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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क

Agnivansh (अग्निवंश) or Agnivansha or Agnikul or Agnikula (अग्निकुल) is one of Kshatriya types, who claim descent from Agni. According to Agni Purana these Kshatriyas were born from the fire-pit (anala-kunda, agni-kunda) which resides in Mount Abu in Northwestern India after the "destruction of ancient Kshatriyas".

Agnikula theory

Some historians interpret this as suggestive of Indo-Scythian origin because this place was entrance gateway for Scythic groups in India. In fact lineage of all 36 Rajput rajcule has been traced to Indo-scythic races [1]

Historically it was the process of returning back to Hindu fold of the Kshatriyas who had adopted Buddhism and left the vedic traditions.

Rajasthan was ruled by large number of small democratic republics of various Jat clans and other tribes. These republics were there till the rule of Harshavardhana. After the fall Harsha in 647 AD, the Jat republics weakened due to invasions by Mugals, Turks, Muslims and Yavanas. In the sixth and seventh century when new Agnikula clan of Rajputs was created in Mount Abu, many of the Jat clans merged in them. Some Jat Gotras joined or merged with the Pratihara Confederation. But Majority of Jat Clans merged with Chauhans. Though these Jat clans existed earlier but the newly created system of recording their ancestry i.e. Badwas, Bhats, Jagas etc. started recording their ancestry from the point of creation of Agnikula Kshatriyas. Later on they credited the origin of these Jat clans from the respective Agnikula Kshatriya which is wrong and distorted fact.

The Agni Puran Episode Of Agni Kund

Ram Sarup Joon[2] writes: When the Kshatriyas by adopting Buddhism became non-martial and also started disregarding Vedas, Shastras and other religious scriptures, the Brahmins started this 'Yagya' at Mount Abu situated near the kingdoms of Gujars kings, to refine the Kshatriyas and safeguard the religion. There was a huge congregation of Brahmins who brought with them the idols of Rishis, Munis, Brahma, Vishnu and other Hindu gods. The Brahmins recited 'Ahutis' against Budh devils.

  • First a man arose dramatically out of 'Agni Kund'. He had the countenance of a brave man and was called Parmar.
  • Then came a second person and he was named Pratihar.
  • The third person rose from the palm of the priest and was called Chalukya. He was also a brave man.
  • The fourth person who emerged through this process was big built, broad chested man, with a wide forehead and radiant eyes. Due to his impressive personally, he was called 'Chaumukha' or Chauhan. He had a bow and arrow in his hands with which he started a general massacre of Buddh Bhikshus.
  • By the side of Agni Kund there was a heap of Plantain leaves and shoots (Dodies). A man came out of this and was called Dod Rajputs.

All these brave, creatures of Agni Kund, then slayed the Buddhist 'Rakshashs' (Demons). It is said that miraculously every drop of blood of these Buddhist 'Rakshasas' gave birth to a devil. To counter this,

History of the Jats, End of Page-133

Four Queens 'Ranis' started sucking the flowing blood and this stopped the rebirth of the Budh Devils. These four 'Ranis' became the goddesses of their respective races as under: -

(a) Chauhans Asa Purna mata

(b) Pratihars Gajan mata

(c) Chalukya Khew Nauch mata

(d) Parmar Sanchirya mata

After this the skies resounded with cheers of victory and gods showered flowers from the sky. Gratified, the gods and goddesses returned to their sacred abodes and the Brahmins had a hearty feast beside the dead bodies (source: Agni Puran).

Historians consider this episode as most despicable and inhuman and a stigma on the names of those who enacted it. A religion based on such ignoble deeds could have little hope of popular recognition. Their descendants have been vocal about Islam having been spread by force, but they forget how their ancestors frightened Buddhists to take shelters in the remotest corners of the country in Leh, Ladakh and in the other regions of the Himalayas and across the sea upto Japan.

This episode was denounced by Jats, Ahirs and the unconverted Gujars. They thus invited the antagonism of the newly created Rajputs and Brahmins, more so because they did not convert to Pauranic Mat even on the downfall of Buddhism.

They continued their unabated respect for Buddhist Monks and interest in their sermons.

Although they did later appoint Brahmins as Purohits (Priests), the Jats never developed complete faith in Brahmins maintained their inborn dislike of Jats and never hesitated in calling them wicked and devilish.

