Rivers in Madhya Pradesh
|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)|
- 1 Flow of Rivers
- 2 River basins in Madhya Pradesh
- 2.1 Ganges basin
- 2.2 Yamuna sub basin
- 2.3 Chambal sub-sub basin
- 2.4 Kunwari Sindh sub-sub basin
- 2.5 Jamni sub-sub basin
- 2.6 Betwa sub-sub basin
- 2.7 Dhasan sub-sub basin
- 2.8 Ken sub-sub basin
- 2.9 Paisuni and Baidhan sub sub basin
- 2.10 Tons sub basin
- 2.11 Sone sub basin
- 2.12 Narmada basin
- 2.13 Godavari basin
- 2.14 Tapti basin
- 2.15 Mahi basin
- 2.16 Mahanadi basin
- 3 List of rivers of Madhya Pradesh
- 4 See also
Flow of Rivers
- The rivers namely, Chambal, Sindh, Betwa, Ken flow northward and meet with Yamuna whereas the river
- Sone falls directly into Ganges.
- Narmada, Tapi and Mahi rivers flow westward and meet Arabian Sea whereas
- Wainganga and Pench rivers meet Godavari in the south.
Annual run off from these rivers within the state is estimated 81719 hm, out of which about 49743 hm can be harnessed for irrigation purpose. The State can be divided onto six major river basins, the details of which are as follows. :
River basins in Madhya Pradesh
River Ganges originates from the hills of Himalayas at Gangotri and meets Bay of Bengal. The basin extends into 11 states viz. Uttranchal, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal.
In Madhya Pradesh, the basin extends up to the districts of Mandsaur, Ujjain, Shajapur, Rajgarh, Neemuch, Vidisha, Guna, Shivpuri, Datia, Gwalior, Morena, Sheopur, Bhind, Tikamgarh, Chhattarpur, Panna, Satna, Rewa, Ashoknagar, Shahdol, Sidhi, and Partly in the district of Annuppur, Umaria, Katni, Jabalpur.Mandla, Dindori, Dhar, Ratlam, Indore, Dewas, Sehore, Raisen, Sagar, Bhopal, and Damoh.
Yamuna sub basin
Total geographical area of Yamuna sub basin in Madhya Pradesh is 1,42,250 km², out of which the area available for agriculture is estimated as 90,105 km² and water availability at 75% dependability is 27627 hm Total water available for use of the State after deducting for interstate agreements is 23642 hm only. The major rivers of this sub-basin in Madhya Pradesh are Chambal, Ken, Dhasan, Betwa, Kunwari, Sindh, Paisuni and Jamni details of which are as under:
Chambal sub-sub basin
Chambal River originates from Indore District and meets river Yamuna near Bhind. Total catchments area of Chambal in Madhya Pradesh is 59940 km². Total length of the river 938 km, out of which initial length of 320 km lies in Madhya Pradesh, 226 km in Rajasthan, 216 km makes the boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, 112 km makes the boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh and 64 km in Uttar Pradesh before confluence with Yamuna river.
Kunwari Sindh sub-sub basin
Sindh River originates in Vidisha District. Total catchments area of the river in Madhya Pradesh is 26699 km² and total length is 470 km. A length of 461 km of the river falls in Madhya Pradesh and 9 km in Uttar Pradesh.
Jamni sub-sub basin
Jamni River originates in Sagar District. Total catchment area in Madhya Pradesh is 1235 km² and total length is 201 km. In Madhya Pradesh the river flows for 29 km, for 85 km river makes boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh and last 87 km flows in Uttar Pradesh.
Betwa sub-sub basin
Betwa River originates near Bhopal and meets Yamuna near Hamirpur. Total basin area in Madhya Pradesh is 19365 km². Total length of river is 575 km, out of which 216 km lies in Madhya Pradesh, 98 km common boundary between the two states and 261 km in Uttar Pradesh.
