|Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क|
- 1 Variants
- 2 Tahsils in Jodhpur district
- 3 Villages in Jodhpur tahsil
- 4 History
- 5 जोधपुर
- 6 जोधपुर परिचय
- 7 Jodhpur inscription of Pratihara Bauka dated V.S. 894 (837) A D
- 8 Translation of Jodhpur inscription of Pratihara Bauka dated V.S. 894 (837) A D
- 9 Notes by Wiki editor
- 10 Jat Gotras in Jodhpur district
- 11 जोधपुर में जाट गोत्र
- 12 Notable persons
- 13 External links
- 14 See also
- 15 References
Tahsils in Jodhpur district
Villages in Jodhpur tahsil
Akthali, Anganwa, Asanda, Balakua, Bambor Darjiyan, Bambor Purohitan, Banar, Barli, Basni Bedan, Basni Charna, Basni Karwar, Basni Lachhan, Basni Nikooban, Basni Sepha, Bawarla, Beroo, Bhagtasani, Bhatida, Bhaton Ki Dhani, Bhirkali, Birami, Birdawas, Bisalpur, Bora Was, Budh Nagar, Chaukhan, Chawanda, Daijar, Daikara, Dangiyawas, Dantiwara, Daon Ki Dhani, Dawcha Pyau, Dedipa Nada, Deoliya, Desooriya Kharolan, Desooriya Vishnoiyan, Dhayalon Ki Dhani, Dheenani Ki Dhani, Doliya, Ghantiyala, Gharab, Golasani, Goliya, Gujrawas Khurd, Hem Nagar, Indroka, Jajiwal Bhandariya, Jajiwal Bhatiyan, Jajiwal Brahmana, Jajiwal Dhandhala, Jajiwal Gehlota, Jajiwal Godara, Jajiwal Jakharan, Jajiwal Kakrala, Jajiwal Kalan, Jajiwal Khichiyan, Jajiwal Kutri, Jajiwal Vishnoiyan, Jakharo Ki Dhani, Jaleli Champawatan, Jaleli Daikara, Jaleli Faujdaran, Jatiyawas, Jhalamand, Jheepasani, Jodhpur (M Corp.), Joliyali, Kakelao, Kanawas Ka Pana, Karani, Karwali Dhani, Karwar, Keroo, Kharda Randheer, Khari Kalan, Khari Khurd, Khatiyasani, Khokhari, Khokharia, Kukanda, Kuri Bhagtasani, Legon Ki Dhani, Lolawas, Lordi Daijagra, Lordi Doliya, Lordi-Pandit Ji, Mahadeonagar Undera, Manai, Manaklao, Maretuka, Meglasiya, Miyasani, Mokalawas, Moklasani, Nandara Kalan, Nandra-Khurd, Naron Ki Dhani, Narwa Khichiyan, Pabupura Bhatan, Palasani, Palri Khichiyan, Palri Mangaliya, Palri Panwara, Peethasani, Peethawas, Phitkasni, Pooniyon Ki Pyau, Popawas, Purakhpur, Rajwa, Ralawas, Ramnagar, Rasidan, Rohila Kalan, Rohila Khurd, Roodkali, Salori, Salwa Kalan, Sangariya, Sewalon Ki Dhani, Shiv Sarnon Ki Dhani, Siriyade Gaon, Sirodi, Soder Ki Dhani, Sooraj Basni, Surpura, Thabukra, Uchiyarda, Vishnoiyon Ki Dhani,
The Jodhpur city was founded in 1459 by Rao Jodha, a Rajput chief of the Rathore clan. Jodha succeeded in conquering the surrounding territory and thus founded a kingdom which came to be known as Marwar. As Jodha hailed from the nearby town of Mandore, that town initially served as the capital of this state; however, Jodhpur soon took over that role, even during the lifetime of Jodha. The city was located on the strategic road linking Delhi to Gujarat. This enabled it to profit from a flourishing trade in opium, copper, silk, sandalwood, dates and other tradeable goods.
After the death of Rao Chandrasen Rathore in 1581, the kingdom was annexed by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, Marwar thus became a Mughal vassal owing fealty to them while enjoying internal autonomy. The mother of Emperor Shah Jahan (builder of Taj Mahal) was a Princess of Jodhpur. During this period, the state furnished the Mughals with several notable generals such as Maharaja Jaswant Singh. Jodhpur and its people benefited from this exposure to the wider world as new styles of art and architecture made their appearance and opportunities opened up for local tradesmen to make their mark across northern India.
Aurangzeb briefly sequestrated the state (c. 1679) after the death of Maharaja Jaswant Singh, but the prior ruler Maharaja Ajit Singh was restored to the throne by Veer Durgadas Rathore after Aurangzeb died in 1707 and a great struggle of 30 years. The Mughal empire declined gradually after 1707, but the Jodhpur court was beset by intrigue; rather than benefiting from circumstances, Marwar descended into strife and invited the intervention of the Marathas, who soon supplanted the Mughals as overlords of the region. This did not make for stability or peace, however- 50 years of wars and treaties dissipated the wealth of the state, which sought the help of the British and entered into a subsidiary alliance with them. 
