Indian History Time Line

From Jatland Wiki
Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)
This is a partial list of timeline of Indian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in India and its predecessor states. You can expanding it. See also List of Events in Jat History

10000 BC - 1000 BC

Year Event
9000BC Early Neolithic culture with first confirmed semi permanent settlements appeared 9,000 years ago in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh, India.
7500BC Early Neolithic culture begins in the Indian Subcontinent in Bhirrana in Haryana.
7000BC Later Neolithic culture begins in Mehrgarh currently in Balochistan, Pakistan.
4300BC Mehrgarh one of the most important Neolithic sites in archaeology begins on the "Kachi plain" of now Balochistan, Pakistan.
3300BC Kot Diji phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins. The civilization used an early form of the Indus signs, the so-called Indus script.
3102BC Epoch of Kaliyuga era and Bharata War according to one school of astronomers. This date is also considered by many Hindus to be the day that Krishna left Earth to return to his abode.
2700BC Date of Indus Valley Seals found at Kish
2600BC Mature Harappan phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins. The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises and the civilization expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements across the whole of Pakistan, much of northern India, and parts of Afghanistan and Iran.
2600BC Mature Harappan phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins. The cities of Harappa, Lothal, Kalibangan, Dholavira, Rakhigarhi and Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises and the civilization expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements. The civilization began using the mature Indus script.
2500BC Dravidian Civilization begins in South India.
2449BC Date of heroes of Bharata War according to a second group of astronomers and chronologists
1900BC Late Harappan Phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins, including Cemetery H culture and other cultures.
1800BC Iron Age in India.
1750BC Aryans, enter India from Central Asia and the Russian steppes.
1700BC Indus Valley Civilization comes to an end but is continued by the Cemetery H culture.
1500BC Early Vedic Period (to 1000 BC)
1435BC Aryan kings in western Asia.
1414BC Date of Bharata War according to some Puranas
1300BC Cemetery H culture comes to an end.
1200BC Rigveda (to 1000 BC)

1000 BC - 0000 BC

Year Event
1000BC Middle and Late Vedic period (to 500 BC), Iron Age India, Iron Age kingdoms rule India— Panchala, Kuru, Kosala, Videha.
910BC Yajnavalkya writes the Shatapatha Brahmana, in which he describes the motions of the sun and the moon.
877BC Birth of Parsvanatha, 23rd Jain Tirthankara (traditional date)
777BC Nirvana of Parsvanatha 23rd Jain Tirthankara
700BC The Upanishads, a sacred text of Hinduism, are written.
600BC Sixteen Maha Janapadas ("Great Realms" or "Great Kingdoms") emerge. Vedic End of vedic period.
599BC Mahavira, 24th Tirthankar of Jainism is born (traditional date).
558BC Accession of Cyrus the great, conqueror of Kapisa
563BC Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini into a leading royal family in the republic of the Shakyas, which is now part of Nepal.
544BC Traditional Epoch of the Ceylones Era of Buddha's Nirvana
538BC Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquers northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent.