The Rajputs discarded widow marriage according to the precepts of Brahmins. Thus people who were in favour of widow marriage again joined Jats, Ahirs and Gujars by and by, adding to their numbers.

History of the Jats, End of Page-134

Re-creation of the Agnikula Kshatriyas by Vishwamitra

James Tod[3] writes that Viswamitra chose for Re-creation of the Agnikula Kshatriyas rite the summit of Mount Abu where dwell the hermits and sages constantly occupied in the duties of religion, and who had carried their complaints even to the kheer samudra (sea of curds), where they saw the Father of Creation floating upon the hydra (emblem of eternity). He desired them to regenerate the warrior race, and they returned to Mount Abu with Indra, Brahma, Rudra, Vishnu, and all the inferior divinities, in their train. The fire-fountain (anhal-kund) was lustrated with the waters of the Ganges; expiatory rites were performed, and, after a protracted debate, it was resolved that Indra should initiate the work of re-creation.

Pramara: Having formed an image (putli) of the duba grass, Indra sprinkled it with the water of life, and threw it into the fire-fountain. Thence, on pronouncing the sajivan mantri (incantation to give life), a figure slowly emerged from the flame, bearing in the right hand a mace, and exclaiming, " Mar ! mar !" (slay, slay). He was called Pramara; and Abu, Dhar, and Ujain were assigned to him as a territory.

Solanki:Brahma was then entreated to frame one from his own essence (ansa). He made an image, threw it into the pit, whence issued a figure armed with a sword (kharga) in one hand, with the veda in the other, and a janeu round his neck. He was named Chalukya or Solanki, and Anhalpur Patan was appropriated to him.

[p.407]: Parihar: Rudra formed the third. The image was sprinkled with the water of the Ganges, and on the incantation being read, a black ill-favoured figure arose, armed with the dhanus or bow. As his foot slipped when sent against the demons, he was called Parihara, and placed as the poleoh, or guardian of the gates. He had the no-nangal Marusthali, or 'nine habitations of the desert' assigned him.

Chauhans: The fourth was formed by Vishnu; when an image like himself, four-armed, each having a separate weapon, issued from the flames, and was thence styled Chaturbhuja Chau-han, or the ' four-armed.' The gods bestowed their blessing upon him, and Macavati-nagri (Maheshwar) as his territory. Such was the name of Garra-Mandalla in the Dwapar, or silver age.

Regenerated to fight the battles of Brahmanism:

[p.408]: James Tod[4] tells us that let us inquire who were these warriors, thus regenerated to fight the battles of Brahmanism, and brought within the pale of their faith ? They must have been either the aboriginal debased classes, raised to moral importance by the ministers of the pervading religion, or foreign races who had obtained a footing amongst them. The contrasted physical appearance of the respective races will decide this question. The aborigines are dark, diminutive, and ill-favoured ; the Agnikulas are of good stature, and fair, with prominent features, like those of the Parthian kings. The ideas which pervade their martial poetry are such as were held by the Scythian in distant ages, and which even Brahmanism has failed to eradicate.

James Tod on Agnikulas

James Todd[5] writes that There are four races to whom the Hindu genealogists have given Agni, or the element of fire, as progenitor. The Agnikulas are therefore the sons of Vulcan, as the others are of Sol, Mercurius, and Terra.

There is a captivating elegance thrown around the theogonies of Greece and Rome, which we fail to impart to the Hindu ; though that elegant scholar. Sir Wilham Jones, could make even Sanskrit literature fascinating ; and that it merits the attempt intrinsically, we may infer from the charm it possesses to the learned chieftain of Rajasthan. That it is perfectly analogous to the Greek and Roman, we have but to translate the names to show. For instance : —

Maricha ....(Lux).... Atri.
Kasyapa....(Uranus)....Samudra (Oceanus).
Vaivaswata or Surya....(Sol)....Soma, or Ind (Luna ; qu. Lunus ?).
Vaivaswa Manu....(Filius Soils).... Brihaspati (Jupiter).
Ila....(Terra)....Budha (Mercurius).

The Agnikulas are the Pramara, the Parihara, the Chalukya or Solanki, and the Chauhan.

Hoernle (JRAS, 1905, p. 20) believes that the Pariharas were the only sept which claimed fire-origin before Chand (flor. A.D. 1191). But a legend of the kind was current in South India in the second century a.d. [6].