Dhasan sub-sub basin
This Dhasan River originates in Raisen District of Madhya Pradesh. Total basin area in Madhya Pradesh is 8291 km². Total length of the river is 365 km, out of which 240 km lies in Madhya Pradesh, 54 km common boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh and 71 km in Uttar Pradesh.
Ken sub-sub basin
Ken River originates in Jabalpur District. Total basin area in Madhya Pradesh is 24785 km². Total length of river is 427 km, out of which 292 in Madhya Pradesh, 84 km in Uttar Pradesh and 51 km makes the common Boundary between the two states.
Paisuni and Baidhan sub sub basin
Total basin area of river Paisuni in Madhya Pradesh is 416 km² and of Baidhan river is 1504 km² in Madhya Pradesh. These two rivers originate in Satna District and Panna District and meet river Yamuna below Banda District.
Tons sub basin
Tons River originates in Satna District. Total basin area in Madhya Pradesh is 11974 km². The river meets Ganges after flowing 246 km in Madhya Pradesh, 7 km making boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh and finally 67 km in Uttar Pradesh. Total land put to use for agriculture purpose in Tons basin is 8460 km² in the State for which 2244 hm of water is available for its use against total available water at 75% dependability is 2244 hm.
Sone sub basin
Narmada River originates from Amarkantak and flows from east to west and joins Arabian Sea. Total drainage area of the river is 98796 km², out of which 85149 km² lies in Madhya Pradesh after formation of Chhattisgarh, which has 710 km². Total length or river is 1312 km and in Madhya Pradesh the river flows for a length of 1077 km.
River Tapti originates from Multai in Betul District. This river also flows form east to west. Total basin area of Tapi is 65145 km². Out of which Madhya Pradesh has 9800 km². Total length of the river is 724 km. In Madhya Pradesh the length of river is 332 km. Total agriculture land available in the state is 6330 km². Water available at 75% dependability in the state is 2401 hm.
Mahi River originates in Dhar District and joins Gulf of Khambat. Total drainage area of this basin is 34842 km² out of which only 6700 km² lies in Madhya Pradesh. Total length of the river is 583 km of which 158 km traverses in Madhya Pradesh. Anas is the major tributary of Mahi in the State. Total agriculture land available in the basin in the state is 3450 km², total water availability at 75% dependability is 1952 hm.
List of rivers of Madhya Pradesh
- Baidhan - Total basin area of Baidhan river is 1504 km² in Madhya Pradesh. The river originates in Panna District and meet river Yamuna below Banda District.
- Banjar - Tributary of Narmada River.
- Beda - Tributary of Narmada River.
- Betwa : Originating in the Kumra village in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh, the river Betwa flows for 380km. After meandering through Madhya Pradesh, it enters the neighbouring state, Uttar Pradesh, and joins the river Yamuna in Hamirpur. The Betwa takes along with it the water of the eastern Malwa plateau. The tributaries of Betwa are Bina, Yamini, Dhasan and Ken. In ancient times, the Betwa was known as Vetrawati.
- Chambal - The river Chambal originates from the Janapav Near Mhow Mountain in the Vindhya Range, and flows northeast through Ujjain, Ratlam and Mandsaur, before entering Rajasthan. It reenters Madhya Pradesh after meandering through parts of Rajasthan and touches Morena and Bhind. Here are the infamous Chambal Ravines that have been and still are the safest refuge for dacoits.
- Dhasan - The Dhasan River is a right bank tributary of the Betwa River. The river originates in Begumganj tehsil of Raisen district in Madhya Pradesh state in central India. The river forms the southeastern boundary of the Lalitpur District of Uttar Pradesh state. Total length of the river is 365 km, out of which 240 km lies in Madhya Pradesh, 54 km common boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh and 71 km in Uttar Pradesh. The river was known as the Dasharna in ancient period. Lehchura Dam is built on this river at 2 km from Harpalpur railway station. This rivers is also treated as a holy river by villagers of its nearest villages.