527BC Nirvana of Mahavira
522BC Accession of Darius I, conqueror of the Indian satrapy of the Persian Empire.
518BC Naval Expedition of Skylax and conquest of the Indian satrapy
486BC Cantonese date of Gautama Buddha's Nirvana.
400BC Siddharta Gautama 'Buddha' of the Shakya polity in S. Nepal, founds Buddhism (older date: 563–483 BC)
350BC Panini, a resident of Gandhara, describes the grammar and morphology of Sanskrit in the text Ashtadhyayi. Panini's standardized Sanskrit is known as Classical Sanskrit.
333BC Persian rule in the northwest ends after Darius III is defeated by Alexander the Great, who establishes the Macedonian Empire after inheriting the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
326BC Ambhi king of Taxila surrenders to Alexander. Porus who ruled parts of the Punjab, fought Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes River.
325BC Alexander leaves India
324BC Rise of the Maurya Dynasty
321BC Mauryan Empire is founded by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha after he defeats the Nanda dynasty and Macedonian Seleucid Empire. Mauryan capital city is Patliputra (Modern Patna in Bihar)
313BC Jaina date of the year of Chandragupta Maurya's accession probably as ruler of Avanti
305BC Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleucus Nicator of the Seleucid Empire.
304BC Seleucus gives up his territories in the subcontinent (Afghanistan/Baluchistan) to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants. Seleucus offers his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta to seal their friendship.
273BC Ashoka the Great regarded as the greatest ancient Indian emperor, grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, ascends as emperor of the Mauryan Empire.
266BC Ashoka conquers and unifies most of South Asia, along with Afghanistan and eastern Iran.
265BC Kalinga War takes place between Ashoka and the kingdom of Kalinga. After conquering Kalinga, Ashoka reportedly regrets what he had done, leading him to adopt Buddhism, which then became the quasi-official state religion of the Mauryan Empire.
261BC Conquest of Kalinga
260BC Ashoka begins displaying religious tolerance, grants animal rights, builds hospitals for people and animals, treats his subjects as equals regardless of caste or creed, and promotes non-violence and republicanism. Ashoka inscribes the Edicts of Ashoka, written down using Brahmi script.
232BC Ashoka dies and is succeeded by Kunala.
230BC Simuka declares independence from Mauryan rule and establishes the Satavahana Empire.
206BC Indian Expedition of Antiochos III, King of Syria
200BC Kuninda Kingdom is established. Tholkappiyam describes the grammar and morphology of Tamil; it is the oldest existing Tamil grammar (dates vary between 200 BCE and 100 CE to 100 BC)
184BC The Mauryan Empire, which shrunk considerably, collapses after its emperor Brihadrata is assassinated by his general Pusyamitra Sunga. Pusyamitra Sunga then establishes the Sunga dynasty.
187BC Rise of the Dynasty of Pushyamitra
180BC Establishment of the Indo-Greek kingdom.
165BC Plato, a King of Bactria
126BC The Chinese ambassador Chang-Kien visits the Yuch-chi in the Oxus region
80BC Establishment of the Indo-Scythian kingdom.
65BC The Pandyan king sends ambassadors to the Greek and Roman lands.
58BC Beginning of Vikram Era
30BC End of Sunga -Kanva rule in Eastern Malwa; Satavahana supremacy in Deccan
26-20BC Indian Embassies to Augustus
02BC A Chinese official instructed in Buddhism by a Yuch-chi King

