Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 60

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Mahabharata - Adi Parva

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 66 : English


(Sambhava Parva continued)

gives genealogy of all the principal creatures

"Vaisampayana said, 'It is known that the spiritual sons of Brahma were the six great Rishis (already mentioned). There was another of the name of Sthanu. And the

  • sons of Brahman - It hath been already said, that Marichi, Angiras. Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, and Kratu--these six great Rishis of great energy--are the sons of Brahman. It is well-known in the world that
  • Angiras's sons are three,--
  • sons of Atri are numerous. And, being great Rishis, they are all conversant with the Vedas, crowned with ascetic success, and of souls in perfect peace. And, O tiger among kings, the
  • sons of Pulastya of great wisdom are Rakshasas, Vanaras, Kinnaras (half-men and half-horses), and Yakshas. And, O king,
  • the son of Pulaha were, it is said, the Salabhas (the winged insects), the lions, the Kimpurushas (half-lions and half-men), the tigers, bears, and wolves. And the
  • sons of Kratu, sacred as sacrifices, are the companions of Surya, (the Valikhilyas), known in three worlds and devoted to truth and vows. And, O protector of the Earth, the illustrious Rishi Daksha, of soul in complete peace, and of great asceticism, sprung from the right toe of Brahman. And from the left toe of Brahman sprang the wife of the high-souled Daksha. And the
  • Muni begat upon her fifty daughters; and all those daughters were of faultless features and limbs and of eyes like lotus-petals. And the lord
  • Daksha, not having any sons, made those daughters his Putrikas (so that their sons might belong both to himself and to their husbands). And Daksha bestowed, according to the sacred ordinance,

Listen as I recount the

  • wives of Dharma according to their names. They are ten in all--Kirti, Lakshmi, Dhriti, Medha, Pushti, Sraddha, Kria, Buddhi, Lajja, and Mati. These are the wives of Dharma as appointed by the Self-create. It is known also throughout the world that the wives of Soma (Moon) are twenty-seven. And
  • the wives of Soma, all of sacred vows, are employed in indicating time; and they are the Nakshatras and the Yoginis and they became so for assisting the courses of the worlds.

"And Brahma had another son named

  • Manu. And Manu had a son of the name of
  • Prajapati. And the
  • Sons of Prajapati were eight and were called Vasus whom I shall name in detail. They were Dhara, Dhruva, Soma, Aha, Anila, Anala, Pratyusha, and Prabhasa. These eight are known as the Vasus. Of these, Dhara and the truth-knowing Dhruva were born of Dhumra; Chandramas (Soma) and Swasana (Anila) were born of the intelligent Swasa; Aha was the son of Rata: and Hutasana (Anala) of Sandilya; and Pratyusha and Prabhasa were the sons of Prabhata. And Dhara had two sons, Dravina and Huta-havya-vaha. And the son of Dhruva is the illustrious Kala (Time), the destroyer of the worlds. And Soma's son is the resplendent Varchas. And Varchas begot upon his wife Manohara three sons--Sisira, and Ramana. And the son of Aha were Jyotih, Sama, Santa, and also Muni. And the son of Agni is the handsome Kumara born in a forest of reeds. And, he is also called Kartikeya because he was reared by Krittika and others. And, after Kartikeya, there were born his three brothers Sakha, Visakha, Naigameya. And the wife of Anila is Siva, and Siva's son were Purojava and Avijnatagati. These two were the sons of Anila. The son of Pratyusha, you must know, is the Rishi named Devala; and Devala had two sons who were both exceedingly forgiving and of great mental power. And the sister of Vrihaspati, the first of women, uttering the sacred truth, engaged in ascetic penances, roamed over the whole earth; and she became the wife of Prabhasa, the eighth Vasu. And she brought forth the illustrious Viswakarman, the founder of all arts. And he was the originator of a thousand arts, the engineer of the immortals, the maker of all kinds of ornaments, and the first of artists. And he it was who constructed the celestial cars of the gods, and mankind are enabled to live in consequence of the inventions of that illustrious one. And he is worshipped, for that reason, by men. And he is eternal and immutable, this Viswakarman.

"And the illustrious Dharma, the dispenser of all happiness, assuming a human countenance, came out through the right breast of Brahman. And Ahasta (Dharma) hath three excellent sons capable of charming every creature. And they are Sama, Kama, Harsha (Peace, Desire, and Joy). And by their energy they are supporting the worlds. And the wife of Kama is Rati, of Sama is Prapti; and the wife of Harsha is Nanda. And upon them, indeed, are the worlds made to depend.

