55] places Bahlikas in the jurisdiction of the Sun. Ancient tradition connects the Bahlikas with the Dhārṣṭakas, a Kshatriya clan which occupied the Bahlika country. [56] We know that Bahliki was another name of Madri, queen of the Madras. [57]

Buddha Prakash suggests that the Vedic school of the Bhāllavins enshrined the memory of the Bahlikas; the modern sub-castes of the Barasarin sub-group of the khatris Bhalla and Behl represent the ancient Balhikas, and the Jat clans of Bhālār and Bhalerah, found in Multan, the Baloch tribe Bhalka, living in Sindh, Bahawalpur and Dera Ghazi Khan and the clan Bhallowana, found in Shahpur, are remnants of the far-flung Bahlika tribes. [58] There is a possibility of the Bahlikas migrating from their original home Balkh to the Punjab.[59]

When Hieun Tsang visited Balkh, it was a centre of Buddhist


Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 171


faith, [60] but after the overthrow of the Sassanid kingdom by the Arabs, the ancient Bactria along with the adjoining territories passed under the control of Khorasan, the seat of the Muftammadan power. [61]

In Mahabharata

Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.61.6), (I.61.25), (I.61.29), (I.61.55), (I.89.49-52-53), (I.90.46), (I.177.19), (II.24.21), (II.31.7),(II.31.13),(II.47.22),(II.48.12),(VI.10.52), (VI.20.10),(VI.46.50), (VI.112.109), (VIII.4.30), (VIII.30.9), (VIII.30.11), (VIII.30.13), (VIII.30.14), (VIII.30.19), (VIII.30.20), (VIII.30.37-38-39-40-43), (VIII.30.47), (VIII.30.52-53-55-56-57), (VIII.30.81).


Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 61 gives genealogy of the Danavas, Asuras, Kauravas, Pandavas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Rakshasas. Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.61.6).[62].....He who had been known as Samhlada, the younger brother of Prahlada, became among men the famous Shalya, that bull amongst Balhikas.

Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.61.25). [63].... The first of Danavas, the heroic Hara, who humbled the pride of all foes became on earth the famous and fortunate Suvahu.

Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.61.29).[64].... He amongst the Asura who was known as Salabha the second, became on earth the monarch Prahlada in the country of the Balhikas.

Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.61.55). [65].....And from the tribe of Asuras called Krodhavasa were born many heroic kings on earth. Nandika, and Karnaveshta, Siddhartha, and also Kitaka; Suvira, and Suvahu, and Mahavira, and also Balhika,.....


Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 89 gives History of Puru and Pandavas (Aila dynasty). Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.89.49-52-53).[66]....Pratipa begat three sons, viz., Devapi, Santanu, and the mighty car-warrior Valhika. The eldest Devapi adopted the ascetic course of life, impelled thereto by the desire of benefiting his brothers. And the kingdom was obtained by Santanu and the mighty car-warrior Valhika.


Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 90 gives History and family tree of Puru, Bharatas and Pandavas commencing from Daksha. Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.90.46). [67]....And Pratipa married Sunanda, the daughter of Shivi, and begat upon her three sons, viz., Devapi, Santanu and Balhika.


Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 177 mentions Kshatriyas who came on Swayamvara of Draupadi. Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.177.19).[68]....Bhagiratha, Brihatkshatra, Jayadratha the son of Sindhu, Brihadratha, Balhika, the mighty charioteer Shrutayu....


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 24 mentions countries subjugated by Arjuna that lay to the North. Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.24.21). [69]....Then the son of Indra (Arjuna), endued with great prowess, after pressing them with great force, brought the Balhikas always difficult of being vanquished, under his sway.


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 31 mentions the Kshatriyas who brought tributes on Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira. Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.31.7).[70]....and Achala, and Vrishaka, and Karna that foremost of all charioteers; and Shalya endued with great might and the strong Valhika;.... and in Mahabharata (II.31.13).[71]....and all the other heroic kings of Balhika; and Virata with his two sons, and Mavella endued with great might;...