- Halali - Halali River is a tributary of the Betwa River. It was formerly known as Thal River. In the 18th century, Dost Mohammad Khan's forces killed a rival Rajput force near Jagdishpur (later renamed to Islamnagar) on the bank of the river. The river was renamed to "Halali river" (the river of slaughter), because it appeared red with the blood of the victims. Another name for the river is Banganga. The Halali reservoir was commissioned in 1973.
- Jamni - Jamni River originates in Sagar District. Jamni River is a main tributary of the Betwa River and enters Lalitpur District near Madanpur village. It meets Betwa river near town of Orchha.
- Jobat - Tributary of Narmada River.
- Kali Sindh - Kali Sindh is a river in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh, that joins the Chambal River at downstream of Sawai Madhopur in Rajasthan. It belongs to the Ganges Basin. The Kali Sindh originates from Bagli (District Dewas) in Madhya Pradesh. It crosses the State Highway No 18 connecting Indore and state capital Bhopal near Sonkatch and blocks the road traffic for hours when in flood. The main tributaries of the Kali Sindh are Parwan, Niwaj and Ahu Rivers.
- Heran - Tributary of Narmada River.
- Kanhar - Kanhar River (कनहार नदी) is a tributary of the Son River and flows through the Indian states of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh. The Kanhar originates at Gidha-Dhodha on the Khudia plateau in Jashpur district of Chhattishgarh. It initially flows north forming the boundary with Garhwa district in Palamu division of Jharkhand. Thereafter, it flows for about 100 kilometres through Surguja district of Chhatisgarh. Subsequently, it runs parallel to the Son in Garhwa district and turns north-west and flowing through Sonbhadra district in Mirzapur division of Uttar Pradesh. It confluences with the Son River to the north-east of the village of Kota. It has a rocky bed almost throughout its course. A rapid mountain torrent, flowing through forested areas, it is a dangerous stream. The tributaries of the Kanhar are: Theme, Lanva, Pandu, Goita, Hathinala, Suria, Chana, Sendur, Kursa, Galphulla, Semarkhar, Riger and the Cherna nallah.
- Kolar - Tributary of Narmada River.
- Kuno - Kuno River is one of the main tributaries of the Chambal River. It flows through the Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary from south to north, draining the Sheopur district in Madhya Pradesh.
- Kunwari River - Kwari River (also spelled as Kuwari or Kunwari River) flows through Morena and Bhind districts of Madhya Pradesh in central India. The start or origin place of the river is located at Devpura village. Kwari is a tributary of Chambal River and joins it in Etawah District. Chambal River joins Yamuna River further down the stream. The river flow is not fast. Towns like Sheopur of Bijeypur district and Morena of Kailaras district are located along its bank.
- Ken - The Ken River is one of the major rivers of the Bundelkhand region of central India, and flows through two states, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. It is a tributary of the Yamuna. The Ken River originates near village Ahirgawan on the north-west slopes of Kaimur Range in Jabalpur district and travels a distance of 427 km, before merging with the Yamuna at Chilla village, near Fatehpur in Uttar Pradesh. Banda city is located on banks of river Ken.
- Mahanadi - Like many other seasonal Indian rivers, the Mahanadi too is a combination of many mountain streams and thus its precise source is impossible to pinpoint. However its farthest headwaters lie 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from Pharsiya village 442 metres (1,450 ft) above sea level south of Nagri town in Dhamtari district of Chhattisgarh. The hills here are an extension of the Eastern Ghats and are a source of many other streams which then go on to join the Mahanadi. For the first 80 kilometres (50 mi) of its course, the Mahanadi flows in a northerly direction and drains the Raipur district and touches eastern portions of Raipur city. It is a rather narrow river at this stage and the total width of its valley does not exceed 500–600 metres. Mahanadi also passes through the states like Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, and Odisha.
- Mahi River - Mahi River originates at Minda Village in Dhar District and joins Gulf of Khambat. It rises in Madhya Pradesh and, after flowing through the Vagad region of Rajasthan, enters Gujarat and flows into the Arabian Sea. It is one of three west-flowing rivers in India, along with Tapti River and the Narmada River.
- Mān - Tributary of Narmada River.