0001 AD- 1000 AD

Year Event
01 Parthian Stations by Isidore of Charax
10 Establishment of the Indo-Parthian kingdom.
35 Western Satraps formed.
47 Takht-i-Bahi record of Gondophernes
52 Saint Thomas the Apostle reached Muziris and baptized people known as Saint Thomas Christians.
64 The Chinese Emperor Ming-ti sends for Buddhist texts
68 Establishment of the Kushan empire by Kujula Kadphises.
77 Pliny's Natural History
78 Epoch of the Saka Era; Decline of the Parthians and consolidation of the Kushana power in the Indus Valley]]; Gautamiputra Satkarni becomes Satavahana emperor and starts Shalivahana era calendar after defeating Scythian king Maues.
89-105 Kushana King repulsed by the Chinese General Pan Chao
90 Sung jae has established kingdom.
100 Indian Embassy to the Roman Emperor Trajan.
119-124 Nahapana, His power overthrown by Gautamiputra Satkarni.
130-150 Rudradaman I
148-170 An-Shih-Kao translates a work by Kanishka's chaplain.
200 Palmyra created a Roman colony
230 The Yuch-chi King Po-tiao (Vasudeva ?) sends an Embassy to China
240 Sri-Gupta starts the Gupta Empire in Magadha, with its capital in Patliputra
248 Epoch of Traikutaka-Kalachuri Era
320 February 26. Gupta Era begins; Chandragupta I ascends the Gupta throne.
335 Samudragupta ascends the Gupta throne and expands the empire.
360 Ceylonese Embassy to Samudragupta.
380 Chandragupta II, Samudragupta's son becomes the Gupta Emperor.
388 Latest known date of the Shakas of Western India
405-411 Travels of Fa-Hien in the Gupta Empire.
415 Accession of Kumara Gupta I.
436 Simhavarman, the Pallva King of Kanchi, mentioned in the Lokavibhaga.
448 Huns in the Oxus Valley
450 Invasions by the Huna.
455 Accession of Skanda Gupta.
467 Latest known date of Skanda Gupta.
473 Kumara Gupta II
476 Birth of the astronomer Aryabhata.
477-495 Reign of Budha Gupta.
507-508 Vainya Gupta; Gopachandra, a contemporary of Vainya Gupta.
510-511 Bhanu Gupta
533 Yashodharman, conqueror of Huna King Mihirkula
543-544 Continuance of Gupta rule in the North Bengal, Rise of the Chalukya of Vatapi
554 Collapse of Gupta Empire after the death of Shashankgupta. Isanavarman Maukhari.
566-567 Accession of Kirtivarman I, Chalukya.
606 Harshavardhana crowned Monarch.
619-620 Supremacy of Shashanka in Eastern India
622 Era of Hijra
634 Reference to the fame of Kalidasa aand Bharavi in Aihole inscription
637 Arab raid against Thana
637 Badami Chalukya power at its peak. Pulakeshin II pushes north up to the Narmada and defeats the invading Harshavardhana of Kanauj
639 Foundation of Lhasa by Srong-tsan-gampo
641 Harshavardhana's Embassy to China
642 Death of Pulkesin II
642-668 Narasimhavarman I, the great Pallava
643 Harshavardhana's meeting with Hiuen-Tsang
647 Death of Harshavardhana
648 Bhaskaravarman or Kumararaja, King of Kamarupa, helped Wang-Hiuen-T'se
657 Third mission of Wang-Hiuen-T'se
661 Guhila Aparajita
667 "Five Indies" sent ambassador to China
672-673 Adityasena
674 Vikramaditya I, Chalukya
675-685 Itsing at Nalanda
700 According to the Qissa-i Sanjan, the immigrants Parsi are granted permission to stay by the local ruler Jadi Rana
711 Invasion of Sind by Muhammad Bin Qasim
712 Arab conquest of Nirun and Alor, Muhammad Bin Qasim defeats Raja Dahir
713 Capture of Multan by the Muslims
720 Shri Narasimha Potavarman's diplomatic relations with China
724-743 Khalif Hisham; Junaid , Governor of Sind.
731 Yashovarman's embassy to China.
733 Lalitaditya Muktapida of Kashmir (Karkota dynasty) receives investiture as king from the emperor of China.
736 Delhi is re-established by Bilan Deo Tomar also known as Anangpal Tomar
742 Dantidurga, a feudatory of the Chalukyas
743-789 Santarakshita and Padmasambhava invited to Tibet, Rise of Lamaism
753 Establishment of Rashtrakuta Kingdom of Manyakhet by Danti Durga by defeating Chalukyas of Badami
783 Indrayudha (Kanauj). Vatsaraja- Pratihara.
788 Birth of Adi Shankaracharya
793-815 Govinda III, Rashtrakuta
814 Nripatunga Amoghavarsha I becomes Rashtrakuta emperor. Kannada literature flourishes.
815 Nagabhata-Pratihara.
815-877 Amoghavarsha I, Rashtrakuta
829 Harjara, King of Kamarupa
836 Accession of Bhoja I, King of Kanauj.
836 Gurjara-Pratihara (to 910)
850 Lalliya Shahi
855 Accession of Avantivarman of Kashmir
871-907 Aditya I, Chola.
879 New Nepalese Era
892 Coronation of Bhima I, Eastern Chalukya.
893 Mahendrapala I, Pratihara.
907 Accession of Parantaka I, Chola.
914 Mahipala I, Pratihara. Continuance of Pratihara rule in Surashtra.
939 Yashaskara, King of Kashmir.
942 Guhila Bhatripatta II.
945 Coronation of Amma II (Vijayaditya VI) , Eastern Chalukya.
950-1003 Queen Didda of Kashmir.
954-1002 Dhanga Chandella
962 Foundation of the Kingdom of Ghazni.
973 Foundation of the later Chalukya Empire (of Kalyana).
974-995 Munja
977 Accession of Subuktigin
985 The Ismailis captured power in Sindh and Multan in 985 AD. The Jats were supporting them.
985 Accession of Rajaraja Great, Chola
986 First invasion of Subuktigin
995 Accession of Sindhuraja Navasahasanka.
997 Death of Subuktigin
998 Accession of Sultan Mahmud.
1000 Invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni