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...जोधपुर (राज.) (AS, p.372): भूतपूर्व जोधपुर रियासत का मुख्य नगर है. इस रियासत को मारवाड़ भी कहते थे. यहां के राजपूत राजा कन्नौज के राठौड़ नरेश जयचंद के वंशज हैं. मूलत: ये राष्ट्रकूटों की एक शाखा से संबंधित थे जो कन्नौज में, 946-959 ई. के बीच में जाकर बस गई थी. 1194 ई. में जयचंद के मुहम्मद गोरी द्वारा पराजित होने पर उसका एक भतीजा सालाजी मारवाड़ चला आया और यहां आकर उसने हटबेदी में राजधानी बनाई (1212 ई.). 1381 ई. में राजधानी मंडोर लाई गई और तत्पश्चात 1459 ई. में जोधपुर. इसका कारण यह था कि मेवाड़ के नाबालिक शासक के अभिभावक चौंडा ने मंडोर नरेश रनमल को युद्ध में हरा दिया जिससे रणमल के पुत्र जोधा को मंडोर छोड़कर भागना पड़ा. यद्यपी उसने मंडोर पर 1459 ई. में पुनः अधिकार कर लिया किंतु सुरक्षा के विचार से एक वर्ष पहले वह जोधपुर के गिरिदुर्ग में जाकर बस गया था और वहीं अगले वर्ष उसने जोधपुर नगर की नींव डाली. इस का शासन काल 1458 से 1488 ई. तक था. जोधपुर के राठौड़ राजा मालदेव ने 1543 ई. में शेरशाह सूरी से युद्ध किया 1562 ई. में अकबर से. इसके पश्चात जोधपुर नरेश मुग़लों के सहायक और मित्र बन गए. औरंगजेब के समय में राजा जसवंत सिंह वहां के राजा थे. पहले दारा के साथ रहे और उसकी पराजय के पश्चात औरंगजेब के सहायक बने किंतु मुगल सम्राट का उन पर कभी पूर्ण विश्वास न रहा. उनका 1671 ई. में पेशावर के निकट जमरूद में, [p.373] जहां वे युद्ध पर गए थे, देहांत हो गया. इसके पश्चात औरंगजेब ने जोधपुर पर आक्रमण करके रियासत पर अधिकार कर लिया और जसवंत सिंह के अवयस्क पुत्रों को कैद कर लिया. ऐसे आड़े समय में उनकी रानी को राज्य के सरदारों, वीर दुर्गादास और गोपीनाथ से बहुत सहायता मिली. ये, अवयस्क अजीत सिंह को बड़े कौशल से मुगलों की कैद से छुड़ाकर मेवाड़ लाए. यहां से इन्होंने 1701 ई. में मंडोर को पुनः हस्तगत कर लिया और 1707 ई. तक शेष रियासत को भी अपने अधिकार में ले लिया.
अजीत सिंह ने अपनी पुत्री इंद्रकुमारी का मुगल-नरेश फर्रूखसियर से विवाह किया था. राजस्थान के इतिहास में इस प्रकार के दूषित विवाह का यह अंतिम उदाहरण कहा जाता है.
जोधपुर नगर लगभग 6 मील के घेरे में बसा हुआ है. बीच-बीच में पहाड़ियां भी हैं. पश्चिम की ओर एक पहाड़ी पर जोधा जी का बनवाया हुआ किला है. उसी के नीचे से बस्ती आरंभ हो जाती है. किले की नींव जेष्ठ शुक्ल 11, विक्रम संवत 1516 (=1459 ई.) को रखी गई थी. किला 600 फुट ऊंची पहाड़ी पर स्थित है और इसका विस्तार लगभग 500 गज x 250 गज है. इसके जयपोल और फतेहपोल नामक दो प्रवेशद्वार हैं. परकोटे की ऊंचाई 20 फुट से 120 फुट तक और मोटाई 12 फुट से 70 फुट तक है. दुर्ग के भीतर सिलहखाना (शस्त्रागार) मोतीमहल और जवाहर खाना आदि भवन अवस्थित हैं. सिलहखाने में सैकड़ों प्रकार के शस्त्रास्त्र हैं. उन पर सोने-चाँदी की अच्छी कारीगरी है. ये इतने भारी हैं कि साधारण मनुष्य इन्हें उठा भी नहीं सकता. मोतीमहल के प्रकोष्ठों की भित्तियों तथा छतों पर सोने की अनुपम कारीगरी प्रदर्शित है. किले के उत्तर की ओर ऊंची पहाड़ी पर थड़ा नामाक एक भवन है जो संगमरमर का बना है. जोधपुर नरेश जसवंत सिंह और अन्य कई राजाओं के समाधि स्थल यही बने हैं. थड़ा ऊंचे और चौड़े चबूतरे पर स्थित है. इसके पास में एक प्राचीन सरोवर भी है. किले के पश्चिमी छोर पर राठौड़ों की कुलदेवी चौमुंडा का मंदिर है.
जोधपुर शहर, जोधपुर ज़िले का प्रशासनिक मुख्यालय, राजस्थान राज्य, पश्चिमोत्तर भारत में है। जोधपुर प्रमुख सड़क और रेल जंक्शन वाला शहर है। जोधपुर शहर के कुछ हिस्से 18वीं शताब्दी के परकोटे से घिरे हुए हैं। यह दुर्ग, जिसमें महल और ऐतिहासिक संग्रहालय हैं, एक अलग-थलग, लेकिन ऊँची चट्टान पर बना हुआ है, जो दूर से ही दिखाई देता है। इसके ठीक उत्तर में मारवाड़ की प्राचीन राजधानी मंडौर के चौथी शताब्दी के अवशेष विद्यमान हैं। जोधपुर मारवाड़ों का मुख्य वित्तिय राजधानी था, जहाँ राठौड़ वंश ने शासन किया था। जोधपुर थार मरुस्थल के दाहिने छोर पर स्थित है।
स्थापना: जोधपुर की स्थापना एक राजपूत राव जोधा (1438-89 ई.) ने 1459 में की थी और यह भूतपूर्व जोधपुर रियासत की राजधानी था। मंडोर से हटाकर नयी राजधानी यहाँ बसायी गयी थी। नयी राजधानी को सुरक्षित रखने के लिए चिड़ियाटुंक पहाड़ी पर एक दुर्ग भी बनाया गया था, जो आज भी जोधपुर के किले के नाम से प्रसिद्ध है।
इतिहास: जोधपुर पर 1565 ई. में मुग़लों का अधिकार हो गया। जोधपुर राज्य के राव चन्द्रसेन ने 1570 ई. में अकबर से भेंट की लेकिन अकबर ने उसके प्रतिद्वन्द्वी भाई मोटा राजा उदयसिंह को जोधपुर राज्य का अधीन शासक मान लिया। चन्द्रसेन निराश लौट गया और जीवनपर्यंत विरोध करता रहा। 1561 में मुग़ल बादशाह अकबर के आक्रमण के बाद इसने मुग़लों का प्रभुत्व स्वीकार कर लिया। 1679 में मुग़ल बादशाह औरंगज़ेब ने मारवाड़ पर हमला करके इसे लूटा और यहाँ के निवासियों को इस्लाम धर्म स्वीकार करने को मजबूर किया, लेकिन जोधपुर, जयपुर और उदयपुर की रियासतों ने गठबंधन बनाकर मुसलमानों के नियंत्रण को रोके रखा। इसके बाद जयपुर और जोधपुर के राजकुमारों को उदयपुर परिवार के साथ वैवाहिक सम्बन्ध करने का अधिकार (जो मुग़लों के साथ मित्रता के कारण समाप्त हो गया था) इस शर्त पर फिर से प्राप्त हो गया कि उदयपुर की राजकुमारियों से उत्पन्न बच्चे पहले उत्तराधिकारी होंगे।
लेकिन इस शर्त से उत्पन्न झगड़ों के कारण अन्ततः यहाँ मराठों का प्रभुत्व क़ायम हो गया। औरंगजेब के समय जोधपुर का शासक जसवंतसिंह की मृत्यु (1678 ई.) के पश्चात् औरंगजेब और जोधपुर राज्य के मध्य लम्बे समय तक संघर्ष चलता रहा। यह संघर्ष जोधपुर की गद्दी पर अजीतसिंह (जसवंतसिंह के पुत्र) के अधिकार को लेकर हुआ। संघर्ष का अंत औरंगजेब की मृत्यु (1707 ई.) के पश्चात् मुग़ल सम्राट फर्रुखशिखर के समय ही हो सका। 1818 में जोधपुर ब्रिटिश सत्ता के अंतर्गत आ गया। 1949 में यह राजस्थान राज्य में शामिल हो गया।
Jodhpur inscription of Pratihara Bauka dated V.S. 894 (837) A D
[Page-87]This inscription was first edited, without any translation and facsimile, by Munshi Deviprasad of Jodhpur in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1894, pp. 1 ff. I re-edit it at the suggestion of, and from an estampage kindly supplied to me by Professor D. R. Bhandarkar. The stone which bears this inscription was discovered about 1892, in the wall surrounding the city of Jodhpur, but, as Professor Bhandarkar suggests, it was probably brought there from Mandor, five miles to the north of the city. The inscription consists of twenty-two lines. It is generally in a good state of preservation, although some letters have peeled off here and there. The engraving is remarkably excellent. The characters are of the type used in the inscriptions of the Imperial Pratihara dynasty. The language is Sanskrit ; and excepting the benedictory formula at the beginning, and the date and the engraver's name at the end, the inscription is written in verse.