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 47 mentions the Kings who brought tributes to Yudhishthira. Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.47.22).[72]....And the people of Balhi gave unto him as tribute ten thousand asses, of goodly size and black necks and daily running two hundred miles, And those asses were of many shapes. And they were well-trained and celebrated all over the world. And possessed of symmetrical proportion and excellent colour, their skins were pleasant to the touch. And the Valhikas also presented numerous blankets of woollen texture manufactured in China and numerous skins of the Ranku deer, and clothes manufactured from jute, and others woven with the threads spun by insects. And they also gave thousands of other clothes not made of cotton, possessing the colour of the lotus.


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48 describes Kings who presented tributes to Yudhishthira. Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.48.12).[73]....The Kayavyas, the Daradas, the Darvas, the Suras, the Vaiyamakas, the Audumbaras, the Durvibhagas, the Kumaras, the Paradas along with the Bahlikas....


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.10.52).[74] ....the Kashmiras, the Sindhu-Sauviras, the Gandharvas, and the Darshakas; the Abhisaras, the Kulutas, the Sahivalas, and the Balhikas;....


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 20 describes the warriors in Bhisma's division. Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.20.10). [75]....In Bhishma's division were all the sons of Dhritarashtra, and also Shala who was a countryman of the Valhikas, and also all those Kshatriyas called Ambashthas, and those called Sindhus, and those also that are called Sauviras, and the heroic dwellers of the country of the five rivers (Panchanadas).


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 46 mentions Krishna, Yudhisthira and his brothers looking for arrangements of the war. Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.46.50). [76]....Balhikas, Tittiras, and Cholas Pandya .... And Nakula and Sahadeva placed themselves on the left wing.


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 112 mentions tribes fighting the Mahabharata War. Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.112.109). [77]....


Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 4 mentions the warriors who are dead amongst the Kurus and the Pandavas after ten days. Bahlika (बाह्लिक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VIII.4.30). [78]....Thy grandsire Bahlika, possessed of great might and prowess, hath, with all his followers, been slain by Bhimasena....


Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 30 mentions the tribes who are not followers of Brahmanism. Bahlikas (बाह्लिक) are mentioned in Mahabharata (VIII.30.9), (VIII.30.11), (VIII.30.13-14), (VIII.30.19-20), (VIII.30.37-38-39-40), (VIII.30.43-44), (VIII.30.47), (VIII.30.52-53-55-56-57), (VIII.30.81).

Mahabharata (VIII.30.9)[79]...A foremost one among brahmanas, venerable in years while reciting old histories, said these words, blaming the Bahikas and Madrakas....
Mahabharata (VIII.30.11)[80]...One should always avoid the Vahikas, those impure people that are out of the pale of virtue, and that live away from the Himavat and the Ganga River and Sarasvati and Yamuna and Kurukshetra and the Sindhu and its five tributary rivers.
Mahabharata (VIII.30.13-14)[81].... On some very secret mission I had to live among the Vahikas. In consequence of such residence the conduct of these people is well known to me. There is a town of the name of Sakala, a river of the name of Apaga, and a clan of the Bahlikas known by the name of the Jarttikas.
Mahabharata (VIII.30.19-20)[82] ....One of those wicked Vahikas,--one that is, that lived amongst those arrogant women,--who happened to live for some days in Kurujangala, burst out with cheerless heart, saying, Alas, that (Vahika) maiden of large proportions, dressed in thin blankets, is thinking of me,--her Vahika lover--that is now passing his days in Kurujangala, (VIII.30.19) at the hour of her going to bed."
Mahabharata (VIII.30.37-38-39-40)[83]...The gods, the pitris, and the brahmanas, never accept gifts from those that are fallen, or those that are begotten by Shudras on the girls of other castes, or the Vahikas who never perform sacrifices and are exceedingly irreligious.' That learned brahmana had also said in the Kuru court, 'The Vahikas, without any feelings of revulsion, eat of wooden vessels having deep stomachs and earthen plates and vessels that have been licked by dogs and that are stained with pounded barley and other corn. The Vahikas drink the milk of sheep and camels and asses and eat curds and other preparations from those different kinds of milk. Those degraded people number many bastards among them. There is no food and no milk that they do not take. The Aratta-Vahikas that are steeped in ignorance, should be avoided.' (VIII.30.40)
Mahabharata (VIII.30.43-44) [84]....There where the five rivers flow just after issuing from the mountains, there among the Aratta-Vahikas, no respectable person should dwell even for two days. There are two Pishachas named Vahi and Hika in the river Vipasha. The Vahikas are the offspring of those two Pishachas.
Mahabharata (VIII.30.47).[85]....The regions are called by the name of Arattas. The people residing there are called the Bahikas.
Mahabharata (VIII.30.52-53-55-56-57) [86]....Travelling through various countries following various religions, I at last, O king, came among the Vahikas. (VIII.30.52) There I heard that one at first becomes a brahmana and then he becomes a kshatriya. Indeed, a Vahika would, after that, become a Vaishya, and then a Shudra, and then a barber (VIII.30.53). Having become a barber, he would then again become a brahmana. Returning to the status of a brahmana, he would again become a slave. One person in a family becomes a brahmana: all the others, falling off from virtue, act as they like. The Gandharas, the Madrakas, and the Vahikas of little understanding are even such. (VIII.30.55) Having travelled through the whole world I heard of these practices, destructive of virtue, of these sinful irregularities amongst the Vahikas.' Thou shouldst know all this, O Shalya. I shall, however, again speak to thee about those ugly words that another said unto me regarding the Vahikas. (VIII.30.57)
Mahabharata (VIII.30.81) [87]...The Vahikas resent beneficial counsels; as regards the Madrakas there are none amongst those (mentioned above.)

