Mahatma Gandhi

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Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an eminent freedom activist and an influential political leader who played a dominant role in India's struggle for independence. He employed nonviolent resistance to lead the successful campaign for India's independence from British Rule.

Variants of name

Early life

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 into an Indian Gujarati Hindu Modh Baniya family [1] in Porbandar (also known as Sudamapuri), a coastal town on the Kathiawar Peninsula and then part of the small princely state of Porbandar in the Kathiawar Agency of the Indian Empire. His father, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi (1822–1885), served as the diwan (chief minister) of Porbandar state.[2]

Although he only had an elementary education and had previously been a clerk in the state administration, Karamchand proved a capable chief minister.[23] During his tenure, Karamchand married four times. His first two wives died young, after each had given birth to a daughter, and his third marriage was childless. In 1857, Karamchand sought his third wife's permission to remarry; that year, he married Putlibai (1844–1891), who also came from Junagadh, and was from a Pranami Vaishnava family. Karamchand and Putlibai had three children over the ensuing decade: a son, Laxmidas (c. 1860–1914); a daughter, Raliatbehn (1862–1960); and another son, Karsandas (c. 1866–1913).[3][29]

On 2 October 1869, Putlibai gave birth to her last child, Mohandas, in a dark, windowless ground-floor room of the Gandhi family residence in Porbandar city. As a child, Gandhi was described by his sister Raliat as "restless as mercury, either playing or roaming about. One of his favourite pastimes was twisting dogs' ears."[4] The Indian classics, especially the stories of Shravana and king Harishchandra, had a great impact on Gandhi in his childhood. In his autobiography, he admits that they left an indelible impression on his mind. He writes: "It haunted me and I must have acted Harishchandra to myself times without number." Gandhi's early self-identification with truth and love as supreme values is traceable to these epic characters.[5]

In 1874, Gandhi's father Karamchand left Porbandar for the smaller state of Rajkot, where he became a counsellor to its ruler, the Thakur Sahib; though Rajkot was a less prestigious state than Porbandar, the British regional political agency was located there, which gave the state's diwan a measure of security.[6] In 1876, Karamchand became diwan of Rajkot and was succeeded as diwan of Porbandar by his brother Tulsidas. His family then rejoined him in Rajkot.[7]


At age 9, Gandhi entered the local school in Rajkot, near his home. There he studied the rudiments of arithmetic, history, the Gujarati language and geography.[8]

At age 11, he joined the High School in Rajkot.[9] He was an average student, won some prizes, but was a shy and tongue tied student, with no interest in games; his only companions were books and school lessons.[10]

While at high school, Gandhi's elder brother introduced him to a Muslim friend named Sheikh Mehtab. Mehtab was older in age, taller and encouraged the strictly vegetarian boy to eat meat to gain height. He also took Mohandas to a brothel one day, though Mohandas "was struck blind and dumb in this den of vice," rebuffed the prostitutes' advances and was promptly sent out of the brothel. The experience caused Mohandas mental anguish, and he abandoned the company of Mehtab.[11]

In May 1883, the 13-year-old Mohandas was married to 14-year-old Kasturbai Makhanji Kapadia (her first name was usually shortened to "Kasturba", and affectionately to "Ba") in an arranged marriage, according to the custom of the region at that time.[12] In the process, he lost a year at school, but was later allowed to make up by accelerating his studies. His wedding was a joint event, where his brother and cousin were also married. Recalling the day of their marriage, he once said, "As we didn't know much about marriage, for us it meant only wearing new clothes, eating sweets and playing with relatives." As was prevailing tradition, the adolescent bride was to spend much time at her parents' house, and away from her husband.

In late 1885, Gandhi's father Karamchand died. Gandhi, then 16 years old, and his wife of age 17 had their first baby, who survived only a few days. The two deaths anguished Gandhi.[13] The Gandhi couple had four more children, all sons: Harilal, born in 1888; Manilal, born in 1892; Ramdas, born in 1897; and Devdas, born in 1900.[14]

In November 1887, the 18-year-old Gandhi graduated from high school in Ahmedabad.[15] In January 1888, he enrolled at Samaldas College in Bhavnagar State, then the sole degree-granting institution of higher education in the region. But he dropped out and returned to his family in Porbandar.[16]

Education in England

Gandhi came from a poor family, and he had dropped out of the cheapest college he could afford. Mavji Dave Joshiji, a Brahmin priest and family friend, advised Gandhi and his family that he should consider law studies in London.[17] In July 1888, his wife Kasturba gave birth to their first surviving son, Harilal.[18] His mother was not comfortable about Gandhi leaving his wife and family, and going so far from home. Gandhi's uncle Tulsidas also tried to dissuade his nephew. Gandhi wanted to go. To persuade his wife and mother, Gandhi made a vow in front of his mother that he would abstain from meat, alcohol and women. Gandhi's brother Laxmidas, who was already a lawyer, cheered Gandhi's London studies plan and offered to support him. Putlibai gave Gandhi her permission and blessing.[19]

On 10 August 1888, Gandhi aged 18, left Porbandar for Mumbai, then known as Bombay. Upon arrival, he stayed with the local Modh Bania community while waiting for the ship travel arrangements. The head of the community knew Gandhi's father. After learning Gandhi's plans, he and other elders warned Gandhi that England would tempt him to compromise his religion, and eat and drink in Western ways. Gandhi informed them of his promise to his mother and her blessings. The local chief disregarded it, and excommunicated him from his caste. But Gandhi ignored this, and on 4 September, he sailed from Bombay to London. His brother saw him off.[20] Gandhi attended University College, London which is a constituent college of University of London.

At UCL, he studied law and jurisprudence and was invited to enroll at Inner Temple with the intention of becoming a barrister. His childhood shyness and self withdrawal had continued through his teens, and he remained so when he arrived in London, but he joined a public speaking practice group and overcame this handicap to practise law.[21]

In South Africa (1893–1914)

In April 1893, Gandhi aged 23, set sail for South Africa to be the lawyer for Abdullah's cousin.[22] He spent 21 years in South Africa, where he developed his political views, ethics and politics.[23]

Immediately upon arriving in South Africa, Gandhi faced discrimination because of his skin colour and heritage, like all people of colour.[24] He was not allowed to sit with European passengers in the stagecoach and told to sit on the floor near the driver, then beaten when he refused; elsewhere he was kicked into a gutter for daring to walk near a house, in another instance thrown off a train at Pietermaritzburg after refusing to leave the first-class. He sat in the train station, shivering all night and pondering if he should return to India or protest for his rights.[25] He chose to protest and was allowed to board the train the next day.