The inscription records in the last five verses (27 to 31) the military exploits of a Pratihara chief called Bauka and gives in vv. 4 to 26 an account of the dynasty, to which he belonged. The eulogy of Bauka as described in the record seems to suggest that Bauka must have been away on a career of conquest when his kingdom was attacked by a confederacy of kings. His own partisans were unable to stand the fight and broke into disorder, when Bauka suddenly appeared on the scene, rallied his men and gained a -complete victory. This heroic feat that saved tie country from a great disaster is the main theme of the inscription.
The Ghatiyala Inscriptions of the Pratihara Kakkuka, dated in the Vikrama year 918, confirm the above genealogy, although in two cases the names are slightly modified such as Silluka for Siluka, and Bhilluka for Bhilladitya. As these inscriptions trace only the direct line of descent, they omit the names of tie three brothers of Rajjila and of the brother of Tata but add a new name to the dynastic list, viz that of Kakkaka, the son of Kakka and Durlabhadevi. Kakkuka was thus a step-brother of Bauka. The foundation of the dynasty is thus ascribed to a Brahman who married two wives from two different castes. This is very interesting from a social point of view. His sons are credited with the conquest of Mandavyapura (modem Mandor) where, as already observed the atone must hare been originally put up. The grandson of one of them fixed his capital at the city of Medantaka which, as Munshi Deviprasad remarks, is possibly represented by the town Merta in Marwar. Shortly after this the military ardour of the family gives way to a
[Page-89] religious one, and the next king Tata spent his last days in a hermitage. His three successors seem, no doubt, to have been powerful rulers, but his example was followed by the, next two kings who spent the last part of their lives on the banks of the Gauges. Kakka, the successor of the last of them, is described to have fought with the people of Bengal (Gauda) in distant Monghyr, and the full significance of this will be explained later on. His successor Bauka who is the hero of the inscription, defeated a king named Mayura.
The date of the inscription has given rise to much discussion. On the whole, therefore, I am inclined to think that Bauka was the earlier prince and that the date of the inscription is Samvat 894 or 837 A.D. as read by Professor Bhandarkar.
The historical Importance of the inscription is very great. It gives us a line of chiefs extending over twelve generations. Taking twenty-five years as average for each generation the total reign-period of the dynasty would be about 300 years. As the dates of Kakkuka and Bauka, representing the twelfth generation of kings, are respectively 861 and 837 A. D., Harichandra, the founder of the dynasty may be placed at about 550 A.D. The Imperial Pratihara dynasty, however, cannot be traced back beyond the beginning of the eighth century A. D. So far, therefore, as the available evidence goes, Harichandra must be looked upon as the earliest Pratihara chief. The verse 5 of our inscription
[Page-90] says that the sons that wre born of Harichandra and Bhadra were known as Pratihara and were wine-drinkers. This might imply a common origin of all the Pratihara ruling clans, and it is not impossible that the Imperial Pratihras of Kannauj also branched off from this family. The two following grounds may be urged in support of thin view, although the question cannot be finally sealed till fresh evidence is available:-
- (1) The common mythical tradition about the origin of the name Pratihra, both tracing it to Lakshamana the brother and door-keeper of Rama.
- (2) The commonity of names in the two "families, such as those of Kakkuka, Nagabhata and Bhoja.
It 'is not easy to determine the status of the chiefs mentioned in the inscription. Their names are not preceded by titles like maharajadhiraja, parama-bhattaraka etc., which often accompany the names of independent and paramount sovereign in inscriptions. But no conclusions can be based on the absence of these titles in the present instance, for we know that in some inscriptions the Imperial Pratiharas are mentioned without nay of these pompons titles, which are, however, preserved in other inscriptions. Prof. Bhandarkar has deailt With this point in detail and his arguments have been fully endorsed by V. A. Smith; and I believe it is impossible to avoid the conclusion, that so far at least this period is concerned, 'titular formulas, in reality, are of extremely slight significance.'
Our inscription applies the term rajni to Bhadra, tho queen of Harichandra the first chief, and to Jajjikadevi, the queen of Nagabhata, and the term Maharajni to Padmini the queen of Kakka. It refers to the "rajadhani" of Nagabhata and the rajya of Tata, Jhota and Bhilladitya. The sons of Harichandra are called Bhu-dharana-Kshama. Kakka is styled Bhupati and Bauka is called Nrisimha. These are the only references, direct or indirect, to the royal power exercised by these chiefs. In this respect it bears a close resemblance to he Gwalior inscription of Bhoja I published below. Th latter adds no royal epithet to Nagabhata, the first chief; calls the second and fourth kings respectively as Kshmabhridisa and Khmapala while Nagabhata and Bhoja I two of the greatest kings of the dynasty are introduced without any royal epithet. Whatever might be the reason the close parallel between these two contemporary epigraphic record would preclude any conclusion regarding the subordinate rank of the chiefs of our inscription, on the basis of the absence of High sounding royal epithets.