Bahlikas in Ramayana

Bahlikas have been mentioned in Ramayana (4.42.5) [88]. Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 42 mentions Sugreeva sends troops to west side to search for Sita under the leadership of Sushena, the father of lady Tara. Describing the various provinces like Surashtra, Balhika and Chandrachitra (Mathura), Western Ocean, River Sindhu and magnificent mountains that are situated at the northwest of India, cities like Murachipattana, Jatapura, Avanti and Angalepa and also the ocean down south to it, namely the present Arabian Sea and almost up to Persian provinces, he orders monkey troops to return within one month's time.

Further, you will find a sea (Arabian Sea) in which many sharks and crocodiles live in. Near that sea, you will find a forest where Ketakee, Tamaal, Kaarikel (coconut) trees grow. After that you will find Murachipattana and Jatapura cities. Next you go to Avanti, Anglepa and Alakshita.

After this you will arrive at the mouth of River Indus (Sindhu). Near it is Hemagiri (Somagiri) Parvata which has numerous summits and on which there are many huge tall trees. Here live flying lions who take Timi named Matsya (fish or sharks) and elephant seals on the trees. You will search this mountain thoroughly.

बाह्लिक = वाह्लिक

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[89] ने लेख किया है .....बाह्लिक = वाह्लिक (AS, p.626): 'केराता: दरदा दार्वाः शूरा वैयमकास तथा, औदुम्बरा दुर्विभागाः पारदा बाह्लिकैः सह. महा.सभा 52,13. बाह्लिक या वाह्लिक, बल्ख (=ग्रीक बेक्ट्रिया) का प्राचीन संस्कृत नाम है. यहां के निवासी युधिष्ठिर के राजसूय यज्ञ में भेंट लेकर आए थे. महरौली लौह स्तंभ के अभिलेख में चंद्र द्वारा सिंधु नदी के सप्तमुखों के पार वाह्लिकों के जीते जाने का उल्लेख है--'तीर्त्वा सप्त मुखानि येन समरे सिन्धोर्जिता-बाल्हिका:' जिससे गुप्त काल में वाह्लिकों की स्थिति सिंध नदी के मुहाने के पश्चिम में सिद्ध होती है. जान पड़ता है कि इस काल में बल्ख के निवासियों ने अपनी बस्तियां इस इलाके में बना ली थी. महाभारत कर्ण पर्व में संभवत: वाहीक नाम से ही वाह्लिक निवासियों का उल्लेख है. (देखें वाहीक, वाह्लिक, वाल्हिक, बाह्ली)