In another incident, the magistrate of a Durban court ordered Gandhi to remove his turban, which he refused to do. Indians were not allowed to walk on public footpaths in South Africa. Gandhi was kicked by a police officer out of the footpath onto the street without warning.

When Gandhi arrived in South Africa, according to Herman, he thought of himself as "a Briton first, and an Indian second".[26] However, the prejudice against him and his fellow Indians from British people that Gandhi experienced and observed deeply bothered him. He found it humiliating, struggling to understand how some people can feel honour or superiority or pleasure in such inhumane practices.[27] Gandhi began to question his people's standing in the British Empire.[28]

The Abdullah case that had brought him to South Africa concluded in May 1894, and the Indian community organised a farewell party for Gandhi as he prepared to return to India.[29] However, a new Natal government discriminatory proposal led to Gandhi extending his original period of stay in South Africa. He planned to assist Indians in opposing a bill to deny them the right to vote, a right then proposed to be an exclusive European right. He asked Joseph Chamberlain, the British Colonial Secretary, to reconsider his position on this bill.[30] Though unable to halt the bill's passage, his campaign was successful in drawing attention to the grievances of Indians in South Africa. He helped found the Natal Indian Congress in 1894,[31] and through this organisation, he moulded the Indian community of South Africa into a unified political force. In January 1897, when Gandhi landed in Durban, a mob of white settlers attacked him and he escaped only through the efforts of the wife of the police superintendent. However, he refused to press charges against any member of the mob.[32]

During the Boer War, Gandhi volunteered in 1900 to form a group of stretcher-bearers as the Natal Indian Ambulance Corps. According to Arthur Herman, Gandhi wanted to disprove the imperial British stereotype that Hindus were not fit for "manly" activities involving danger and exertion, unlike the Muslim "martial races".[33] Gandhi raised eleven hundred Indian volunteers, to support British combat troops against the Boers. They were trained and medically certified to serve on the front lines. They were auxiliaries at the Battle of Colenso to a White volunteer ambulance corps. At the battle of Spion Kop Gandhi and his bearers moved to the front line and had to carry wounded soldiers for miles to a field hospital because the terrain was too rough for the ambulances. Gandhi and thirty-seven other Indians received the Queen's South Africa Medal.[34]

In 1906, the Transvaal government promulgated a new Act compelling registration of the colony's Indian and Chinese populations. At a mass protest meeting held in Johannesburg on 11 September that year, Gandhi adopted his still evolving methodology of Satyagraha (devotion to the truth), or nonviolent protest, for the first time.[35] According to Anthony Parel, Gandhi was also influenced by the Tamil text Tirukkuṛaḷ because Leo Tolstoy mentioned it in their correspondence that began with "A Letter to a Hindu".[36] Gandhi urged Indians to defy the new law and to suffer the punishments for doing so. Gandhi's ideas of protests, persuasion skills and public relations had emerged. He took these back to India in 1915.[37]

Europeans, Indians and Africans: Gandhi focused his attention on Indians while in South Africa. He was not interested in politics. This changed after he was discriminated against and bullied, such as by being thrown out of a train coach because of his skin colour by a white train official. After several such incidents with Whites in South Africa, Gandhi's thinking and focus changed, and he felt he must resist this and fight for rights. He entered politics by forming the Natal Indian Congress.[38] According to Ashwin Desai and Goolam Vahed, Gandhi's views on racism are contentious, and in some cases, distressing to those who admire him. Gandhi suffered persecution from the beginning in South Africa. Like with other coloured people, white officials denied him his rights, and the press and those in the streets bullied and called him a "parasite", "semi-barbarous", "canker", "squalid coolie", "yellow man", and other epithets. People would spit on him as an expression of racial hate.[39]

Years later, Gandhi and his colleagues served and helped Africans as nurses and by opposing racism, according to the Nobel Peace Prize winner Nelson Mandela.

In 1906, when the British declared war against the Zulu Kingdom in Natal, Gandhi at age 36, sympathised with the Zulus and encouraged the Indian volunteers to help as an ambulance unit.[40] He argued that Indians should participate in the war efforts to change attitudes and perceptions of the British people against the coloured people.[41] Gandhi, a group of 20 Indians and black people of South Africa volunteered as a stretcher-bearer corps to treat wounded British soldiers and the opposite side of the war: Zulu victims.[42]

White soldiers stopped Gandhi and team from treating the injured Zulu, and some African stretcher-bearers with Gandhi were shot dead by the British. The medical team commanded by Gandhi operated for less than two months.[43] Gandhi volunteering to help as a "staunch loyalist" during the Zulu and other wars made no difference in the British attitude, states Herman, and the African experience was a part of his great disillusionment with the West, transforming him into an "uncompromising non-cooperator".[44]

In 1910, Gandhi established, with the help of his friend Hermann Kallenbach, an idealistic community they named "Tolstoy Farm" near Johannesburg. There he nurtured his policy of peaceful resistance.[45]

In the years after black South Africans gained the right to vote in South Africa (1994), Gandhi was proclaimed a national hero with numerous monuments.[46]

Struggle for Indian independence (1915–1947)

At the request of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, conveyed to him by C. F. Andrews, Gandhi returned to India in 1915. He brought an international reputation as a leading Indian nationalist, theorist and community organiser.

Gandhi joined the Indian National Congress and was introduced to Indian issues, politics and the Indian people primarily by Gokhale. Gokhale was a key leader of the Congress Party best known for his restraint and moderation, and his insistence on working inside the system. Gandhi took Gokhale's liberal approach based on British Whiggish traditions and transformed it to make it look Indian.[47]

Gandhi took leadership of the Congress in 1920 and began escalating demands until on 26 January 1930 the Indian National Congress declared the independence of India. The British did not recognise the declaration but negotiations ensued, with the Congress taking a role in provincial government in the late 1930s. Gandhi and the Congress withdrew their support of the Raj when the Viceroy declared war on Germany in September 1939 without consultation. Tensions escalated until Gandhi demanded immediate independence in 1942 and the British responded by imprisoning him and tens of thousands of Congress leaders. Meanwhile, the Muslim League did co-operate with Britain and moved, against Gandhi's strong opposition, to demands for a totally separate Muslim state of Pakistan. In August 1947 the British partitioned the land with India and Pakistan each achieving independence on terms that Gandhi disapproved.[48]

Role in World War I

In April 1918, during the latter part of World War I, the Viceroy invited Gandhi to a War Conference in Delhi. Gandhi agreed to actively recruit Indians for the war effort. In contrast to the Zulu War of 1906 and the outbreak of World War I in 1914, when he recruited volunteers for the Ambulance Corps, this time Gandhi attempted to recruit combatants. In a June 1918 leaflet entitled "Appeal for Enlistment", Gandhi wrote "To bring about such a state of things we should have the ability to defend ourselves, that is, the ability to bear arms and to use them... If we want to learn the use of arms with the greatest possible despatch, it is our duty to enlist ourselves in the army."[96] He did, however, stipulate in a letter to the Viceroy's private secretary that he "personally will not kill or injure anybody, friend or foe."