"And the

p. 137

she gave birth, in the skies, to two greatly fortunate twins, the Aswins. And, O king, the sons of Aditi are twelve with Indra heading them all. And the youngest of them all was Vishnu upon whom the worlds depend.

"These are the thirty-three gods (the eight Vasus, the eleven Rudras, the twelve Adityas, Prajapati, and Vashatkara). I shall now recount their

"These are the Ganas of the gods recited to thee, O king! This recitation washes men of all sins.

"The illustrious Bhrigu came out, ripping open the breast of Brahman. The learned Sukra is Bhrigu's son. And the learned Sukra becoming a planet and engaged according to the command of the Self-existent in pouring and withholding rain, and in dispensing and remitting calamities, traverses, for sustaining the lives of all the creatures in the three worlds, through the skies. And the learned Sukra, of great intelligence and wisdom, of rigid vows, leading the life of a Brahmacharin, divided himself in twain by power of asceticism, and became the spiritual guide of both the Daityas and the gods. And after Sukra was thus employed by Brahman in seeking the welfare (of the gods and the Asuras), Bhrigu begot another excellent son. This was Chyavana who was like the blazing sun, of virtuous soul, and of great fame. And he came out of his mother's womb in anger and became the cause of his mother's release, O king (from the hands of the Rakshasas). And Arushi, the daughter of Manu, became the wife of the wise Chyavana. And, on her was begotten Aurva of great reputation. And he came out, ripping open the thigh of Arushi. And Aurva begot Richika. And Richika even in his boyhood became possessed of great power and energy, and of every virtue. And Richika begot Jamadagni. And the high-souled Jamadagni had four sons. And the youngest of them all was Rama (Parasurama). And Rama was superior to all his brothers in the possession of good qualities. And he was skilful in all weapons, and became the slayer of the Kshatriyas. And he had his passions under complete control. And Aurva had a hundred sons with Jamadagni the eldest. And these hundred sons had offspring by thousands spread over this earth.

"And Brahma had two other sons, viz., Dhatri and Vidhatri who stayed with Manu. Their sister is the auspicious Lakshmi having her abode amid lotuses. And the spiritual sons of Lakshmi are the sky-ranging horses. And the daughter born of Sukra, named Divi, became the eldest wife of Varuna. Of her were born a son named Vala and a daughter named Sura (wine), to the joy of the gods. And Adharma (Sin) was born when creatures (from want of food) began to devour one another. And Adharma always destroys

p. 138

every creature. And Adharma hath Niriti for his wife, whence the Rakshasas who are called Nairitas (offspring of Niriti). And she hath also three other cruel sons always engaged in sinful deeds. They are Bhaya (fear), Mahabhaya (terror), and Mrityu (Death) who is always engaged in slaying every created thing. And, as he is all-destroying, he hath no wife, and no son. And Tamra brought forth five daughters known throughout the worlds. They are Kaki (crow), Syeni (hawk), Phasi (hen), Dhritarashtri (goose), and Suki (parrot). And Kaki brought forth the crows; Syeni, the hawks, the cocks and vultures, Dhritarashtri, all ducks and swans; and she also brought forth all Chakravakas; and the fair Suki, of amiable qualities, and possessing all auspicious signs brought forth all the parrots.

And Krodha gave birth to nine daughters, all of wrathful disposition. And their names were Mrigi, Mrigamanda, Hari, Bhadramana, Matangi, Sarduli, Sweta, Surabhi, and the agreeable Surasa blessed with every virtue. And, O foremost of men, the offspring of Mrigi are all animals of the deer species. And the offspring of Mrigamanda are all animals of the bear species and those called Srimara (sweet-footed). And Bhadramana begot the celestial elephants, Airavata. And the offspring of Hari are all animals of the simian species endued with great activity, so also all the horses. And those animals also, that are called Go-langula (the cow-tailed), are said to be the offspring of Hari. And Sarduli begot lions and tigers in numbers, and also leopards and all other strong animals. And, O king, the offspring of Matangi are all the elephants. And Sweta begat the large elephant known by the name of Sweta, endued with great speed. And, O king, Surabhi gave birth to two daughters, the amiable Rohini and the far-famed Gandharvi. And, O Bharata, she had also two other daughters named Vimala and Anala. From Rohini have sprung all kine, and from Gandharvi all animals of the horse species. And Anala begat the seven kinds of trees yielding pulpy fruits. (They are the date, the palm, the hintala, the tali, the little date, the nut, and the cocoanut.) And she had also another daughter called Shuki (the mother of the parrot species). And Surasa bore a son called Kanka (a species of long-feathered birds). And Syeni, the wife of Aruna, gave birth to two sons of great energy and strength, named Sampati and the mighty Jatayu. Surasa also bore the Nagas, and Kadru, the Punnagas (snakes). And Vinata had two sons Garuda and Aruna, known far and wide. And, O king of men, O foremost of intelligent persons, thus hath the genealogy of all the principal creatures been fully described by me. By listening to this, a man is fully cleansed of all his sins, and acquireth great knowledge, and finally attaineth to the first of states in after-life!'"