That these races, the sons of Agni, were but regenerated, and converted by the Brahmans to fight their battles, the clearest interpretations of their allegorical history will disclose ; and,

[p.108]: as the most ancient of their inscriptions are in the Pali character, discovered wherever the Buddhist religion prevailed, their being declared of the race of Tasta or Takshak, warrants our asserting the Agnikulas to be of this same race, which invaded India about two centuries before Christ. It was about this period that Parsvanatha the twenty-third Buddha, appeared in India ; his symbol, the serpent. The legend of the snake (Takshak) escaping wife the celebrated work Pingala, which was recovered by Garuda, the eagle of Krishna, is purely allegorical ; and descriptive of the contentions between the followers of Parswanatha, figured under his emblem, the snake, and those of Krishna, depicted under his sign, the eagle.

The worshippers of Surya probably recovered their power on the exterminating civil wars of the Lunar races, but the creation of the Agnikulas is expressly stated to be for the preservation of the altars of Bal, or Iswara, against the Daityas, or Atheists.

The celebrated Abu, or Arbuda, the Olympus of Rajasthan, was the scene of contention between the ministers of Surya and these Titans, and their relation might, with the aid of imagination, be equally amusing with the Titanic war of the ancient poets of the west [91]. The Buddhists claim it for Adinath, their first Buddha ; the Brahmans for Iswara, or, as the local divinity styled Achaleswara. The Agnikunda is still shown on the summit of Abu, where the four races were created by the Brahmans to fight the battles of Achaleswara and polytheism, against the mono-theistic Buddhists, represented as the serpents or Takshaks. The probable period of this conversion has been hinted at ; but of the

[p.109]: dynasties issuing from the Agnikulas, many of the princes professed the Buddhist or Jain faith, to periods so late as the Muhammadan invasion.

Agnivanshi Kshatriyas

List of Jat gotras common with Chauhan Agnikula vansh

According to Dr Tugania's book Chahuan vanshi Lakra Jaton ka Itihas (Chapter 32) some common origins regarding certain Jat gotras arising out of Chahmans or Chauhans. These may be called Agnivanshi Jat clans included in Chauhans, the list is as under :

List of Jat Gotras common with Parihara Agnikula vansh

Thakur Deshraj[7] writes that In the Rajakula Jats, Parihars are found in districts of Agra and Mathura. He considers Parihar Gotra in Jats to be based on title and rejects their foreign origin theory propagated by historians like D R Bhandarkar and V A Smith. During Mount Abu mahayagya of of creation of Agnikula Kshatriya some gotras who joined them became Rajput Parihars and those remained out of it were Jat Parihars and Gujar Parihars. Thakur Deshraj considers their origin in The Mahabharata Tribe called Paratangana (परतंगण), rulers near Manasarovar in Himalayas, as these were the people on gate way of India near China border. Their neighbours were Tangana (तंगण) people who are still found amongst Jats in Jaipur and Bharatpur districts in Rajasthan and in Firozabad, Uttar Pradesh in the form of Tangar (तंगड़) Jat clan.

Some Jat Gotras also joined or merged with the Pratihara Confederation. The Jat clans common with Parihars are listed below:

अग्निवंश क्या है

वैदिक धर्म ब्राह्मणों के नियंत्रण में आ गया था. इसमें कर्म काण्ड बढ़ गए थे. बुद्ध ने इसके विरुद्ध बगावत कर दी और नया बौद्ध धर्म चलाया. शनै-शनै क्षत्रिय वर्ग वैदिक धर्म त्याग कर बौध धर्मी बन गया. क्षत्रियों की वैदिक परम्पराएँ नष्ट हो गयी. पहले क्षत्रिय सूर्यवंशी या चंद्रवंशी कहलाते थे. ब्राहमणों ने इस से चिड कर पुराणों में यह लिखा दिया कि कलियुग में ब्राहमण व शूद्र ही रह जायेंगे और राजा शूद्र होंगे. ब्राहमणों ने बुद्ध धर्मावलम्बी क्षत्रियों को शूद्र की संज्ञा देदी. उस काल में समाज की रक्षा करना तथा शासन चलाना क्षत्रिय का उत्तर दायित्व था. वैदिक धर्म की रक्षा का जटिल प्रश्न ब्राहमणों के सामने उपस्थित हुआ. इस पर ब्राहमणों ने क्षत्रियों को वापिस वैदिक धर्म में लाने के प्रयास किये. ब्राहमणों के मुखिया ऋषियों ने अपने अथक प्रयास से चार क्षत्रिय कुलों को वापस वैदिक धर्म में दीक्षित करने में सफलता प्राप्त कर ली. आबू पर्वत पर यज्ञ कर के बौध धर्म से वैदिक धर्म में पुनः उनका समावेस किया. यही अग्निकुंड का स्वरुप है. [8]