Gandhi's war recruitment campaign brought into question his consistency on nonviolence. Gandhi's private secretary noted that "The question of the consistency between his creed of 'Ahimsa' (nonviolence) and his recruiting campaign was raised not only then but has been discussed ever since."[49]

Champaran Satyagraha

Gandhi's first major achievement came in 1917 with the Champaran agitation in Bihar. The Champaran agitation pitted the local peasantry against their largely British landlords who were backed by the local administration. The peasantry was forced to grow Indigofera, a cash crop for Indigo dye whose demand had been declining over two decades, and were forced to sell their crops to the planters at a fixed price. Unhappy with this, the peasantry appealed to Gandhi at his ashram in Ahmedabad. Pursuing a strategy of nonviolent protest, Gandhi took the administration by surprise and won concessions from the authorities.[50]

Kheda agitations

In 1918, Kheda was hit by floods and famine and the peasantry was demanding relief from taxes. Gandhi moved his headquarters to Nadiad, organising scores of supporters and fresh volunteers from the region, the most notable being Vallabhbhai Patel.[51] Using non-co-operation as a technique, Gandhi initiated a signature campaign where peasants pledged non-payment of revenue even under the threat of confiscation of land. A social boycott of mamlatdars and talatdars (revenue officials within the district) accompanied the agitation. Gandhi worked hard to win public support for the agitation across the country. For five months, the administration refused but finally in end-May 1918, the Government gave way on important provisions and relaxed the conditions of payment of revenue tax until the famine ended. In Kheda, Vallabhbhai Patel represented the farmers in negotiations with the British, who suspended revenue collection and released all the prisoners.[52]

Khilafat movement

In 1919 after the World War I was over, Gandhi (aged 49) sought political co-operation from Muslims in his fight against British imperialism by supporting the Ottoman Empire that had been defeated in the World War. Before this initiative of Gandhi, communal disputes and religious riots between Hindus and Muslims were common in British India, such as the riots of 1917–18. Gandhi had already supported the British crown with resources and by recruiting Indian soldiers to fight the war in Europe on the British side. This effort of Gandhi was in part motivated by the British promise to reciprocate the help with swaraj (self-government) to Indians after the end of World War I.[53] The British government, instead of self government, had offered minor reforms instead, disappointing Gandhi.[54] Gandhi announced his satyagraha (civil disobedience) intentions. The British colonial officials made their counter move by passing the Rowlatt Act, to block Gandhi's movement. The Act allowed the British government to treat civil disobedience participants as criminals and gave it the legal basis to arrest anyone for "preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without judicial review or any need for a trial".[55]

Gandhi felt that Hindu-Muslim co-operation was necessary for political progress against the British. He leveraged the Khilafat movement, wherein Sunni Muslims in India, their leaders such as the sultans of princely states in India and Ali brothers championed the Turkish Caliph as a solidarity symbol of Sunni Islamic community (ummah). They saw the Caliph as their means to support Islam and the Islamic law after the defeat of Ottoman Empire in World War I.[105][106][107] Gandhi's support to the Khilafat movement led to mixed results. It initially led to a strong Muslim support for Gandhi. However, the Hindu leaders including Rabindranath Tagore questioned Gandhi's leadership because they were largely against recognising or supporting the Sunni Islamic Caliph in Turkey.[56]

The increasing Muslim support for Gandhi, after he championed the Caliph's cause, temporarily stopped the Hindu-Muslim communal violence. It offered evidence of inter-communal harmony in joint Rowlatt satyagraha demonstration rallies, raising Gandhi's stature as the political leader to the British.[57] His support for the Khilafat movement also helped him sideline Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who had announced his opposition to the satyagraha non-cooperation movement approach of Gandhi. Jinnah began creating his independent support, and later went on to lead the demand for West and East Pakistan.[58]

By the end of 1922 the Khilafat movement had collapsed. Turkey's Ataturk had ended the Caliphate, Khilafat movement ended, and Muslim support for Gandhi largely evaporated. Muslim leaders and delegates abandoned Gandhi and his Congress.[115] Hindu-Muslim communal conflicts reignited. Deadly religious riots re-appeared in numerous cities, with 91 in United Provinces of Agra and Oudh alone.[59]


With his book Hind Swaraj (1909) Gandhi, aged 40, declared that British rule was established in India with the co-operation of Indians and had survived only because of this co-operation. If Indians refused to co-operate, British rule would collapse and swaraj would come.

Gandhi with Dr. Annie Besant en route to a meeting in Madras in September 1921. Earlier, in Madurai, on 21 September 1921, Gandhi had adopted the loin-cloth for the first time as a symbol of his identification with India's poor.

In February 1919, Gandhi cautioned the Viceroy of India with a cable communication that if the British were to pass the Rowlatt Act, he would appeal to Indians to start civil disobedience. The British government ignored him and passed the law, stating it would not yield to threats. The satyagraha civil disobedience followed, with people assembling to protest the Rowlatt Act. On 30 March 1919, British law officers opened fire on an assembly of unarmed people, peacefully gathered, participating in satyagraha in Delhi.[60]

People rioted in retaliation. On 6 April 1919, a Hindu festival day, he asked a crowd to remember not to injure or kill British people, but to express their frustration with peace, to boycott British goods and burn any British clothing they owned. He emphasised the use of non-violence to the British and towards each other, even if the other side uses violence. Communities across India announced plans to gather in greater numbers to protest. Government warned him to not enter Delhi. Gandhi defied the order. On 9 April, Gandhi was arrested.[61]

People rioted. On 13 April 1919, people including women with children gathered in an Amritsar park, and a British officer named Reginald Dyer surrounded them and ordered his troops to fire on them. The resulting Jallianwala Bagh massacre (or Amritsar massacre) of hundreds of Sikh and Hindu civilians enraged the subcontinent, but was cheered by some Britons and parts of the British media as an appropriate response. Gandhi in Ahmedabad, on the day after the massacre in Amritsar, did not criticise the British and instead criticised his fellow countrymen for not exclusively using love to deal with the hate of the British government. Gandhi demanded that people stop all violence, stop all property destruction, and went on fast-to-death to pressure Indians to stop their rioting.[62]