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 66 : Sanskrit

The Mahabharata in Sanskrit: Book 1, Chapter 60
  1 [व]
     बरह्मणॊ मानसाः पुत्रा विदिताः षण महर्षयः
     एकादश सुताः सथाणॊः खयाताः परममानसाः
 2 मृगव्याधशशर्वशनिरृतिश च महायशाः
     अजैक पाद अहिर बुध्न्यः पिनाकी च परंतपः
 3 दहनॊ ऽथेश्वरश चैव कपाली च महाद्युतिः
     सथाणुर भवश च भगवान रुदा एकादश समृताः
 4 मरीचिर अङ्गिरा अत्रिः पुलस्त्यः पुलहः क्रतुः
     षड एते बरह्मणः पुत्रा वीर्यवन्तॊ महर्षयः
 5 तरयस तव अङ्गिरसः पुत्रा लॊके सर्वत्र विश्रुताः
     बृहस्पतिर उतथ्यशसंवर्तश च धृतव्रताः
 6 अत्रेस तु बहवः पुत्राः शरूयन्ते मनुजाधिप
     सर्वे वेदविदः सिद्धाः शान्तात्मानॊ महर्षयः
 7 रक्षसास तु पुलस्त्यस्य वानराः किंनरास तथा
     पुलहस्य मृगाः सिंहा वयाघ्राः किंपुरुषास तथा
 8 क्रतॊः करतुसमाः पुत्राः पतंगसहचारिणः
     विश्रुतास तरिषु लॊकेषु सत्यव्रतपरायणाः
 9 दक्षस तव अजायताङ्गुष्ठाद दक्षिणाद भगवान ऋषिः
     बरह्मणः पृथिवीपाल पुत्रः पुत्रवतां वरः
 10 वामाद अजायताङ्गुष्ठाद भार्या तस्य महात्मनः
    तस्यां पञ्चाशतं कन्याः स एवाजनयन मुनिः
11 ताः सर्वास तव अनवद्याङ्ग्यः कन्याः कमललॊचनाः
    पुत्रिकाः सथापयाम आस नष्टपुत्रः परजापतिः
12 ददौ स दश धर्माय सप्त विंशतिम इन्दवे
    दिव्येन विधिना राजन कश्यपाय तरयॊदश
13 नामतॊ धर्मपत्न्यस ताः कीर्त्यमाना निबॊध मे
    कीर्तिर लक्ष्मीर धृतिर मेधा पुष्टिः श्रद्धा क्रिया तथा
14 बुद्धिर लज्जा मतिश चैव पत्न्यॊ धर्मस्य ता दश
    दवाराण्य एतानि धर्मस्य विहितानि सवयं भुवा
15 सप्त विंशतिसॊमस्य पत्न्यॊ लॊके परिश्रुताः
    कालस्य नयने युक्ताः सॊमपत्न्यः शुभव्रताः
    सर्वा नक्षत्रयॊगिन्यॊ लॊकयात्रा विधौ सथिताः
16 पितामहॊ मुनिर देवस तस्य पुत्रः प्रजापतिः
    तस्याष्टौ वसवः पुत्रास तेषां वक्ष्यामि विस्तरम
17 धरॊ ध्रुवशसॊमशअहश चैवानिलॊ ऽनलः
    प्रत्यूषशपरभासश च वसवॊ ऽषटाव इति समृताः
18 धूम्रायाशधरः पुत्रॊ बरह्म विद्यॊ ध्रुवस तथा
    चन्द्रमास तु मनस्विन्याः शवसायाः शवसनस तथा
19 रतायाश चाप्य अहः पुत्रः शाण्डिल्याशहुताशनः
    प्रत्यूषशप्रभासशप्रभातायाः सुतौ समृतौ
20 धरस्य पुत्रॊ द्रविणॊ हुतहव्यवहस तथा
    धरुवस्य पुत्रॊ भगवान कालॊ लॊकप्रकालनः
21 सॊमस्य तु सुतॊ वर्चा वर्चस्वी येन जायते
    मनॊहरायाः शिशिरः पराणॊ ऽथ रमणस तथा
22 अह्नः सुतः समृतॊ जयॊतिः शर्मः शान्तस तथा मुनिः
    अग्नेः पुत्रः कुमारस तु श्रीमाञ श्रवणालयः
23 तस्य शाखॊ विशाखशनैगमेशश च पृष्ठजः