वाह्लीक

वाह्लीक (AS, p.846): वाल्मीकि रामायण, अयोध्याकाण्ड 68, 18-19 में विपाशा नदी के पूर्व में वाह्लीक देश का वर्णन है - 'अवेक्ष्यांजलिपानांश्च ब्राह्यणांवेदपारगान्, ययुर्मध्येन वाल्हीकान्सुदामानं च पर्वतम्, विष्णो: पदं प्रेक्षमाणा विपाशां चापि शाल्मलीम्।' (वाह्लिक) [90]

बाह्ली = बाह्लीक = बल्ख

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[91] ने लेख किया है .....बाह्ली = बाह्लीक = बल्ख (AS, p.627): वाल्मीकि रामायण उत्तर कांड 83,3 में प्रजापति कर्दम के पुत्र को बाह्ली का राजा कहा है--'श्रूयते ही पुरा सौम्य कर्दमस्य प्रजापते:, पुत्रो बाह्लीश्वर: श्रीमानिलोनाम सुधार्मिक:' महाभारत 51, 26 में बाह्ली का चीन के साथ उल्लेख है-- 'प्रमाणरागस्पर्शाढ्यं बाह्लीचीन समुद्भवान्'--

External links

References

  1. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini,p.447
  2. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.500
  3. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.447
  4. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. व-24
  5. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, p.341
  6. A study of the Bhagavata Purana; or, Esoteric Hinduism by Purnendu Narayana Sinha, Benares,1901,p.212
  7. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.436
  8. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Tribes,pp.167-171
  9. No. 20, LL. 1-2. यस्योद्वर्त्तयत: प्रतीमुरसा शत्रूनसमेत्यागतान्, वन्गेश्वहववर्तिनो अभिलिखिता खड्गेन कीर्तिभुजे। तीर्त्वा सप्त मुखानि येन समरे सिन्धोर्ज्जिता वाह्लिका, यस्याद्याप्यधिवास्यते जलनिधिर्व्वीर्यानिलैर्दक्षिण: ।। Cf. Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India by D. C. Sircar. p. 184.
  10. Cf. D.C. Sircar, Oz. p. 94, p. 184; India as Known to Panini by V. S . Agrawala, p. 449.
  11. Ramayana, II, 68, Vs. 18-19; "They went through the Valhika country to Mount Sudaman, viewing Visnupada and also the Vipasa and Salmali": ययुर्मध्येन वाह्लिकान्सुदामानं च पर्वतम् । विष्णो: पदं प्रेषमाणा विपाशां चापि शाल्मलीम् ।।
  12. We have some passages from the Karnaparvan (Ch. 44) (Online 30) of the Mahabharata: पञ्चानां सिन्धुषष्ठानां नदीनां ये ऽनतर आश्रिताः, तान धर्मबाह्यान अशुचीन बाह्लीकान परिवर्जयेत (Mahabharata VII.30.11) शाकलं नाम नगरम आपगा नाम निम्नगा, जर्तिका नाम बाह्लीकास तेषां वृत्तं सुनिन्दितम (Mahabharata VII.30.14) पञ्च नद्यॊ वहन्त्य एता यत्र निःसृत्य पर्वतात, आरट्टा नाम बाह्लीका न तेष्व आर्यॊ दव्यहं वसेत (Mahabharata VII.30.43)
  13. Kamasutra V/23 and V/26; Kavya-Mlmarhsa, Chap' XVII, see in the description of the Uttarapatha; Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India by S. B. Chaudhuri pp. 117-18, see also p. 117, f.n.3; ndian Culture, Calcutta. Vol. VI, 128-36; D.C. Sircar, Geography by Strabo. p. 186; Tribes in Ancient India by B. C Law. p, 71.