The massacre and Gandhi's non-violent response to it moved many, but also made some Sikhs and Hindus upset that Dyer was getting away with murder. Investigation committees were formed by the British, which Gandhi asked Indians to boycott. The unfolding events, the massacre and the British response, led Gandhi to the belief that Indians will never get a fair equal treatment under British rulers, and he shifted his attention to Swaraj or self rule and political independence for India. In 1921, Gandhi was the leader of the Indian National Congress.[63] He reorganised the Congress. With Congress now behind him, and Muslim support triggered by his backing the Khilafat movement to restore the Caliph in Turkey, Gandhi had the political support and the attention of the British Raj.[64]


The concept of non-cooperation became very popular and started spreading through the length and breadth of India. Gandhi extended this movement and focused on Swaraj. He urged people to stop using British goods. He also asked people to resign from government employment, quit studying in British institutions and stop practicing in law courts. However, the violent clash in Chauri Chaura town of Uttar Pradesh, in February 1922, forced Gandhiji to call-off the movement all of a sudden. Gandhi was arrested on 10th March 1922 and was tried for sedition. He was sentenced to six years imprisonment, but served only two years in prison.

Gandhi spinning yarn, in the late 1920s

Gandhi expanded his nonviolent non-co-operation platform to include the swadeshi policy – the boycott of foreign-made goods, especially British goods. Linked to this was his advocacy that khadi (homespun cloth) be worn by all Indians instead of British-made textiles. Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women, rich or poor, to spend time each day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement.[122] In addition to boycotting British products, Gandhi urged the people to boycott British institutions and law courts, to resign from government employment, and to forsake British titles and honours. Gandhi thus began his journey aimed at crippling the British India government economically, politically and administratively.[65]

The appeal of "Non-cooperation" grew, its social popularity drew participation from all strata of Indian society. Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. He began his sentence on 18 March 1922. With Gandhi isolated in prison, the Indian National Congress split into two factions, one led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru favouring party participation in the legislatures, and the other led by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, opposing this move.[66] Furthermore, co-operation among Hindus and Muslims ended as Khilafat movement collapsed with the rise of Ataturk in Turkey. Muslim leaders left the Congress and began forming Muslim organisations. The political base behind Gandhi had broken into factions. Gandhi was released in February 1924 for an appendicitis operation, having served only two years.[67]

Salt Satyagraha (Salt March)

After his early release from prison for political crimes in 1924, over the second half of the 1920s, Gandhi continued to pursue swaraj. He pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December 1928 calling on the British government to grant India dominion status or face a new campaign of non-co-operation with complete independence for the country as its goal. After his support for the World War I with Indian combat troops, and the failure of Khilafat movement in preserving the rule of Caliph in Turkey, followed by a collapse in Muslim support for his leadership, some such as Subhas Chandra Bose and Bhagat Singh questioned his values and non-violent approach. While many Hindu leaders championed a demand for immediate independence, Gandhi revised his own call to a one-year wait, instead of two.[68]

The British did not respond favourably to Gandhi's proposal. British political leaders such as Lord Birkenhead and Winston Churchill announced opposition to "the appeasers of Gandhi", in their discussions with European diplomats who sympathised with Indian demands.[69] On 31 December 1929, the flag of India was unfurled in Lahore. Gandhi led Congress celebrated 26 January 1930 as India's Independence Day in Lahore. This day was commemorated by almost every other Indian organisation. Gandhi then launched a new Satyagraha against the tax on salt in March 1930. Gandhi sent an ultimatum in the form of a polite letter to the viceroy of India, Lord Irwin, on 2 March. A young left wing British Quaker by the name of Reg Reynolds[70] delivered the letter. Gandhi condemned British rule in the letter, describing it as "a curse" that "has impoverished the dumb millions by a system of progressive exploitation and by a ruinously expensive military and civil administration... It has reduced us politically to serfdom." Gandhi also mentioned in the letter that the viceroy received a salary "over five thousand times India's average income."[130] British violence, Gandhi promised, was going to be defeated by Indian non-violence.

This was highlighted by the famous Salt March to Dandi from 12 March to 6 April, where, together with 78 volunteers, he marched 388 kilometres from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat to make salt himself, with the declared intention of breaking the salt laws. The march took 25 days to cover 240 miles with Gandhi speaking to often huge crowds along the way. Thousands of Indians joined him in Dandi. On 5 May he was interned under a regulation dating from 1827 in anticipation of a protest that he had planned. The protest at Dharasana salt works on 21 May went ahead without its leader, Gandhi. A horrified American journalist, Webb Miller, described the British response thus:

In complete silence the Gandhi men drew up and halted a hundred yards from the stockade. A picked column advanced from the crowd, waded the ditches and approached the barbed wire stockade... at a word of command, scores of native policemen rushed upon the advancing marchers and rained blows on their heads with their steel-shot lathis [long bamboo sticks]. Not one of the marchers even raised an arm to fend off blows. They went down like ninepins. From where I stood I heard the sickening whack of the clubs on unprotected skulls... Those struck down fell sprawling, unconscious or writhing with fractured skulls or broken shoulders.[71]

This went on for hours until some 300 or more protesters had been beaten, many seriously injured and two killed. At no time did they offer any resistance.

This campaign was one of his most successful at upsetting British hold on India; Britain responded by imprisoning over 60,000 people.[132] Congress estimates, however, put the figure at 90,000. Among them was one of Gandhi's lieutenants, Jawaharlal Nehru.

According to Sarma, Gandhi recruited women to participate in the salt tax campaigns and the boycott of foreign products, which gave many women a new self-confidence and dignity in the mainstream of Indian public life.[72] However, other scholars such as Marilyn French state that Gandhi barred women from joining his civil disobedience movement because he feared he would be accused of using women as political shield. When women insisted that they join the movement and public demonstrations, according to Thapar-Bjorkert, Gandhi asked the volunteers to get permissions of their guardians and only those women who can arrange child-care should join him. Regardless of Gandhi's apprehensions and views, Indian women joined the Salt March by the thousands to defy the British salt taxes and monopoly on salt mining. After Gandhi's arrest, the women marched and picketed shops on their own, accepting violence and verbal abuse from British authorities for the cause in a manner Gandhi inspired.[73]

Quit India Movement

As the World War II progressed, Mahatma Gandhi intensified his protests for the complete independence of India. He drafted a resolution calling for the British to Quit India. The 'Quit India Movement' or the 'Bharat Chhodo Andolan' was the most aggressive movement launched by the Indian national Congrees under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi was arrested on 9th August 1942 and was held for two years in the Aga Khan Palace in Pune, where he lost his secretary, Mahadev Desai and his wife, Kasturba. The Quit India Movement came to an end by the end of 1943, when the British gave hints that complete power would be transferred to the people of India. Gandhi called off the movement which resulted in the release of 100,000 political prisoners.