    कृत्तिकाभ्युपपत्तेश च कार्त्तिकेय इति समृतः
24 अनिलस्य शिवा भार्या तस्याः पुत्रः पुरॊजवः
    अविज्ञात गतिश चैव दवौ पुत्राव अनिलस्य तु
25 परत्यूषस्य विदुः पुत्रम ऋषिं नाम्नाथ देवलम
    दवौ पुत्रौ देवलस्यापि कषमावन्तौ मनीषिणौ
26 बृहस्पतेस तु भगिनी वरस्त्री बरह्मचारिणी
    यॊगसिद्धा जगत सर्वम असक्तं विचरत्य उत
    परभासस्य तु भार्या सा वसूनाम अष्टमस्य ह
27 विश्वकर्मा महाभागॊ जज्ञे शिल्पप्रजा पतिः
    कर्ता शिल्पसहस्राणां तरिदशानां च वर्धकिः
28 भूषणानां च सर्वेषां कर्ता शिल्पवतां वरः
    यॊ दिव्यानि विमानानि देवतानां चकार ह
29 मनुष्याश चॊपजीवन्ति यस्य शिल्पं महात्मनः
    पूजयन्ति च यं नित्यं विश्वकर्माणम अव्ययम
30 सतनं तु दक्षिणं भित्त्वा बरह्मणॊ नरविग्रहः
    निःसृतॊ भगवान धर्मः सर्वलॊकसुखावहः
31 तरयस तस्य वराः पुत्राः सर्वभूतमनॊहराः
    शमः कामशहर्षश च तेजसा लॊकधारिणः
32 कामस्य तु रतिर भार्या शमस्य प्राप्तिर अङ्गना
    नन्दी तु भार्या हर्षस्य यत्र लॊकाः परतिष्ठिताः
33 मरीचेः कश्यपः पुत्रः कश्यपस्य सुरासुराः
    जज्ञिरे नृपशार्दूल लॊकानां परभवस तु सः
34 तवाष्ट्री तु सवितुर भार्या वडवा रूपधारिणी
    असूयत महाभागा सान्तरिक्षे ऽशविनाव उभौ
35 दवादशैवादितेः पुत्राः शक्र मुख्या नराधिप
    तेषाम अवरजॊ विष्णुर यत्र लॊकाः परतिष्ठिताः
36 तरयस तरिंशत इत्य एते देवास तेषाम अहं तव
    अन्वयं संप्रवक्ष्यामि पक्षैश च कुलतॊ गणान
37 रुद्राणाम अपरः पक्षः साध्यानां मरुतां तथा
    वसूनां भार्गवं विद्याद विश्वे देवांस तथैव च
38 वैनतेयस तु गरुडॊ बलवान अरुणस तथा
    बृहस्पतिश च भगवान आदित्येष्व एव गण्यते
39 अश्विभ्यां गुह्यकान विद्धि सर्वौषध्यस तथा पशून
    एष देवगणॊ राजन कीर्तितस ते ऽनुपूर्वशः
    यं कीर्तयित्वा मनुजः सर्वपापैः परमुच्यते
40 बरह्मणॊ हृदयं भित्त्वा निःसृतॊ भगवान भृगुः
    भृगॊः पुत्रः कविर विद्वाञ शुक्रः कवि सुतॊ गरहः
41 तरैलॊक्यप्राणयात्रार्थे वर्षावर्षे भयाभये
    सवयं भुवा नियुक्तः सन भुवनं परिधावति
42 यॊगाचार्यॊ महाबुद्धिर दैत्यानाम अभवद गुरुः
    सुराणां चापि मेधावी बरह्म चारी यतव्रतः
43 तस्मिन नियुक्ते विभुना यॊगक्षेमाय भार्गवे
    अन्यम उत्पादयाम आस पुत्रं भृगुर अनिन्दितम
44 चयवनं दीप्ततपसं धर्मात्मानं मनीषिणम
    यः सरॊषाच चयुतॊ गर्भान मातुर मॊक्षाय भारत
45 आरुणी तु मनॊः कन्या तस्य पत्नी मनीषिणः
    और्वस तस्यां समभवद ऊरुं भित्त्वा महायशाः
    महातपा महातेजा बाल एव गुणैर युतः
46 ऋचीकस तस्य पुत्रस तु जमदग्निस ततॊ ऽभवत
    जमदग्नेस तु चत्वार आसन पुत्रा महात्मनः