- Narmada - Originating in Amarkantak, the highest peak of the Vindhya Range, it flows westward through Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat before finally ending its journey in the Gulf of Khambat.
- Paisuni - Total basin area of river Paisuni in Madhya Pradesh is 416 km² The river originates in Satna District and meet river Yamuna below Banda District.
- Parban River - originates in Madhya Pradesh and flows through Rajasthan. It is tributary of Kali Sindh.
- Purna River is one of the chief tributaries of Tapti River originating from Betul district Madhya Pradesh and empties in it at Changdeo in Jalgaon, Maharashtra. It is identified with Payoshni of Mahabharata.
- Pench - Pench River is an Indian tributary of the Banganga River. It originates in the Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh and flows across Pench National Park, which is a reserve for the Tiger Project of India.
- Shakkar - Tributary of Narmada River.
- Sher - Tributary of Narmada River.
- Sindh River - a tributary of the Yamuna River, flows through the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.The Sindh originates on the Malwa Plateau in Vidisha district, and flows north-northeast through the districts of Guna, Ashoknagar, Shivpuri, Datia, Gwalior and Bhind in Madhya Pradesh to join the Yamuna River in Etawah district, Uttar Pradesh, just after the confluence of the Chambal River with the Yamuna River. It has a total length of 470 kilometres, out of which 461 kilometres are in Madhya Pradesh and 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) are in Uttar Pradesh. The Pahuj, Kwari, Mahuar, and Parbati are its tributaries.
- Shipra - The Shipra starts her journey in the Vindhya Range from a hill called Kokri Tekdi situated at a distance of 11km from Ujjain. This river is 195km long, out of which 93km flow through Ujjain. It then touches Ratlam and Mandsaur, before joining the river Chambal. The main tributaries of Shipra are Khan and Gambhir.
- Sone - Son River (सोन नदी) of central India is the largest of the Ganges' southern tributaries. The Son originates near Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh, just east of the headwater of the Narmada River, and flows north-northwest through Madhya Pradesh state before turning sharply eastward where it encounters the southwest-northeast-running Kaimur Range. The Son parallels the Kaimur hills, flowing east-northeast through Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Bihar states to join the Ganges just above Patna. Geologically, the lower valley of the Son is an extension of the Narmada Valley, and the Kaimur Range an extension of the Vindhya Range. Dehri on sone is the major town situated on Son River. The Son river at 784 kilometres long, is one of the largest rivers of India. Its chief tributaries are the Rihand and the North Koel.
- Sukta - Tributary of Narmada River.
- Tawa - Tributary of Narmada River. The Tawa is the Narmada's longest tributary, at 172 km. It rises in the Satpura Range of Betul and flowing north and west, joins the Narmada at the village of Bandra Bhan in Hoshangabad District. In 1958, construction began on Tawa Dam, which was completed in 1978 to create Tawa Reservoir in southern Hoshangabad District. Forty-four villages were submerged by the reservoir
- Tapti River or Tapi - Sanskrit तपती. The Tapi River originates in the Betul district from a place called Multai , in Madhya Pradesh state. The Sanskrit name of Multai is Mulatapi, meaning origin of Tāpī Mātā or the Tapti River. Tāptī is the daughter of Surya, the Sun God and his wife, Chhaya. Tapti is also known as sister of Lord Shani.Apart from the Narmada, the Tapi is the only river that flows westward and falls into the Arabian Sea, in the Gulf of Khambat, to be precise 724km long. Tapi is agriculturally very important as it drains an area of over 65,145sq km spread over Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat. This river originates at a height of 762m in Betul district of Madhya Pradesh (to the south of the Satpura Range). The Tapi journeys almost parallel to the Narmada, though it is much shorter in length than the Narmada and has a smaller catchment area. Tapti River ancient original name Tapati River is a river in central India. It is one of the major rivers of peninsular India with a length of around 724 kilometres (450 mi). It is one of only three rivers in peninsular India that run from east to west - the others being the Narmada River and the Mahi River. The river rises in the eastern Satpura Range of southern Madhya Pradesh state, and flows westward, draining Madhya Pradesh's Nimar region, Maharashtra's Kandesh and east Vidarbha regions in the northwest corner of the Deccan Plateau and south Gujarat, before emptying into the Gulf of Cambay of the Arabian Sea, in the Surat District of Gujarat. The river, along with the northern parallel Narmada River, form the boundaries between North and South India. The Western Ghats or Sahyadri range starts south of the Tapti River near the border of Gujarat and Maharashtra. The Tapti (Tapi) River empties into the Gulf of Khambhat near the city of Surat in Gujarat. It is identified with Payoshni of Mahabharata.