Freedom and Partition of India

The independence cum partition proposal offered by the British Cabinet Mission in 1946 was accepted by the Congress, despite being advised otherwise by Mahatma Gandhi. Sardar Patel convinced Gandhi that it was the only way to avoid civil war and he reluctantly gave his consent. After India's independence, Gandhi focused on peace and unity of Hindus and Muslims. He launched his last fast-unto-death in Delhi, and asked people to stop communal violence and emphasized that the payment of Rs. 55 crores, as per the Partition Council agreement, be made to Pakistan. Ultimately, all political leaders conceded to his wishes and he broke his fast.

Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi

The inspiring life of Mahatma Gandhi came to an end on 30th January 1948, when he was shot by a fanatic, Nathuram Godse, at point-blank range. Nathuram was a Hindu radical, who held Gandhi responsible for weakening India by ensuring the partition payment to Pakistan. Godse and his co-conspirator, Narayan Apte, were later tried and convicted. They were executed on 15th November 1949.

Mahatma Gandhi’s Legacy

Mahatma Gandhi proposed the acceptance and practice of truth, non-violence, vegetarianism, Brahmacharya (celibacy), simplicity and faith in God. Though he would be remembered forever as the man who fought for Indian independence, his greatest legacies are the tools he used in his fight against the British. These methods inspired several other world leaders in their struggle against injustice. His statues are installed all over the world and he is considered the most prominent personality in Indian history.

शेखावाटी किसान आन्दोलन के उत्प्रेरक तत्व

दीर्घकाल से सुषुप्त पडी हुई शेखावाटी की स्वाभाविक किसान शक्ति, जो सामंती व्यवस्था के अंतर्गत आर्थिक, सामाजिक व राजनीतिक बदहाली व शोषण का शिकार हो रही थी, में कुछ प्रेरक शक्तियों का समावेश हुआ. ये उत्प्रेरक तत्व मूलत: बाहरी थे, जिनका संसर्ग स्थानीय शक्तियों से हुआ और एक महान आन्दोलन का मार्ग प्रशस्त हुआ. आर्य समाज और समाचार पत्र जागृति के अग्रदूत बने. इस आन्दोलन ने एक बड़े भू-भाग की आबादी का जीवन परिवर्तन करने में अहम् भूमिका निभाई और एक नई व्यवस्था को जन्म दिया. यह आन्दोलन मुख्य रूप से जागीरदारों की स्वेच्छाचारिता और शोषण के विरुद्ध था. (डॉ. ज्ञानप्रकाश पिलानिया: पृ. 9)

सैनिकों का योगदान - शेखावाटी की देहाती प्रजा का बाहरी दुनिया से पहला संसर्ग यहाँ के किसान पुत्रों का ब्रिटिश सेना में भर्ती होने के कारण हुआ. प्रथम विश्वयुद्ध (1914-1919 ) में इस इलाके से 14 हजार जवान सेना में भर्ती हुए, जिनमें से 2000 व्यक्तियों ने अपने प्राण दिए. यह तथ्य निजामत भवन झुंझुनू के मुख्य द्वार पर अंकित है. युद्ध की समाप्ति पर जब ये सैनिक वापस अपने वतन को लौटे तो वे अपने साथ एक नई विचारधारा और आत्मसम्मान का भाव लेकर लौटे. उनका शिक्षा के प्रति रुझान बढ़ गया था और उन्होंने अपने बच्चों को कस्बों में चल रही पाठशालाओं में प्रवेश दिलाया. ब्रिटिश सेना के पेंशनधारी सैनिक होने से इनकी समाज में भी साख बन गयी. छोटे-छोटे जागीरदार इन सैनिकों से घबराने लगे. आगे चलकर इन सैनिकों व फौजी अफसरों ने शिक्षा, समाज-सेवा व जातीय संगठनों में बढ़-चढ़ कर भाग लिया. इस कारण शोषण से दबे कुचले किसानों में एक नव स्फूर्ति और चेतना आई. [74]

गांधीजी का भिवानी आगमन सन् 1921 - शेखावाटी में किसान आन्दोलन और जनजागरण के बीज गांधीजी ने सन 1921 में बोये. सन् 1921 में गांधीजी का आगमन भिवानी हुआ. इसका समाचार सेठ देवीबक्स सर्राफ को आ चुका था. सेठ देवीबक्स सर्राफ शेखावाटी जनजागरण के अग्रदूत थे. आप शेखावाटी के वैश्यों में प्रथम व्यक्ति थे जिन्होंने ठिकानेदारों के विरुद्ध आवाज उठाई. देवीबक्स सर्राफ ने शेखावाटी के अग्रणी किसान नेताओं को भिवानी जाने के लिए तैयार किया. भिवानी जाने वाले शेखावाटी के जत्थे में प्रमुख व्यक्ति थे -

झुंझुनूवाटी से रामेश्वर रामगढ़िया, रामसिंह कुंवरपुरा, गोविन्दराम हनुमानपुरा, चिमनाराम और भूदाराम (दोनों सगे भी) सांगसी, पंडित ताड़केश्वर शर्मा पचेरी, गुरुमुखसिंह सांई दौलतपुरा, इन्द्राजसिंह घरडाना, लादूराम किसारी, चैनाराम हनुमानपुरा, मामराज सिंह इन्दाली, नेतरामसिंह गौरीर, पन्ने सिंह देवरोड़, घासीराम खरिया, हरलालसिंह हनुमानपुरा, भैरूंसिंह तोगडा, आदि प्रमुख रूप से सम्मिलित हुए. (राजेन्द्र कसवा, p. 70)

खंडेलावाटी और सीकरवाटी के हरबक्स गढ़वाल, रामबक्स गोठडा भुकरान , हरीसिंह पलथाना, पन्ने सिंह बाटड़ानाऊ, मेवाराम फगेडिया, कालूराम सुंडा और गणेशराम महरिया कूदन लादूराम जोशी आदि के साथ काफी युवक भी गए थे. (राजेन्द्र कसवा, p. 70)

यही किसान बाद में शेखावाटी अंचल में चलने वाले जन आन्दोलन के अगुआ बने. भिवानी में पंजाब, दिल्ली और उत्तर प्रदेश से प्रमुख आर्य समाजी और जन नेताओं से शेखावाटी के इन लोगों ने संपर्क किया और अपनी समस्याएं रखी.