As we have seen before, the first chief Harichandra must be placed at the beginning of of the latter half of the 6th century A. D. This is in full accordance with the fact that the earliest reference to the Gurjaras, to which race the Pratihara belonged, is carried back to the same period by the reference, in the Harshacharita, to the wars of Prabhakaravardhana against them. The province of Gurjaratra, which was named after them and must therefore, be looked upon as the province where they gained a firm footing and established themselves, was under the sway of this dynasty. Thia is quite evident not only from the find-spots
[Page-91] of inscriptions of this dynasty which have all been found within its area, but also from the express mention in the Ghatiyala Inscriptions, that Kakkuka ruled over Gurjartra (v. 16). The inscription also throws some light as to the period: when this province was being gradually occupied by the dynasty. Verses 9 and 10 tell us that the four sons of Harichandra built a huge rampart round the fort of Mandavyapura which was gained by own prowess (nija-bhuj-arjjite). Mandavyapura is evidently Mandor, the ancient capital of Marwar, near Jodhpur. It is evident, therefore, that the Gurjaras under Harichandra and his sons had occupied the province, known after them, and proceeded up to Mandor, before the end of the sixth century A. D.
The period was indeed a suitable one for such conquest. After the downfall of the short lived empires of Mihirakula and Yashodharman, northern India must have presented a favourable field for the struggle of nations. The Gurjaras, who probably entered India along with or shortly after the Hunas, found a favourable opportunity to press forward till they advanced as far as the Jodhpur state. Their further advance was checked by the prowess of Prabhakaravardhana and his son, and they were therefore obliged to establish themselves in the province which was subsequently named after them. Harichandra must have been the leader, or at least one of the principal leaders, of this advanced section of the Gurjaras; in any case his dynasty was ultimately able to establish its supremacy over the entire, clan. This seems to be the only reasonable inference from the circumstances stated above, and I do not know of any thing which contradicts this view.
Inscriptions testify to the existence of a line of feudatory Gurjara chiefs ruling at Broach. The earliest date of the third chief of this dynasty is 629 A.D. Allowing fifty years for the two generations that preceded him, we get the date c. 580 A.D. for the Samanta Dadda, who founded the line. The date corresponds so very well with that of Dadda, the youngest son of Harichandra, that the identity of the two may be at once presumed. It has-been already saggested, on general grounds, that the Broach line was feudatory to the main line of the Guarjaras further north, But no link, connecting the two, has been hitherto obtained. The proposed identification would not only supply such a link but would also explain why the Gurjara inscriptions record that Dadda I was of the race of Gurjara Kings (Gurjara-nripa-vamsha) although he and his descendants are referred to as Samantas or feudatories. It further closely fits in with the theory of the Gurjara invasion dealt with above. It would appear that after Harichandra had carved a principality for himself in Gurjaratra and the neighbouring country, the nomadic habits of the tribe led them further south till they conquered a fair portion of Lata. The necessity of preserving their own against the rising power of the Chalukya probably led to the foundation of a feudafcory state in the southern province under Dadda,. the younger brother of the ruling king Rajjila. Instances like these are furnished by the history of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakuttas.
The Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsiang visited a Gurjara kingdom which was about 300 miles north of Valabhi or Surat. It is a noticeable fact that Grurjaratra or the country round about Mandor exactly answers to this description. As Harichandra's dynasty was certainly ruling in the locality at the time of the pilgrim's visit, we are justified in identifying
[Page-92] their kingdom with the one described by Hiuen Tsiang. We are unable to identify the king whose court was visited by pilgrim.
The Gurjuras, after their settlement in Rajasthan and Broach,had to fight for supremacy with Prabhakaravardhana of Thaneshwar who seems to have added native resistance against the invading hordes of the Hunas and tho Gurjnras. We have already mentioned about the wars of Prabhakaravardhana against the Gurjaras. The struggle was not, however, a decisive one, and continued till the time of Harshavardhana. The feudatory Dadda II of Broach is said to have produced a lord of Valabhi against the Kanauj Emperor, and surprise has justly been expressed how a small state like Broach could withstand the force of tho mighty emperor. It is quite dear if we admit Broach to have been feudatory state of Harichandra and remember its hereditary enmity with the royal house of Thanesar. That the Gurjaras were not worsted in their struggle with the kings of Thanesar appears quite clearly from the fact that they retained their independence as Hiuen Tsiang informs us, till as late a period as of Harshavardhana.
The extension of Gurjara power to south brought in conflict with Chalukyas.It is recorded in Aihole Inscription that Chalukya Pulakeshi (611-610 AD) defeated the Latas, Malawas and Gurjaras. The Gurjaras here must be taken to refer to the Pratihara dynasty under Dadda as it is included in Latas.
[Page-93] The Gurjara Pratihara line founded by Harichandra thus established itself in Rajputana and fought successfully against the royal houses of Thaneswar and Badami; For about two hundred years they reigned in splendour over the greater part of Rajputana hut the Arab invasion of about 725 A.D. brought about a decline. The Nausari plates of the Gujarat Chalukya Pulakeshiiraja, dated in October, A.D. 788, tell us that the Gurjaras were destroyed by an invasion of the Tajikas or Arabs, apparently shortly before that time.
It seems very likely that the Arab invasions referred to in the Nausari plates were those undertaken by the officers of Junaid, the general of Khalif Hasham (724-743 A.D.). Biladuri gives a short account of these expeditions and mentions, among other things, that Junaid sent his officers to Marwad Mandal, Barus and other places and conquered Bailaman and Jurz. There can be no doubt that Marwad is the same as Maru-mada which is referred to 1n the Ghatiyala inscription of Kakkuka and includes Jaisalmer and part of Jodhpur States. Barus is undoubtedly Broach and Mandal probably denotes Mandor. It is now a well-known fact that Jurz was the Arabic corruption of Gurjara, and Bailamana in as probably refers to the circle of states mentioned in our inscription as Valla-mandala. It would thus appear that the Arab army under Junnaid conquered the Gurjara states in the north as well as the feudatory state of Broach in the south.