अग्निकुल क्षत्रिय सिद्धांत का इतिहासकारों के पास कोई ठोस अभिलेख नहीं दिखता है. राजस्थान के दशरथ शर्मा इतिहासकार मानते हैं कि अभिलेखों के आधार पर परमार अग्निकुल क्षत्रिय हैं ऐसा वो एक शिलालेखीय अभिलेख के आधार पर कहते हैं. दशरथ शर्मा लिखते हैं कि असुरों का संहार करने के लिए वशिष्ठ ऋषि ने चार क्षत्रिय कुल उत्पन्न किये- चालुक्य, चौहान, परमार और प्रतिहार. [9]अबुल फजल ने आईने अकबरी में इनकी उत्पति आबू पर्वत पर महाबाहू ऋषि द्वारा बौद्धों से तंग आने के कारण अग्नि कुंड से होना लिखा है. (सन्दर्भ आईने अकबरी वि.2, प.214 .) चौहानों के बारे में आबू पर्वत पर अचलेश्वर महादेव के मंदिर में संवत 1377 ई.1320 के देवड़ा लुम्भा के समय के लेख में लिखा है कि सूर्य और चन्द्रवंश के अस्त हो जाने पर जब संसार में उत्पात कायम हुआ तो वत्स ऋषि ने ध्यान योग लगाया तब उनके ध्यान में और चन्द्रमा के योग से एक पुरुष उत्पन्न हुआ.[10]

अबू पर्वत पर जो क्षत्रिय माने गए उनमें से 80 प्रतिशत नागवंशी जाट थे. शेष अहीर, गुजर यादव आदि थे. उस समय राजपूत शब्द प्रचलन में नहीं हुआ था. वस्तुत नागवंशी जाट बौद्ध धर्म में थे. उनका हिन्दुकरण किया गया और नए क्षत्रिय वर्ग में विभाजन कर दिया गया. जो गोत्र जिस क्षत्रिय वंश में शामिल हुए उनका इतिहास वहीँ से माना गया. भाट व्यवस्था कायम की गयी. भाट अपना इतिहास वहीँ से लिखना शुरू कर रहे हैं इसलिए उत्पति चौहान वंश से मान रहे हैं. इतिहास का जीरो लेवल आबू पर्वत कर दिया गया. इसी को अग्निकुल सिद्धांत कहा गया है.

अग्निवंश में सम्मिलित चार क्षत्रिय वंशियों के वापस वैदिक धर्म में आने के बाद भी बुद्ध धर्म में क्षत्रिय अधिकतर थे अतः बौद्ध धर्मावलम्बी क्षत्रियों से इनकी अलग पहचान हेतु इन्हें क्षत्रियों के स्थान पर राजपूत कहकर पुकारा जाने लगा. ब्राहमणों ने इनको अन्य क्षत्रियों पर श्रेष्ठ सिद्ध करने की कोशिश की. [11]

Mount Abu Vimala Temple Inscription of v.s. 1378 (1322 AD)

Note - See details at Mount Abu

  • On the mountain Arbuda there sprang from the fire-pit (anala-kunda, agni-kunda) of the sage Vasishtha the hero Paramara...
  • Parmara - This inscription provides historical base for the creation of Parmars from the Agnikula. Verses 3-6 tell us that at the mountain Arbuda there sprang from the fire-pit (anala-kunda, agni-kunga) of the sage Vasishtha the hero Paramara. In his lineage appeared the hero Kānhaḍadeva ; and in his family there was a chief named Dhandhu (Dhandhuraja), who was lord of the town of Chandrāvati and who, averse from rendering homage to the Chalukya king Bhimadva I. and to escape that king's anger, took refuge with king Bhoja, the lord of Dhārā.
  • The inscriptional facts and inclusion of many Jat clans in these documents leads us to believe the view of James Todd that Parmaras (Panwar) rulers of Arbud (Abu) were of Jat (vansha). [12]