आर्य समाज का प्रभाव - इस समय तक आर्य समाज संस्थापित हो चुका था. समाज सुधार का क्रांतिकारी कार्यक्रम लेकर आर्य समाज शहरी क्षेत्रों से होता हुआ ग्रामीण क्षेत्र में प्रविष्ट हुआ. शेखावाटी में सर्वप्रथम रामगढ़ में छोटे से रूप में आर्यसमाज की गतिविधियाँ प्रारंभ हुई. आगे चलकर सेठ देवीबक्स सर्राफ के प्रयत्नों से आर्यसमाज की बड़े स्तर पर गतिविधियाँ मंडावा में शुरू हुई. शहर के लोग इस और उन्मुख नहीं थे अतः देवीबक्स ने बाहरी क्षेत्रों से संपर्क साधा. देहात के लोग बड़ी संख्या में आर्यसमाज की और उन्मुख हुए और इसके सिद्धांतों को खुलकर अपनाया. प्रारंभ में हरलाल सिंह ने आर्यसमाज द्वारा आरंभ किये हुए कार्यों को आगे बढ़ाने, सामाजिक कुरीतियों के विरुद्ध प्रचार करने, किसानों को संगठित करने एवं शिक्षा प्रचार में लगे रहे. चौधरी गोविन्दराम एवं सेठ देवीबक्स की प्रेरणा से हरलाल सिंह ने आर्यसमाज के सिद्धांतों का गाँवों में जोरशोर से प्रचार किया. अनेक रूढ़ियों से ग्रसित हिन्दू समाज को आर्यसमाज ने उन्नति की एक नई दिशा दी. शेखावाटी के जन-आन्दोलन में आर्यसमाज के भजनोपदेशकों का बड़ा योगदान रहा. मंडावा के आर्यसमाज का सन 1927 में विशाल समारोह हुआ जिसमें युवक हरलाल सिंह झंडा लिए हुए जुलुस के आगे-आगे चल रहे थे. वे सेठ देवीबक्स सर्राफ और चौधरी गोविन्द राम के आर्यसमाज के रंग में रंग गए थे. (डॉ. ज्ञानप्रकाश पिलानिया: पृ. 18)

सांगासी में बैठक वर्ष 1921 - राजेन्द्र कसवा (P. 95) लिखते हैं कि सन् 1921 में शेखावाटी से भिवानी गया जत्था जब लौटा तो वह नई ऊर्जा से भरा था. गांधीजी से मिलने और अन्य संघर्षशील जनता को देखने के बाद, किसान नेताओं में स्वाभाविक उत्साह बढ़ा . सन् 1921 में चिमना राम ने सांगासी गाँव में अपने घर अगुआ किसानों की एक बैठक बुलाई. इस प्रथम बैठक में चिमनाराम और भूदाराम दोनों भईयों के अतिरिक्त हरलाल सिंह, गोविन्दराम, रामसिंह कंवरपुरा, लादूराम किसारी, लालाराम पूनिया आदि सम्मिलित हुए. पन्ने सिंह देवरोड़ और चौधरी घासीराम इस बैठक में नहीं पहुँच सके थे लेकिन आन्दोलन करने के लिए सबका समर्थन और सहयोग था. इस बैठक में निम्न निर्णय लिए गए:

  • बेटे-बेटियों को सामान रूप से शिक्षा दिलाना
  • रूढ़ियों, पाखंडों, जादू-टोना, अंध विश्वासों का परित्याग करना और मूर्तिपूजा को बंद करना
  • मृत्युभोज पर रोक लगाना
  • शराब, मांस और तम्बाकू का परित्याग करना
  • पर्दा-पर्था को समाप्त करना
  • बाल-विवाह एवं दहेज़ बंद करना
  • फिजूल खर्च एवं धन प्रदर्शन पर रोक लगाना

इस बैठक के बाद भूदाराम में सामाजिक जागरण का एक भूत सवार हो गया था. वे घूम-घूम कर आर्य समाज का प्रचार करने लगे. अप्रकट रूप से ठिकानेदारों के विरुद्ध किसानों को लामबंद भी करने लगे. विद्याधर कुल्हरी ने अपने इस बाबा भूदाराम के लिए लिखा है कि, 'वह नंगे सर रहता था. हाथ में लोहे का भाला होता. लालाराम पूनिया अंगरक्षक के रूप में साथ रहता था. [75]

बगड़ में सभा 1922 - गाँवों में प्रचार करने के पश्चात 1922 में भूदाराम, रामसिंह, गोविन्दराम आदि ने बगड़ में एक सार्वजनिक सभा करने की योजना बनाई. गाँवों में इसका प्रचार होने लगा. ठाकुरों के कान खड़े हो गए. शांति भंग होने के नाम पर ठाकुरों ने इनको गिरफ्तार करवा दिया और सभा टल गयी. पुलिस ने नाजिम झुंझुनू के समक्ष पेश किया. गोविन्दराम ने जवाब दिया - 'हम अपनी जाति में सुधार के लिए प्रचार कर रहे हैं. हमें यह हक है. हम सरकार के विरुद्ध कुछ नहीं कह रहे हैं.' नाजिम इस जवाब से प्रभावित हुआ और उसने सबको रिहा कर दिया. अब तो किसान नेताओं का हौसला बढ़ गया. वे पुन: बगड़ में ही सभा करने के लिए जुट गए. जागीरदारों ने बगड़ कसबे में आतंक और भय फैला दिया. ठाकुरों ने हुक्म फ़रमाया, 'सभा के लिए स्थान देना तो अपराध होगा ही, जो व्यक्ति सभा में भाग लेगा, उस पर जुर्माना किया जायेगा.'आम जन भयभीत हो गया. कोई भी सभा के लिए स्थान देने को तैयार नहीं हुआ. आखिर , बगड़ का पठान अमीर खां आगे आया. उसने अपने गढ़ में सार्वजनिक सभा करने की अनुमति दे दी. गढ़ में एक बड़ा हाल था. इसमें पांचसौ से अधिक व्यक्ति बैठ सकते थे. आसपास के गाँवों के प्रमुख किसान बगड़ पहुंचे. भूदाराम के साहस के कारण उन्हें राजा की पदवी दी गयी. समाज को संगठित होने और सामंती जुल्मों के विरुद्ध संघर्ष छेड़ने का आव्हान किया गया. प्रकट में भविष में भी होने वाली सभाओं को समाज सुधार की सभाएं कहने का निश्चय किया. अंग्रेज अधिकारीयों को भी इससे कोई परेशानी नहीं थी. (राजेन्द्र कसवा, p. 96-97)