This catastrophe must have taken place at the beginning of the second quarter of the eighth century A.D. According to Biladuri the Arab expeditions wore arranged by Junaid during the Caliphate Hasham who ruled from 724 to 743 A.D. According to Elliot Junaid was succeeded by Tamin about 726 A.D. Evidently this last date is far from being definitely known and we may therefore conclude that the expeditions were undertaker, shortly after 724 A.D. The Nausari plates show, however, that the expeditions referred to in them took place between 731 and 738 A.D. For, according to the Balsar plates, Avanijanasraya-Pulakesi-raja did not come to the throne till the year 731 A.D., and as he himself takes the credit of having repelled the Arabs from Nausari, the event must be dated after that year.
The Chalukya prince Ayanijanasraya-Pulakesi-raja, who successfully resisted the Arabs, probably took advantage of this opportunity to wrest the Lata province from the Gurjara kingdom. The decline uf the Gurjara power thus brought about by the Arab invasion in the north and the Chalukya aggression in the south favoured the growth of a rival Pratihara dynasty which was ultimately destined to play the imperial role in India. The origin of this dynasty is described in verses 4 and 7 of the Gwalior prasasti of Bhoja published below. It records that Nagabhata, the first king, defeated the Mlechchhas, and after him ruled his two nephews Kakkuka and Devaraja. Vatsaraja, the son of the latter, became a very powerful king and wrested the empire from the famous Bhandi clan. Now, our inscription tells us that Siluka who was the protector of Valla-manala (a circle of kingdoms) defeated Bhattika Devaraja (v. 19). As Devaraja of the Imperial Pratihara dynasty was the father of Vatsaraja whose known date is 783-4 A.D., he probably flourished about the middle of the eighth century A.D. Siluka, according to our scheme of chronology must also have been ruling about the same time and the identity of the two kings called Devaraja may be at once presumed. A careful study of the two inscriptions seems to show that Nagabhata, the founder of the Imperial Pratiharus, successfully resisted the Arab invasions which proved so disastrous to the other Pratihara line. His successors were not slow to take advantage of this favourable situation, and Devaraja entered into a contest for supremacy with Siluka. He was defeated by the latter.
[Page-94] but his son Vatsaraja pursued his policy with signal success and wrested the empire from family of Harichandra. All these successive changes in the fortune of the dynasty are reflected in our inscription. According to our scheme of chronology Chanduka was on throne when the Arab invasion took place. It becomes therefore a significant fact that where as he is passed with conventional praises, tribute is paid to the prowess of his successor Siluka. Then, again, the two successors of Siluka are said to have taken to religious life and not a single act of of martial glory is attributed to any of them. Thus was apparently time when their rivals gradually established themselves in the position of recognized suzerainty over the entire confederate clans which was so long enjoyed by them. The subsequent kings of the line of Harichandra retained possession of their own kingdom, although they lost their supreme position, and gradually seem to have reconciled themselves to the new conditions. Kakka the great grandson of Siluka appears to have accompanied the new suzerain power in its wars of conquest. For we are told in verse 24 that he fought with the Gaudas at Mudgagiri or Monghyr, Apparently he fought as a feudatory of Nagabhata II one of whose known dates is 815 AD and who is said in the [[Gwalior inscription of Bhoja (below) to have defeated king of Vanga.
There was, however, a temporary revival of the Pratihara power in the middle of the ninth century A.D. The Daulatpara copper plate of Bhoja, dated in the year 843 AD. records the grant of a piece of land situated in Gurjaratra but the Ghatiyala Inscription of Kakkuka refers to the province as being, held by that king. As this inscription is dated 861 AD Bhoja must have lost this province between these two dates. Infact a close study of Daulatpura plate seems to indicate that the province was held by Vatsaraja and Nagabhata but lost by Ramabhadra and regained by Bhoja before 843 AD. For it speaks of the grant by the first, its continuation by the second and renewal by the fourth king, leading to the evident conclusion that there was a break in the possession of the territory in the reign of the third. This view entirely agrees with what we know of the rival Pratihara dynasty;5 for Nagabhata II was crushed by the Rashtrakuta king Govinda III and Ramabhadra's reign was an inglorious one. The difficulty of the rivals must have presented the requisite opportunity to the Jodhpur Pratiharas to regain the power that they had lost. Thus the two successors, of Siluka, are described as practicing austerities an unavoidable diration of their political and military inanity Kakka, the third king after Siluka is described as a great fighter and his queen consort is called a maharjni. Their son Bauka was also a great hero and his military exploits are described at great length in our inscription.
According to the Ghatiyala inscriptions Kakkuka,also ruled over a vast dominion. Nothing is known about his successor but it, is likely that with the revival of the Imperial Pratiharas under Bhoja during the latter part of Bhoja'n reign, their territory was annexed by the latter.
A few words may be said regarding the geographical names mentioned in the inscription. Mandavyapura and Medantakapura (L.7) most probably denote the cities of Mandor and Merta. Line 11 contains the namea of Stravani and Valladesha, two provinces close to each other. As Siluka is said in the same line to have been Vallamandala-palaka. Valla must denote the region over which these Pratihara chief ruled. As Siluka said in verse 18 to have fixed the boundary between Stravani and Valla. The former would appear to have denoted a neighbouring kingdom. Stravani is probably the Tamani of the Ghatiyala Inscription of Pratihara Bauka as the latter occurs along with Valla in a list of contiguous countries. The locality of this Stravani or Tamani has not been established so far. It seems to me, however, that it is to be identified with the kingdom of Talan referred to by the Arab geographers of the ninth century A.D. A comparison of the various to this kingdom
[Page-95] by Arab writers (Elliot:History of India, Vol.I, pp 4,5,13,21,25) seems to show that it consisted of a part of the Panjab just to the north-west of Raiputana. Reference is twice made (vv. 27, 29) to Mayura, a king defeated by Bauka. We know of no such king, but Hiuen Tsiang refers to a city called Mo-Yu-lo (or Mayura) situated near Gangadvara mentioned in v. 23. Mayura of our inscription may refer to tho king of the locality.
Translation of Jodhpur inscription of Pratihara Bauka dated V.S. 894 (837) A D
- (Line 1). Om ! Salutation to Vishnu !
- (Verse 1). May Hrishikesha, In whom all elements enter and from whom creation and protection are supposed (to proceed), who is both nirguna and saguna (i.e., with and without attribute) protect yon-
- (Verse 2). The glories of ancestors are first sung by wise men because perpetual recitation of glories (has for its effect) the dwelling in heaven,
- (Verse 3). Hence the illustrious wise Bauka caused (the glories of his ancestors), belonging to his own Pratihara clan, and possessed of wealth, fame and prowess, to be written in (this) pratiasti.