  14. Mahabharata, Karnaparvan (ch.44), v. 10 : बहिश च नाम हलीकश च विपाशायां पिशाचकौ, तयॊर अपत्यं बाह्लीका नैषा सृष्टिः परजापतेः (Mahabharata VII.30.44)
  15. Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India by D. C. Sircar, pp. 186-87.
  16. Tribes in Ancient India by B. C Law. p. 71.
  17. Ethnography of Ancient India by Robert Shafer. p. 141; Political and Social Movements in Ancient Punjab by Buddha Prakash , p. 243.
  18. Political and Social Movements in Ancient Punjab by Buddha Prakash, p. 243.
  19. Mahabharata, Karnaparavan, Ch. 44, v. 7: पञ्चानां सिन्धुषष्ठानां नदीनां ये ऽनतर आश्रिताः, तान धर्मबाह्यान अशुचीन बाह्लीकान परिवर्जयेत (Mahabharata VII.30.11)
  20. No. 20, L.2: तीर्त्वा सप्त मुखानि येन समरे सिन्धोर्ज्जिता वाह्लिका ।
  21. India as Known to Panini by V. S. Agrawala, p 449.
  22. Ry. K.D. Bajpai, 'Identification of Vanga and Vahlika in the Meharauli Iron Pillar Inscription' p. 360.
  23. No. 20, L.2
  24. V. 22, 5.7.9.
  25. Hymns of the Atharvaveda by L. Bloomfield. p.446
  26. Vedic Index of Names and Subjects by A. A. Macdonell and A. B. Keith. Vol. II, p.63.
  27. xii, 9,3,3.
  28. Vedic Index of Names and Subjects by A. A. Macdonell and A. B. Keith. Vol. II, p.64.
  29. V,23,9; 149,27; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London. 1910, p.52; vide Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India by S. B. Chaudhuri. p. 110.
  30. Ramayana, vii, 103, 7,21,22, Cf. Linga Purana, Pt. I, ch, 65.
  31. Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India by S. B. Chaudhuri . p. 110; Geographical Data in the Early Puranas by M. R. Singh. pp. 123-24, see also Political History of Ancient India by H. C. Raychaudhuri . (edn. 1972), p. 23
  32. Zur Litteratur aid Geschichte des Weda, 41.
  33. Indische Studien, I, 205; Proceedings of the Berlin Academy, 1892, pp. 985-995.
  34. Altindisches Leb?n, 431-33. Cf. Translation of the Atharvaveda by Whitney. p.260; Great Epic of India by Hopkins.p. 373.
  35. Vedic Index of Names and Subjects by A. A. Macdonell and A. B. Keith. Vol. II, p.63.
  36. D. C. Sircar, Oz. p. 23 : वाहीका वाटधानाश च आभीराः कालतॊयकाः (VI.10.45)
  37. Ibid., p. 71: हु (हू) णकौरवगंधारवविदर्भा सविदेहका: । वह्लिको बर्बरो देवि कैकय: कोशलोअपि च ।।
  38. Saktisangama Tantra, Book III, Chapter 7 : : n Vide, Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India by D. C. Sircar. p. 77. कम्बोजदेशमारभ्य महामालेच्छात्तु पूर्वके । वाह्लिकदेशो देवेशि अश्वोत्पतिपरायण: ।।
  39. Tribes in Ancient India by B. C Law. p.70.
  40. In his Varttika on Panini, IV. 2.99.
  41. Shama Shastri, 1st edn., p. 79.
  42. Sometimes the Ramayana places it in the West.