47 रामस तेषां जघन्यॊ ऽभूद अजघन्यैर गुणैर युतः
    सर्वशस्त्रास्त्रकुशलः कषत्रियान्तकरॊ वशी
48 और्वस्यासीत पुत्रशतं जमदग्निपुरॊगमम
    तेषां पुत्रसहस्राणि बभूवुर भृगुविस्तरः
49 दवौ पुत्रौ बरह्मणस तव अन्यौ ययॊस तिष्ठति लक्षणम
    लॊके धाता विधाता च यौ सथितौ मनुना सह
50 तयॊर एव सवसा देवी लक्ष्मीः पद्मगृहा शुभा
    तस्यास तु मानसाः पुत्रास तुरगा वयॊम चारिणः
51 वरुणस्य भार्या जयेष्ठा तु शुक्राद देवी वयजायत
    तस्याः पुत्रं बलं विद्धि सुरां च सुरनन्दिनीम
52 परजानाम अन्नकामानाम अन्यॊन्यपरिभक्षणात
    अधर्मस तत्र संजातः सर्वभूतविनाशनः
53 तस्यापि निरृतिर भार्या नैरृता येन राक्षसाः
    घॊरास तस्यास तरयः पुत्राः पापकर्म रताः सदा
    भयॊ महाभयश चैव मृत्युर भूतान्तकस तथा
54 काकीं शयेनींभासींधृतराष्ट्रीं तथा शुकीम
    ताम्रा तु सुषुवे देवी पञ्चैता लॊकविश्रुताः
55 उलूकान सुषुवे काकी शयेनी शयेनान वयजायत
    भासी भासान अजनयद गृध्रांश चैव जनाधिप
56 धृतराष्ट्री तु हंसांशकलहंसांश च सर्वशः
    चक्रवाकांश च भद्रं ते परजज्ञे सा तु भामिनी
57 शुकी विजज्ञे धर्मज्ञ शुकान एव मनस्विनी
    कल्याण गुणसंपन्ना सर्वलक्षणपूजिता
58 नव क्रॊधवशा नारीः परजज्ञे ऽपय आत्मसंभवाः
    मृगींमृगमन्दांहरिं भद्र मनाम अपि
59 मातङ्गीम अथ शार्दूलीं शवेतां सुरभिम एव च
    सर्वलक्षणसंपन्नां सुरसां च यशस्विनीम
60 अपत्यं तु मृगाः सर्वे मृग्या नरवरात्मज
    ऋक्षाशमृगमन्दायाः सृमराश चमरा अपि
61 ततस तव ऐरावतं नागं जज्ञे भद्र मना सुतम
    ऐरावतः सुतस तस्या देव नागॊ महागजः
62 हर्याशहरयॊ ऽपत्यं वानराश च तरस्विनः
    गॊलाङ्गूलांश च भद्रं ते हर्याः पुत्रान परचक्षते
63 परजज्ञे तव अथ शार्दूली सिंहान वयाघ्रांश च भारत
    दवीपिनश च महाभाग सर्वान एव न संशयः
64 मातङ्ग्यास तव अथ मातङ्गा अपत्यानि नराधिप
    दिशागजं तु शवेताख्यं शवेताजनयद आशुगम
65 तथा दुहितरौ राजन सुरभिर वै वयजायत
    रॊहिणीं चैव भद्रं ते गन्धर्वीं च यशस्विनीम
    रॊहिण्यां जज्ञिरे गावॊ गन्धर्व्यां वाजिनः सुताः
66 सुरसाजनयन नागान राजन कद्रूशपन्नगान
    सप्त पिण्ड फलान वृक्षान अनलापि वयजायत
    अनलायाः शुकी पुत्री कद्र्वास तु सुरसा सुता
67 अरुणस्य भार्या शयेनी तु वीर्यवन्तौ महाबलौ
    संपातिं जनयाम आस तथैव च जटायुषम
    दवौ पुत्रौ विनतायास तु विख्यातौ गरुडारुणौ
68 इत्य एष सर्वभूतानां महतां मनुजाधिप
    परभवः कीर्तितः सम्यङ मया मतिमतां वर
69 यं शरुत्वा पुरुषः सम्यक पूतॊ भवति पाप्मनः
    सर्वज्ञतां च लभते गतिम अग्र्यां च विन्दति