- (Verse 4). Inasmuch as the very brother of Ramabhadra performed the duty of door-keeper (pratihara), this illustrious clan came to be known as Pratihara. May it prosper.
- (Verse 5). (There was) an illustrious Brahmana named Harichandra and his wife Bhadra, a Kshatriya. The sons born of them are known as Pratiharas.
- (Verse 6). There was an illustrious Brahmana named Harichandra Rohilladdhi, who versed in the meaning of the Vedas and the Shastras and who was a preceptor like Prajapati.
- (Verse 7). That illustrious Harichandra married (first) the daughter of a Brahmana, and, (as) second (wife), the Kshatriya Bhadra, belonging to a noble family and possessed of good qualities.
- (Verse 8). Those sons who were born of the Brahmana wife became Pratihara Brahmanas. Those who were born of queen Bhadra became 'drinkers of wine'.
- (Verse 9). Four sons, fit to hold the earth, wore born to her,viz., the illustrious Bhogabhata, Kakka, Rajjila and Dadda.
- (Verse 10). In this fort of Mandavyapura, conquered by their own , they erected a high rampart, (which was) calculated to increase the fear of the the enemies.
- (Verse 11). From Rajjila among them was born the illustrious son Narabhatta,. On account of his prowess his second name was ' Pellapelli.'
- (Verse 12). From Narabhata was born a son, the illustrious Nagabhata, who had his permanent capital at the great city of Medantaka.
- (Verse 13). From him, begotten on Jajjikadevi, were born the two uterine accomplished sons named Tata and Bhoja, who were oppressors of enemies.
- (Verse-14). By Tata, who realized that the world evanescent as lightening, the kingdom was conferred on his younger brother, the illustrious Bhoja.
- (Verse-15). Tata himself retired to the pious hermitage of Mandavya, adorned with streams and rivers, and practiced there the rites of pure religion.
- (Verse-16). From him (Tata) was born the son, the illustrious Yashovardhana, renowned for his prowess, (who earned) fame by his own arms and rooted out all the thorns (i.e. enemies).
- (Verse-17). From him was born the son, the illustrious Chanduka of great valour , (who was) full of splendour, of charitable disposition and invincible to enemies in the war.
- (Verse-18). From him was born the son, the illustrious Shiluka of irrepressible prowess, who fixed a perpetual Boundary between the provinces Travani and Valla.
- (Verse-19). Who, the protector of Vallamandala, having knocked down Bhattika Devaraja on the ground, at once obtained from him th ensign of umbrella.
- (Verse-20). Who had a tank excavated, a city established, and the lofty temple of Siddheshvara Mahadeva constructed, at the holy place called Treta.
- (Verse-21). From the illustrious Shiluka was born the excellent son, the illustrious Jhota, who proceeded to the Bhagirathi (Ganges) after enjoying the bliss of kingdom.
- (Verse-22). From him was born Bhilladitya, possessed of satva qualities and disposed to austerities (tapas); he governed the kingdom, while young and then bestowed on his son.
- (Verse-23). Proceeding to Gangadwara he stayed for eighteen years and finally went to heaven by practicing fast.
- (Verse-24). From him, too, was born the noble son, the illustrious Kakka, who gained reputation by fighting Gaudas at Mudgagiri.
- (Verse-25). (whose) knowledge of Prosody, Grammar, Logic, Astronomy, with attendant arts, and poetry in all languages was extraordinary.
- (Verse-26). From king Kakka, begotten on the pure illustrious great queen Padmini, of the Bhatti clan, was born the illustrious Bauka.
- (Verse-27). Having found the matchless enemy gone to Bhuakupa after killing Nandavalla, while the good Pratihara prince, born in the family of he Brahmana king and belonging to his party, had broken in disorder , the illustrious Bauka, a singleman despised by the enemy, suddenly burdt forth and killed, with his weapons, first Mayura and then his men who were like deer, and thus his glory was manifest.
- (Verse 28). What other king but Bauka, while his authority over other kings was destroyed, his own younger brothers and ministers had left him and his army on all sides was seized with terror, could, unaided, stand firm like a pillar, and, leaving the horse-back and standing on the ground unperturbed, sword in hand, pierce the enemy through and through, causing thereby a terrible burial ground in that battlefield ?
- (Verse 29). After having dispersed the recent gathering of the newly formed confederation, and killed Mayura, Bauka, the lion among men, killed the army which was supporting waves of swords.
- (Verse 3o). Whose mind would not now be filled with terror on remembering the house of dead made by Bauka's sword, which ere long was put in confusion by the enemy's host the house of dead which was made by the arms, thighs, legs and other limbs, rent in twain, with oozing as well as bloodless cavities, together with the entrails hung above, and which was full of jackals ?
- (Verse 31). Verily, when Bauka was dancing in the battle-field, placing his feet on the very entrails and other parts of the dead bodies, the frightened men (enemies) who were like deer, became quiet as it were with strain tishiha, tishtha . This indeed was very strange !
- (L. 21). The year 894, (the month of) Chaitra, the fifth day of the bright fortnight.
- (L. 22). Engraved by Krishnesvara, son of the gold-smith Vishnuravi.
Notes by Wiki editor
Mentioned here are some probable linkages with Jat clans. We need further research to prove these facts.
- Rajjila (रज्जिल) - In the list of Jat clans we find Rajliye (राजलिये) is gotra of Jats. They are descendants of Rajil (राजिल). 
- Daha (दह) - Daha (दहा) is Jat Gotra in Punjab and Pakistan. ,. They have descended from ancestor named Daha (दह).
- Narabhata (नरभट) - Narhar/Narhad (नरहड़) is an ancient town situated in Chirawa tehsil in Jhunjhunu district in Rajasthan, India. Its ancient name was Narabhata (नरभट).  It was ruled by Nehra Jats.
- Travani (त्रवणी) - Tivari (तिवरी) is a Village in Osian tahsil of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Its ancient name was Travani (त्रवणी). Taval (तावल) Tawal (तावल) gotra of Jats originated from place name Tivari (तिवरी).  R C Majumdar tells us in above description that Stravani or Tamani has not been established so far by him. It seems to me, however, that it is to be identified with the kingdom of Talan referred to by the Arab geographers of the ninth century A.D. A comparison of the various to this kingdom by Arab writers (Elliot:History of India, Vol.I, pp 4,5,13,21,25) seems to show that it consisted of a part of the Panjab just to the north-west of Raiputana. Talan is again a Jat clan.