  43. Cf. Arthasastra of Kautilya, ed. Shama Shastri, 1st edn., p. 79, f.n. I; Geographical Data in the Early Puranas by M. R. Singh. p. 123,
  44. Visnu-Purana, IV/20/31: वाह्लिकात्सोमदत्त पुत्रो अभूत ।
  45. XVII, 48.
  46. साहित्यदर्पण : 6/162 : वाह्लिकभासोदीच्यानां द्राविड़ी द्रविडादिषु
  47. Ed. Pancanan Tarkaratna, p. 385.
  48. Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India by S. B. Chaudhuri. p. 109.
  49. Kamasutra of Vatsyayana, ed. Pancanan Tarkaratna, p. 371
  50. Amara-ko'sa : 2.8.45; 3.3.9; and 3.5.31.
  51. Ibid., 2.6.124; 2.9.40 and 3.3.9.
  52. रघुवंश चतुर्थ सर्ग, श्लो. 67-68 .
  53. IV.67: रघुवंश IV.67 विनीताध्वश्रमास्तस्य सिन्धुतीरविचेष्टनै । दुधुवुर्वाजिन: स्कंधांल्लग्नकुंकुमकेसरान् ।।
  54. Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India by S. B. Chaudhuri . p. 110: वाह्लिकदेशजं (वाह्लीक) यद्रघोरुत्तरदिग्विजये दुधुवुर्वाजिन: ।'
  55. XVI. I, p. 129.
  56. Pargiter, M. 256
  57. Ancient Peoples of the Punjab by J. Przyluski. p.7.
  58. Political and Social Movements in Ancient Punjab by Buddha Prakash. p. 244; 137-38.
  59. Geographical Data in the Early Puranas by M. R. Singh. p. 127
  60. Buddhist Records of the Western World by S. Beal. 1884, I, pp. 44-47.
  61. Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India by S. B. Chaudhuri. p. 111.
  62. संह्लाद इति विख्यातः प्रह्लादस्यानुजस तु यः, स शल्य इति विख्यातॊ जज्ञे बाह्लीक पुंगवः (I.61.6)
  63. अहरस तु महातेजाः शत्रुपक्ष कषयं करः, बाह्लीकॊ नाम राजा स बभूव परथितः कषितौ (I.61.25)
  64. दवितीयः शलभस तेषाम असुराणां बभूव यः, परह्रादॊ नाम बाह्लीकः स बभूव नराधिपः (I.61.29)
  65. नन्दिकः कर्णवेष्टश च सिद्धार्थाः कीटकस तथा, सुवीरश च सुबाहुश च महावीरॊ ऽथ बाह्लिकः (I.61.55)
  66. जनमेजयस्य तनया भुवि खयाता महाबलाः, धृतराष्ट्रः परथमजः पाण्डुर बाह्लीक एव च (I.89.49) प्रतीपस्य तरयः पुत्रा जज्ञिरे भरतर्षभ, देवापिः शंतनुश चैव बाह्लीकश च महारथः (I.89.52) देवापिस तु परवव्राज तेषां धर्मपरीप्सया शंतनुश च महीं लेभे बाह्लीकश च महारथः (I.89.53)
  67. प्रतीपः खलु शैब्याम उपयेमे सुनन्द्दां नाम, तस्यां पुत्रान उत्पादयाम आस देवापिं शंतनुं बाह्लीकं चेति (I.90.46)
  68. भगीरथॊ बृहत क्षत्रः सैन्धवश च जयद्रथः, बृहद्रथॊ बाह्लिकश च श्रुतायुश च महारथः (I.177.19)
  69. ततः परमविक्रान्तॊ बाह्लीकान कुरुनन्थनः, महता परिमर्थेन वशे चक्रे दुरासदान (II.24.21)
  70. अचलॊ वृषकश चैव कर्णश च रथिनां वरः, ऋतः शल्यॊ मथ्रराजॊ बाह्लिकश च महारदः (II.31.7)
  71. बाह्लिकाश चापरे शूरा राजानः सर्व एव ते, विराटः सह पुत्रैश च मावेल्लश च महारदः (II.31.13)
  72. परमाण रागस्पर्शाढ्यं बाह्ली चीन समुथ्भवम, और्णं च राङ्कवं चैव कीटजं पट्टजं तदा (II.47.22)
  73. कायव्या दरदा दार्वाः शूरा वैयमकास तदा, औदुम्बरा दुर्विभागाः पारदा बाह्लिकैः सह (II.48.12)
  74. काश्मीराः सिन्धुसौवीरा गान्धारा दर्शकास तदा, अभीसारा कुलूताश च शौवला बाह्लिकास तदा (VI.10.52)