- Tendoni - Tributary of Narmada River.
- Tons - Tons River originates in Satna District. The Tons River (also known as the Tamsa River) is a tributary of the Ganges flowing through the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The Tamsa rises in a tank at Tamakund in the Kaimur Range at an elevation of 610 metres. It flows through the fertile districts of Satna and Rewa. At the edge of the Purwa plateau, the Tamsa and its tributaries form a number of waterfalls. The river receives the Belan in UP and joins the Ganges at Sirsa, about 311 kilometres downstream of the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna. The total length of the river is 264 kilometres. It has a total drainage area of 16,860 square kilometres (6,510 sq mi). The Tamsa River while descending through the Rewa Plateau and draining northwards makes a vertical falls of 70m known as Purwa Falls. Some of the more notable waterfalls on the tributaries of the Tamsa river, as they come down from the Rewa Plateau, are: Chachai Falls (127m) on the Bihad River, a tributary of the Tamsa, the Keoti Falls (98m) on the Mahana River, a tributary of the Tamsa, and Odda Falls (145m) on the Odda River, a tributary of the Belah River, which is itself a tributary of the Tamsa.
- The Ashrama of sage Valmiki was situated at the bank’s of Tamasa river. When Sita was exiled by Rama, she left Ayodhya and came to the banks of Tamasa river some 15 km away from the city, where she met Valmiki. He requested Sita to live in his ashrama situated at the bank of the Tamasa river. Here Sita spent all her remaining life, and here her twin sons Lava and Kusha received education and trained in military skills under the tutelage of Valmiki. Also on the banks of river Tamsa was the ashram of Bharadwaj, mentioned in the Valmiki Ramayana; it is here that on seeing the plight a bird couple, Valmiki created his first verse, shloka.
- Vaisali River: It flows in Bhind District and Gwalior districts. It originates in Gwalior district near Behat. The site of Gohad Fort was selected strategically on the Vaisali River where it takes a circular turn. The Gohad fort is in circular shape. It is protected by the rampart constructed around the fort in a length of 5 km. The river was dug and flow of river was extended up to the fort to take a semi circular shape. Other important town on its course is Khitoli in Bhind. It meets Sindh River.
- Wainganga - Wainganga (वैनगंगा नदी) river originates about 12 km from Mundara village of Seoni district in the southern slopes of the Satpura Range of Madhya Pradesh, and flows south through Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra in a very winding course of approximatedly 579 km. After joining the Wardha, the united stream, known as the Pranahita, ultimately falls into the Godavari river at Kaleshwaram, Telangana. Cities On The River Bank are - Balaghat, Bhandara, Pauni and Desaiganj are the Main Cities situated on the bank of this River.
- Wardha - Wardha River or Varada River (वर्धा) is one of the biggest rivers in Vidarbha region in India. The Wardha River joins the Penganga River south of Chamorshi and forms the Pranahita River at Adilabad District, Telangana. Wardha originates at an altitude of 777 meters Satpura Range in village Khairwani near Multai, Betul District of Madhya Pradesh. From the origin it flows 32 km in Madhya Pradesh and then enters into Maharastra. After traversing 528 km, it joins the Wainganga forming the Pranahita, which ultimately flows into the Godavari River. Tributaries - Kar, Wena, Jam, Erai are the left tributaries. Madu, Bembla, Penganga are the right tributaries.
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