- Vallamandala (वल्लमण्डल) - Vallamada is mentioned in verse-19 of the inscription. We find mention of Vallamandala in the history of Balhara. In Sanskrit, "Bal" means "strength" and "hara" means "the possessor". Thus, Balhara (बल्हारा) means "the possessor of strength". Balhara Jats were the rulers in Sindh from 8th to 10th century. In 710 AD Muhammad Kasim occupied Sindh. Vallamandala of this inscription is the kingdom of Balharas. Bhim Singh Dahiya writes that the Balhara clan finds mention in numerous references. A country of Balhara, adjoining Jurz (Gujar) country, is mentioned as situated on the western sea coast in connection with the location of "A Race of fair women".  The Muslim historian, Abuzaid (916 AD) and Al Masudi (943 AD) speak of two empires, named as Juzr and Balhara.
- Ajja (अज्ज) - Used for Arya. Ajra (अजरा) is a gotra of Jats. It get its name from King named Ayu (आयु) in Kuruvansha.
- Gurjarattra (गुर्जरात्रा) - Gurjaratra comprised the districts of Didwana and Parbatsar in Marwar. This area since ancient times is domonated by Jats. Gujar is also here a Jat clan.
- Mandavya (माण्डव्य) - Mandavya hermitage is mentioned here. Mandavyawas a Nagavanshi mahapurusha. We find many Jat clans originated from Mandavya.
- Manda]] (मण्डा) - It is a matter of research if Mandore has any connections with [[Manda] clan of Jats.
- Mayura (मयूर) - Mayura, prakrat Mor, named king is mentioned verses-27 and 29. He seems to be king of Mor Jat clan heading a federation against Pratihara Bauka.
- Jajjikadevi (जज्जिकदेवी) - Wife of Nagabhata and mother of Tata and Bhoja seems to be of Jajja (जज्ज) Jat clan.
- Bhatti (भट्टी) - Verse-26 tells us that From king Kakka, begotten on queen Padmini, of the Bhatti clan, was born the Bauka. Bhatti is a Jat clan.
- Treta-tirtha (?) - Place (v. 20) ?
- Bhuakupa (?) - Place (v. 27) could not be identified. We find in the list of Jat clans a clan named Bhuwal (भुवाल) found in Hanumangarh, Nagaur, Tonk districts in Rajasthan. This gotra gets name from place called Bhuwanavan (भुवनवन). 
Jat Gotras in Jodhpur district
Jodhpur is the center of Marwar region and is important Jat belt. We do not have any combined report which can give details about the distribution of Jat gotras in Marwar region. Jat Samaj Magazine, December 2006 issue gives membership list from All the states, the region of Marwar is also there. We find that maximum membership from any district in Rajasthan is from Jodhpur. There are large number of people who use Chaudhary, Jat or no surname. Out of these people with gotra as surnames were selected and tabulated. These are 236 people and 112 gotras. The figure after gotra is the count out of 236 from which we can roughly assess comparative population of that gotra. Here is the list:
Anwla 1, Atri 1, Ausu 1, Badeta 1, Badiyasar 1, Bairad 1, Bambal 1, Banga 1, Banta 1, Barra 1, Beda 2, Behra 1, Benda 1, Beniwal 6, Bhadla 1, Bhadu 2, Bhakal 2, Bhakar 3, Bhambhu 3, Bhanun 1, Bhanwaria 1, Bhaskar 1, Bhinchar 1, Bhukar 1, Bijarnia 1, Chahar 1, Chhirang 2, Dara 1, Dater 1, Dawan 1, Delu 1, Dhaka 2, Dhatarwal 8, Dhauliya 1, Dhayal 1, Dhidariya 1, Dimaniya 1, Dogipal 1, Dorwal 1, Dudhwal 1, Dudi 10, Duktawa 3, Fadak 1, Fadauda 1, Garu 1, Gawaria 1, Ghat 1, Godara 11, Gurjar 2, Gwala 1, Hardu 1, Hooda 10, Jakhar 14, Jaliyawda 2, Jalwania 1, Jandu 2, Jhajharia 1, Jyani 4, Kachchhawa1, Kajla 1, Kakrawa 1, Kala 1, Kalirana 1, Kamediya 3, Kapdia 1, Karwasra 1, Kaswan 4, Kataniya 1, Khileri, Khod 1, Khoja 8, Khot 2, Kot 1, Lamrod 1, Latiyal 1, Lol 2, Machra 3, Maderna 3, Makar 2, Malhan 1, Mayla 2, Mehria 1, Mirdha 3, Mothra 2, Mundan 2, Mundel 3, Mundiyara 1, Nahar 1, Nardhaniya1, Pachar 1, Padoda 1, Pawar 1, Pichkya 1, Pilania 1, Punia 7, Ralia 1, Rayal 1, Rewad 1, Sabarwal 1, Sail 2, Sangwa 2, Sani 1, Sarag, Saran 16, Senwar 2, Shail 1, Sheoran 1, Shihag 1, Sinwar 1 Sirohi 1, Siyol 3, Sou 1, Tada 1, Tandi 3, Thori 1, Borana
We find from above list that Saran (16) is the biggest gotra in Jodhpur district followed by Jakhar (14), Godara (11), Hooda (10), Dudi (10), Khoja (8), Dhatarwal (8), Punia (7), Beniwal (6), Kaswan (4), Jyani (4) etc in decreasing order.