  75. तस्य सैन्यं धार्तराष्ट्राश च सर्वे; बाह्लीकानाम एकदेशः शलश च, ये चाम्बष्ठाः क्षत्रिया ये च सिन्धौ; तदा सौवीराः पञ्च नथाश च शूराः (VI.20.10)
  76. बाह्लिकास तित्तिराश चैव चॊलाः पाण्ड्याश च भारत, एते जनपथा राजन दक्षिणं पक्षम आश्रिताः (VI.46.50)
  77. बाह्लिका दरदाश चैव प्राच्यॊदीच्याश च मालवाः, अभीषाहाः शूरसेनाः शिबयॊ ऽद वसातयः (VI.112.109)
  78. पितामहस तव तदा बाह्लिकः सह बाह्लिकैः, भीमसेनेन विक्रम्य गमितॊ यमसाथनम (VIII.4.30)
  79. तत्र वृद्धः पुरावृत्ताः कदाः काश चिद द्विजॊत्तमः, बाह्लीक देशं मद्रांश च कुत्सयन वाक्यम अब्रवीत (VIII.30.9)
  80. पञ्चानां सिन्धुषष्ठानां नथीनां ये ऽनतर आश्रिताः, तान धर्मबाह्यान अशुचीन बाह्लीकान परिवर्जयेत (VIII.30.11)
  81. कार्येणात्यर्द गाढेन बाह्लीकेषूषितं मया, तत एषां समाचारः संवासाथ विथितॊ मम (VIII.30.13) शाकलं नाम नगरम आपगा नाम निम्नगा, जर्तिका नाम बाह्लीकास तेषां वृत्तं सुनिन्थितम (VIII.30.14)
  82. तेषां किलावलिप्तानां निवसन कुरुजाङ्गले, कश चिथ बाह्लीक मुख्यानां नातिहृष्टमना जगौ (VIII.30.19) सा नूनं बृहती गौरी सूक्ष्मकम्बलवासिनी, माम अनुस्मरती शेते बाह्लीकं कुरु वासिनम (VIII.30.20)
  83. न थेवाः परतिगृह्णन्ति पितरॊ बराह्मणास तदा, तेषां परनष्टधर्माणां बाह्लीकानाम इति शरुतिः (VIII.30.37) बराह्मणेन तदा परॊक्तं विथुषा साधु संसथि, काष्ठकुण्डेषु बाह्लीका मृण्मयेषु च भुञ्जते, सक्तु वाट्यावलिप्तेषु शवाथि लीढेषु निर्घृणाः (VIII.30.38) आविकं चौष्ट्रिकं चैव कषीरं गार्थभम एव च, तथ विकारांश च बाह्लीकाः खाथन्ति च पिबन्ति च (VIII.30.39) पुत्र संकरिणॊ जाल्माः सर्वान नक्षीर भॊजनाः. आरट्टा नाम बाह्लीका वर्जनीया विपश्चिता (VIII.30.40)
  84. पञ्च नद्यॊ वहन्त्य एता यत्र निःसृत्य पर्वतात, आरट्टा नाम बाह्लीका न तेष्व आर्यॊ दव्यहं वसेत (VIII.30.43) बहिश च नाम हलीकश च विपाशायां पिशाचकौ, तयॊर अपत्यं बाह्लीका नैषा सृष्टिः प्रजापतेः (VIII.30.44)
  85. आरट्टा नाम ते देशा बाह्लीका नाम ते जनाः, वसाति सिन्धुसौवीरा इति परायॊ विकुत्सिताः (VIII.30.47)
  86. अटता तु सदा देशान नानाधर्मसमाकुलान, आगच्छता महाराज बाह्लीकेषु निशामितम (VIII.30.52) तत्रैव बराह्मणॊ भूत्वा ततॊ भवति क्षत्रियः, वैश्यःशूद्रश च बाह्लीकस ततॊ भवति नापितः (VIII.30.53) भवत्य एकः कुले विप्रः शिष्टान्ये कामचारिणः, गान्धारा मद्रकाश चैव बाह्लीकाः के ऽपय अचेतसः (VIII.30.55) एतन मया शरुतं तत्र धर्मसंकरकारकम, कृत्स्नाम अटित्वा पृदिवीं बाह्लीकेषु विपर्ययः (VIII.30.56) उत शल्य विजानीहि हन्त भूयॊ बरवीमि ते, यथ अप्य अन्यॊ ऽबरवीथ वाक्यं बाह्लीकानां विकुत्सितम (VIII.30.57)
  87. परतिरब्धास तु बाह्लीका न च के चन मथ्रकाः, स तवम एताथृशः शल्य नॊत्तरं वक्तुम अर्हसि (VIII.30.81)
  88. सुशेषण प्रमुखा यूयम् वैदेहीम् परिमार्गथ । सौराष्ट्रान् सह बाह्लीकान् चंद्रचित्रान् तथैव च ॥४-४२-६॥
  89. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.626
  90. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.646
  91. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.627