कर्मठ समाजसेवियों से संसर्ग - सौभाग्य से शेखावाटी में उत्तरप्रदेश से कुछ कर्मठ व्यक्ति भी समाज सुधार, जनचेतना, स्वास्थ्य और शिक्षा के क्षेत्र में कार्यरत थे. इनमें डॉ. गुलजारी लाल एवं मास्टर प्यारेलाल गुप्ता थे. डॉ गुलजारीलाल उत्तरप्रदेश में जहांगीराबाद के रहने वाले थे. वे पेशे से डाक्टर और जन्मजात क्रांतिकारी थे. इनके छोटे भाई डॉ गोविन्दराम नवलगढ़ तथा डॉ श्यामलाल मंडावा में कार्यरत थे. डॉ गुलजारीलाल बम बनाना जानते थे तथा लोगों को बम बनाने का प्रशिक्षण भी देते थे. मास्टर प्यारेलाल गुप्ता बड़े जीवट और निडर व्यक्ति थे. वे स्वामी सत्यदेव परिव्राजक के उपदेशों से प्रभावित होकर सन 1921 में राज्य-सेवा छोड़कर नैनीताल से शेखावाटी के चिड़ावा कस्बे में आ गए थे. अब यही उनकी कर्मस्थली थी. वे यहाँ हाईस्कूल में अध्यापक बन गए. उन्होंने अमर सेवा समिति नामक संस्था खड़ी की और उसकी आड़ में जनजागृति कार्य करने लगे. इस संस्था के सदस्य अर्धसैनिक बन चके थे. आगे चलकर वास्तविक बात उजागार होने पर मास्टर प्यारेलाल और उनके साथियों पर खेतड़ी के जागीरदार अमरसिंह ने अकथनीय अत्याचार किये. उन्हें घोड़ों के पीछे बांध कर घसीटा गया और इसी अवस्था में मारते-पीटते 30 मील दूर लेजाकर खेतड़ी जेल में बंद कर दिया. शेखावाटी के किसी भी शासक द्वारा किये गए अमानुषिक अत्याचार की यह पहली घटना थी. 23 दिनों तक लगातार दी गयी यातनाओं के पश्चात् भारी दवाब के सम्मुख झुककर अमर सिंह ने इन्हें जेल से रिहा किया. गुप्ताजी जेल से छुटकर झुंझुनू आगये और यहाँ हरिजनोद्धार कार्यक्रम चलाने लगे. वे शेखावाटी के विभिन्न क्षेत्रों में निरंतर कार्यरत रहे.(डॉ. ज्ञानप्रकाश पिलानिया: पृ. 19)

मास्टर प्यारेलाल गुप्ता ने कर्मनिष्ठ अध्यापकों का एक ऐसा समूह खड़ा कर दिया जो स्वतंत्रता की भावना से पूरी तरह ओतप्रोत थे. इसी प्रकार के व्यक्ति मास्टर चंद्रभान थे, वे मेरठ जिले के बामडोली ग्राम के निवासी थे. ये राष्ट्रीय विचारों के युवक थे. सन् 1925 में सरदार हरलाल सिंह के गाँव हनुमानपुरा में पाठशाला खोली तब उसका भार इन्हीं को सौंपा. वे शिक्षा के साथ आर्य समाज के सिद्धांतों का भी प्रचार करते थे. जनजागृति करना उनका प्रथम कार्य था. वे सीकर प्रजापति महायज्ञ में स्वागत समिति के सचिव भी थे. आगे चलकर ये जाट पंचायत के सचिव बने. सीकर ठिकाने ने इन्हें गिरफ्तार कर खूब यातनाएं दी. शिक्षा प्रचार उनका मूल मन्त्र रहा. उन्होंने खादी आश्रम भी स्थापित किया था. (डॉ. ज्ञानप्रकाश पिलानिया: पृ. 20)

अमर सेवा समिति का गठन - बगड़ के निकट चिड़ावा में कसबे के प्रबुद्ध लोगों ने अमर सेवा समिति का गठन किया था. मास्टर प्यारेलाल गुप्ता एवं गुलाबचंद नेमानी नेतृत्व देने वाले थे. खेतड़ी केजागीरदार मरसिंह के नाम पर अमर सेवा समिति का नाम रखा था. मास्टर प्यारे लाल गुप्ता राष्ट्रीय भावनाओं को समझ रहे थे और यहाँ के लोगों को समझा रहे थे. उन्हें चिड़ावा का गाँधी कहा जाता था. अमर सेवा समिति का मुख्य कार्य कुरीतियों और रूढ़ियों को ख़त्म करना था. समिति के सदस्य चरखा चलाते थे. खादी पहनने और इसके लिए अन्यों को प्रेरित करते थे. समिति सदस्यों में आत्म-सम्मान बहुत था. वे बेगार प्रथा के विरोधी थे. एकबार खेतड़ी नरेश सन 1922 में चिड़ावा दौरे पर आये. चिड़ावा में जागीरदार का विश्राम था. कैम्प की सेवा के लिए लोगों को बुलाया जाने लगा. एक दिन रामेश्वर नई को उनकी सेवा में बुलाया गया. उसने स्पष्ट रूप से बेगा देने के लिए मना कर दिया. दरबारियों में खलबली मच गयी. उन्होंने नमक-मिर्च लगा कर जागीरदार के कान भरे , 'यह सब अमर सेवा समिति का काम है. समिति आपके विरुद्ध लोगों को भड़कती है.' जागीरदार को मिर्ची लगी. अमरसिंह ने कारिंदों को हुक्म दिया, 'सभी प्रमुख समिति सदस्यों को पकड़ लाओ और मजा चखाओ.' समिति के सात सदस्य पकडे गए थे - मास्टर प्यारेलाल गुप्ता, गुलाबचंद नेमानी, हरिराम मिश्रा, गजानंद पटवारी, धर्मकिशोर श्रीवास्तव, हरदेव दर्जी और हुक्माराम खाती. प्रजा के सामने इनकी पिटाई की गयी. इतना ही काफी नहीं था. सभी के हाथ बांध दिए गए. रात को ही अमरसिंह खेतड़ी के लिए रवाना हो गए. घुडसवार सातों को घसीटते हुए खेतड़ी ले चले. रास्ते में गुलाबचंद नेमानी गंभीर रूप से घायल हो गए. रातोंरात खेतड़ी लेजाकर जेल में बंद कर दिया. शेखावाटी अंचल में सामंतों द्वारा की गयी यह प्रथम क्रूर घटना थी. चिड़ावा में अमर सेवा समिति की घटना के बाद भय का मुकाबला करने के लिए लोग घरों में नहीं दुबके. किसानों के जत्थे के जत्थे खेतड़ी की और कूच करने लगे . सेठ जमनालाल बजाज, घनश्याम बिडला और सेठ बेणी प्रसाद डालमिया ने खेतड़ी जागीरदार को कड़े पत्र लिखे. बजाज और बिड़ला गांधीजी के निकट सहयोगी थे और जयपुर महाराजा से अच्छे सम्बन्ध थे. भारी दवाब के बीच 23 दिन पश्चात् अमरसिंह ने सभी व्यक्तियों को छोड़ दिया. (राजेन्द्र कसवा, p. 96-98)