जोधपुर में जाट गोत्र
जोधपुर जिले में जाटों का निम्न गोत्र हैं - 1.बैरड़ 2.मूढ 3.जाणी 4.पूनिया 5.सऊ 6.सियाग 7.हूडा 8.सांई 9.हरडू 10.सेवदा 11.पावडा 12.लोमरोड 13.मांजू 14.लूखा 15.मायला 16.आसू 17.आंवला 18.चाहर 19.गोलिया 20.ईशराम 21.कङवासरा 22.फगेङिया 23.काकङ 24.खदाव 25.कूकणा 26.थाकण 27.तेतरवाल 28.मंडा 29.घाट 30.पावङ 31.धतरवाल 32.भाखर 33.लोल 34.भारी 35.नेहरा 36.पचार 37जाखङ 38.कंस्वा 39.खोड 40.मोगा 41.मूंढण 42.माचरा 43.मनमोङा 45.डूडी 46.डेलू 47.डऊकिया 48.जांदू 49.झूरङ 50.जाजङा 51.गावङिया 52.गोरा 53.खांगट 54.खोथ 55.देग 56.थोरी 57.गोदारा 58.बाना 59.कुंडू 60.बांगङवा 61.बटेर 62.बलियारा 63.तरङ 64.चिलका 65.चोयल 66.चोटिया 67.सारण 68.खीचङ 69.गोरसिया 70.राव 71.बेंदा 72.गुरलिया 73.भींचर 74.गैणा 75.गूजर 76.कांसनिया 77.डोगियाल 78.सेंवर 79.सींगङ 80.देदङ 81.बूङिया 82.भांभू 83.भादू 84.ढाका 85.ढेंबा 86.देहङू 87.नवाद 88.वीरङा 89लेघा 90.पलीवाल 91.नींबङिया 92.सरवण 93.पिंडेल 94.धायल 96.धूंधवाल 96.बोला 97.रांपङिया 98 धोला 99.सियोल 100.बांता 101.बीहू 102.कलवानी 103.भंडवाला 104.कालीराणा 105.नैण 106.पोटलिया 107.जांघू 108.छबरवाल 109.राहङ 110.बेनीवाल 111.माकङ 112.महिया 113.भूंकर 114.भङिया 115.भंवाल 116.डूगेर 117.धूण 118.फङौदा 119.पोठा 120.गुगरवाल 121.भँवरिया 122. फडा़क 123. भाकल 124. बलुन्दिया
साभार :- अमेश बैरड़
- Dewa Ram Bhadu (born 1882) (चौधरी देवाराम भादू), from Jodhpur, was a Social worker in Jodhpur, Rajasthan. 
- Piru Ram Potalia (born:1905) (चौधरी पीरूराम पोटलिया), from Jodhpur, was a Social worker in Jodhpur, Rajasthan. 
- स्वामी भाती राम जी - जोधपुर में रहते थे। आपका व्यक्तित्व ऊंचा और स्वभाव मीठा था। आप प्रभावशाली साधु थे। सभा के कामों में सदैव सहयोग दिया है और सभा के उप प्रधान रहे हैं। 
- मोती राम (कप्तान), जोधपुर- मारवाड़ जाट कृषक सुधार सभा की प्रबंधकारिणी और कार्यकारिणी में रहकर आप ने जाट जाति की सेवा करके अपने को कृतार्थ किया है। 
- किशन सिंह, जोधपुर- मारवाड़ जाट कृषक सुधार सभा की प्रबंधकारिणी और कार्यकारिणी में रहकर आप ने जाट जाति की सेवा करके अपने को कृतार्थ किया है। 
- Nar Singh Kachhwaha (नरसिंह कछवाह), from ----, Jodhpur, was a social worker in Marwar, Rajasthan. He was a fredom fighter and hero of The Dabra farmers movement-1947 for abolition of Jagirs in Rajasthan. 
- Chena Ram Latiyal - Lecturer Maths, Jainarayan Vyas University, Jodhpur, Mob - 9414551041
- Prakash Beniwal - Adhyaksh Veer Teja Jat Jagriti Sansthan, Jodhpur. Mob:9214420393
- Mahendra Pal Singh Sohu - Manager Telecom, Date of Birth : 14-January-1982, Present Address : C-21, Saraswati Nagar, Basni Jodhpur, Phone : 0291-5059214, Mob : 9314935787, Email: email@example.com
- Mahindra Dogiyal - Technical Architect, 94/A ,Malviya Nagar, Jodhpur, Present Address : Redmond, USA, Mobile: 9982249811, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Mohan Lal Choudhary (Khoja) - X.En. PWD , Date of Birth :1958, 24, Puri Petrol Pump Scheme Ratanara Jodhpur, Phone Number : 0291-2514307, Mob: 9414133012
- Ravindra Choudhary (Sarag ) - Director DRDO, Present Address : 40B14, Sarag bhawan, PWD colony, Jodhpur 342001, Mob: 9950681099
- Sher Singh Doodi - X.En (Retd.) I.G.N.P , Date of Birth : 14-July-1946, Permanent Address : 95, Laxminagar ,Jodhpur, Phone: 0291-2541058
- Vijay Kumar Chowdhary (Khileri) - Dy. Director Rajasthan Agri. Service, Date of Birth : 15-September-1958, Permanent Address : 1007, Ist D Road, Sardarpura, Jodhpur. Present Address : 123, CBI Colony, Arvind Nagar, Jagatpura, Jaipur, Phone: 0141-2750192, Mob: 9414056762, Email : email@example.com
- Virendra Choudhary (Kashwan) - Date of Birth : 1-July-1955, JVVNL, Present Address : 115, Hanusmriti, Subhash Chowk, Behind Post Office, Ii Gali, Ratanada, Jodhpur, Phone Number : 0291-2512696, Mob: 9414129696, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Virendra Pabara - Scientist - B, DRDO, Date of Birth : 15-July-1986, Permanent Address : 61,Veer Teja Colony,Mahamandir , Jodhpur, Present Address : 61,Veer Teja Colony,Mahamandir , Jodhpur, Mob: 9414935067, Email : email@example.com
- Bhagirath Manda (Dr): IRS it CSE 2014 selected, From Jodhpur, M: 87505 52019
- Sunda hill Inscription of Chachigadeva of V.S.1319 (A.D. 1262)
- Dhananajaya Singh (1994). The House of Marwar: The Story of Jodhpur. Lotus Collection. ASIN B003FD2ISQ
- Dhananajaya Singh (1994). The House of Marwar: The Story of Jodhpur. Lotus Collection. ASIN B003FD2ISQ
- Dhananajaya Singh (1994). The House of Marwar: The Story of Jodhpur. Lotus Collection. ASIN B003FD2ISQ
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.372-373
- Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 278
- Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), Book by Bhim Singh Dahiya, IRS, First Edition 1980, Publisher: Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd, AB/9 Safdarjang Enclave, New Delhi-110064, p. 333
- A.C. Rose:'Tribes and Castes', Vol. II, p. 219
- Dasharatha Sharma: Early Chauhan Dynasties, Towns and Villages of Chauhan Dominions S.No.22.
- Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 253
- Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1904, p. 163
- Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998,p.219
- Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998 p. 273
- Thakur Deshraj:Jat Jan Sewak, 1949, p.181-182
- Thakur Deshraj:Jat Jan Sewak, 1949, p.182-183
- Thakur Deshraj:Jat Jan Sewak, 1949, p.207
- Thakur Deshraj: Jat Jan Sewak, 1949, p.210
- Thakur Deshraj: Jat Jan Sewak, 1949, p.210
- Thakur Deshraj:Jat Jan Sewak, 1949, p.220-221
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