Patanarayana temple Inscription of 1287 AD at Girwar

Sanskrit Text

लाइन 35-39

देवस्य नैवेद्यहेतोर्दत्ताय पदाव्यक्तिर्यथा ।। महाराकुलसो (शो) भित
पुत्र देवड़ामेलाकेन छनारे ग्रामे दोणकारी क्षेत्र १ उभयं दत्तं ।।
षीमाउलीग्रामे वीहलरा वीरपालेन ढीबड़उ १ दत्तं आउलिग्रामे
ग्रामेयकै अरहटं प्रति ८ ठीकडा ठीक आ प्रति २ दत्तं ।। कल्हण-
वाड ग्रामे हलं प्रति से: १ गोहिल उत्रनुडियल (ले)न प्रतिग्रमापाद्रं
दत्त द्र. १० तथा मडाउली ग्रामे रा. गांगू कर्मसीहाभ्यां द्वादप्श
एकादशीषु चोलायिका आय पदं दत्तं । चन्द्रावती मंपपिकायां
बिसार अंकतोअपि ।। सं. 1344 ज्येष्ठ सुदी 5 शुक्रे जीर्णोद्धार प्रतिष्ठा ।
Patanarayana temple Inscription of 1287 AD at Girwar[13]

डॉ. गोपीनाथ शर्मा [14] लिखते हैं कि यह शिलालेख राजस्थान के सिरोही जिले में गिरवर नामक स्थान पर पटनारायण के मंदिर में है. भाषा संस्कृत और 39 पंक्तियाँ हैं. लेख का आशय यह है कि वशिष्ठ ने मंत्र बल से आबू के अग्नि कुण्ड से धूम्रराज परमार को उत्पन्न किया. इसी कुल में धारावर्ष उत्पन्न हुआ जो एक तीर से तीन भैंसों को वेध देता था. धारावर्ष के लड़के सोमसिंह का लड़का कृष्णराज था. कृष्णराज का पुत्र प्रतापसिंह ने जैत्रसिंह (मेवाड़ ?) को परास्त कर चंद्रावती पर अधिकार कर लिया. प्रताप सिंह के मंत्री देल्हनण ने संवत 1344 में प्रतापनारायण के मंदिर को पुन: बनवाया. इस लेख में कई स्थानीय शब्दों को संस्कृत में प्रयुक्त किया है, जो बड़े महत्व का है. जैसे देवड़ा एक चौहानों की शाखा के लिए, 'दोनकरी' 'डोली' के लिए, 'ढीबडू' कुंए के लिए, 'अरहट' रेंठ के लिए, आदि ; 'चोलापिका' चौरा की आय, 'विसार' निर्यात कर के लिए आदि.

इसमें आबू की प्रशंसा, परमारों के वंश, मालवा के शासक वीसल, प्रशस्तिकार गंगदेव की विद्वता, खेतों की उपज, अनाज का तोल, प्रति हल नाज की पैदावार, द्रम का प्रचलन, भूमि कर, निर्यात कर आदि पर काफी प्रकाश पड़ता है. इससे प्रतीत होता है की चन्द्रावती उस समय व्यापारिक केंद्र था. इसमें आस-पास के गाँवों से मंदिर की सेवा-पूजा की व्यवस्था करने का अच्छा वर्णन है. जिसकी कुछ पंक्तियाँ साथ के बाक्स में है.


  1. Scythic Origin of the Rajput Race
  2. History of the Jats/ChapterVIII,p.133-134
  3. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Haravati,p.406-407
  4. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Haravati,p.408
  5. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races,pp.107-108
  6. IA, xxxiv. 263
  7. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter V, p.145-46
  8. कु. देवी सिंह मंडावा:सम्राट पृथ्वीराज चौहान, 2007 , पृ. 21 -23
  9. कु. देवी सिंह मंडावा:सम्राट पृथ्वीराज चौहान, 2007 , पृ.18
  10. कु. देवी सिंह मंडावा:सम्राट पृथ्वीराज चौहान, 2007 , पृ.19
  11. कु. देवी सिंह मंडावा:सम्राट पृथ्वीराज चौहान, 2007 , पृ.23
  12. Encyclopedea of Archives (Ghos Memorial) Volume 11 page 733
  13. डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा: 'राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्त्रोत', 1983, पृ.117
  14. डॉ. गोपीनाथ शर्मा: राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्त्रोत, 1983, पृ. 117