प्रवासी सेठों द्वारा स्कूल खोलने का अभियान - इस घटना के पश्चात् प्रवासी सेठों ने गाँवों में स्कूलें खोलने का अभियान सा शुरू कर दिया. ध्येय था कि जाटों को शिक्षित करके संघर्ष के लिए तैयार किया जावे. इस घटना के पश्चात् कस्बों में भी जागीरदारों के विरुद्ध आक्रोस फ़ैल गया. अब परिवर्तन आन्दोलन किसानों तक ही सीमित नहीं रहा. जाट बहु संख्यक थे और सबसे अधिक पीड़ित भी. समाज में एक सर्वसम्मत विचार बना कि जाटों को इस आन्दोलन में आगे किया जावे. उन्हीं के नाम से संस्थाएं बनने लगी. बेशक सहयोग सभी जातियों का था. चिड़ावा में अमर सेवा समिति के सदस्यों पर जुल्म हुए, उनसे पूरा शेखावाटी कांप उठा. (राजेन्द्र कसवा, p. 98)

बीसवीं सदी के तीसरे दशक में गांधीजी के नाम का जादू चलने लगा था. प्रवासी सेठों का उनसे संपर्क था. कलकत्ता और बंबई में मारवाड़ी रिलीफ सोसायटी ने सामाजिक कार्यों में आगे बढ़कर सहयोग दिया. इसी दौर में प्रवासी सेठों ने शेखावाटी अंचल में शिक्षा के क्षेत्र में क्रांति ला दी. ऐसे सेठों में सुमार थे पिलानी के बिडला, लोयालका, मुकुंगढ़ के भागीरथ कनोडिया, सीकर के सोढानी, रामेश्वर टांटिया, बिसाऊ के जटिया, नवलगढ़ के पोद्दार, शेकसरिया और जयपुरिया, बगड़ के रूंगटा, पीरामल, चिड़ावा के डालमिया शेकसरिया, डूंडलोद के गोयनका, चूड़ी अजीतगढ़ के नेमानी, मलसीसर के झुनझुनवाला, रामगढ़ के तोदी, फतेहपुर के चमडिया, लक्ष्मणगढ़ के रूईया, चूरू के बागला-लोहिया, राजगढ़ के मोहता आदि. (राजेन्द्र कसवा, p. 103)

Jats and Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi was followed by large number of Jat people. He came to Bhiwani (Haryana) in 1921. Many Jat leaders from Rajasthan and Haryana attended his Bhiwani Meeting and were influenced by his ideology. Many of them became strong followers of Gandhiji and became agents of change in the society. Here is a partial list of Jats who were followers of Gandhiji:

External links

See also


  1. Renard, John (1999). Responses to One Hundred and One Questions on Hinduism By John Renard. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-8091-3845-6.
  2. Mohandas K. Gandhi, Autobiography chapter 1 (Dover edition, p. 1).
  3. Guha, Ramachandra (2013). Gandhi Before India. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-93-5118-322-8. p.21, p.512
  4. Guha 2015, p. 22
  5. Sorokin, Pitirim Aleksandrovich (2002). The Ways and Power of Love: types, factors, and techniques of moral transformation. Templeton Foundation Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-890151-86-7.
  6. Guha 2015, pp. 24–25
  7. Rajmohan Gandhi (2015). Gandhi before India. Vintage Books. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-385-53230-3.
  8. Rajmohan Gandhi (2015). Gandhi before India. Vintage Books. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-385-53230-3.
  9. Rajmohan Gandhi (2015). Gandhi before India. Vintage Books. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-0-385-53230-3.
  10. Sankar Ghose (1991). Mahatma Gandhi. Allied Publishers. p. 4. ISBN 978-81-7023-205-6.
  11. Ramachandra Guha (2015). Gandhi before India. Vintage Books. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0-385-53230-3.
  12. Mohanty, Rekha (2011). "From Satya to Sadbhavna" (PDF). Orissa Review (January 2011): 45–49. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 January 2016.
  13. Guha 2015, p. 29
  14. Mohanty, Rekha (2011). "From Satya to Sadbhavna" (PDF). Orissa Review (January 2011): 45–49. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 January 2016
  15. Guha 2015, p. 30
  16. Guha 2015, p. 32
  17. Rajmohan Gandhi (2015). Gandhi before India. Vintage Books. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-385-53230-3.
  18. Guha 2015, pp. 33-34
  19. Guha 2015, p. 32
  20. Guha 2015, pp. 33-34
  21. Thomas Weber (2004). Gandhi as Disciple and Mentor. Cambridge University Press. pp. 19–25. ISBN 978-1-139-45657-9.
  22. Giliomee, Hermann & Mbenga, Bernard (2007). "3". In Roxanne Reid (ed.). New History of South Africa (1st ed.). Tafelberg. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-624-04359-1.
  23. Power, Paul F. (1969). "Gandhi in South Africa". The Journal of Modern African Studies. 7 (3): 441–55. doi:10.1017/S0022278X00018590. JSTOR 159062.
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  27. S. Dhiman (2016). Gandhi and Leadership: New Horizons in Exemplary Leadership. Springer. pp. 25–27. ISBN 978-1-137-49235-7.
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  29. Herman (2008), pp. 88–89
  30. Power, Paul F. (1969). "Gandhi in South Africa". The Journal of Modern African Studies. 7 (3): 441–55. doi:10.1017/S0022278X00018590. JSTOR 159062.
  31. Gandhi, M. K.; Fischer, Louis (2002). Louis Fischer (ed.). The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work and Ideas. Vintage Books. ISBN 978-1-4000-3050-7.
  32. Tendulkar, D. G. (1951). Mahatma; life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Delhi: Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
  33. Herman (2008), page 125
  34. Herman (2008) chapter 6.
  35. Rai, Ajay Shanker (2000). Gandhian Satyagraha: An Analytical And Critical Approach. Concept Publishing Company. p. 35. ISBN 978-81-7022-799-1.
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