1001 AD - 1500 AD

Year Event
1001 Great defeat of Jaipal by Sultan Mahmud.
1008 Battle near Und.
1012-1044 Rajendra Chola I.
1013 Sultan Mahmud captures Nandana.
1018 Rajyapala (Pratihara); Kanaud seized by Mahmud Ghazni.
1018-1055 Bhoja of Dhara.
1021 Mahmud Ghazni defeats Trilochana Pala and annexes Punjab
1026 Sarnath Inscription of the time of Mahipala I of Bengal, sack of Somnath (during the reign of Bhimdeva I); Fall of Nidar Bhim (Shahi).
1030 Alberuni arrives in India; death of Mahmud of Ghazni
1032 Vimala Sha
1039 Death of Gangeyadeva Kalachuri
1040 Coronation of Lakshmi-karna of the Kalachuri dynasty.
1052 Red Fort at Delhi
1058 Sumra Dynasty ends the Arab domination and establishes its own rule over Sindh.
1070-1122 Rajendra Chola, Kulottunga I.
1076-1127 Vikramaditya VI of Kalyana.
1076-1148 Anantavarman Choda Ganga.
1089-1101 Harsha of Kashmir.
1090 Rise of the Gahadavalas.
1098 Kirtivarman Chandella.
1106-1141 Vishnuvardhana Hoysala.
1113-1114 Foundation of en era by Siddharaja Jayasimha of Gujarat.
1114-1154 Govinda Chandra, the great Gahadavala King.
1119 Epoch of the Lakshmana Sena Era.
1120 Kalyani Chalukyas power at its peak. Vikramaditya VI ushers in Vikrama Chalukya era.
1127 Simhadeva of second Lohara dynasty was the King of Kashmir.
1128 - 1155 Jayasimha (1128 - 1155 AD) of second Lohara dynasty was the King of Kashmir.
1134 Life of Basaveshwara, philosopher and social reformer. (to 1196)
1143-1172 Kumarapala of Gujarat.
1153-1164 Vigraharaja IV (Visaladeva)
1157 The Kalachuris under Bijjala II capture Kalyani
1158 Ballala Sena
1167-1202 Paramardi Chandella.
1170-1194 Jayachandra
1175 Muhammad bin Sam invades India and captures Multan.
1178 Muhammad bin Sam defeated in Gujarat.
1179-1242 Bhimadeva II of Gujarat.
1185-1205 Lakshmana Sena of Bengal.
1186 Fall of the Yamini Dynasty.
1190 Mohammed Ghauri invades India.
1191 "Victory of Prithviraj Chauhan". First battle of Tarain between Mohammed Ghori and Prithviraj III. Ghauri is defeated by Prithivi Raj Chauhan III.
1192 "Victory of Mohammed Ghauri". Second battle of Tarain fought between Ghauri and Prithivi Raj Chauhan III. Prithvi Raj Chauhan III is defeated by Muhammed Ghori. Fall of Prithvi Raj III Chahamana (Chauhan).
1192-1193 Qutb-ud-din Aibak takes Delhi.
1194 Battle of Chandawar fought between Ghauri and Jaichand of Kannauj. Ghauri defeated Jayachandra Gahadavala and killed him.
1197-1247 Singhana the great, Yadava King.
1206 Khokhars kill Muhammad Ghori during a raid on his camp on the Jhelum River
1206 Qutb-ud-din Aibak establishes Ghulam Dynasty later to be known as Delhi Sultanate.
1210 Qutb-ud-din Aibak died while playing polo. Accession of Aram Shah.
1210-1211 Accession of Iltutmish.
1221 Genghis Khan invades Punjab.
1231 Tejahpala.
1231-1232 Foundation of the Qutb Minar.
1236 Death of Iltutmish. Accession and deposition of Firuz. Accession of Raziya Sultan.
1237 Sri Madhwaharya born in Pajaka near Udupi, Karnataka
1240 Murder of Razia Sultan by Turkish nobles.
1241 Capture of Lahore by Mongols.
1244-1262 Visaladeva, King of Gujarat.
1246 Accession of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud.
1251-1270 Jatavarman Sundara Pandya I.
1260-1291 Rudramma, the great Kakatyia Queen.
1266 Death of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud. Accession of Ghiyas-din Balban.
1267 The Mahanubhava philosophy established by Chakradhar Swami.
1275 Birth of Saint Dyaneshwara.
1287 Death of Balban. Accession of Muiz ud din Qaiqabad.Mongol Invasion repelled.
1288 Marco Polo at Kayal.
1290 Murder of Muiz ud din Qaiqabad. Accession of Jalal-ud-din Khalji.
1292 Ala-ud-din Khalji captures Bhilsa. Mongol Invasion.
1294 Devagiri pillaged by Ala-ud-din Khalji.
1296 Accession of Ala-ud-din Khalji.
1297 Conquest of Gujarat (from Karnadeva II).
1301 Capture of Ranthambhor by Ala-ud-din Khalji.
1302-1303 Capture of Chitor. Mongol Invasion.
1305 Conquest of Malwa, Ujjain, Mandu, Dhar and Chanderi by Ala-ud-din Khalji
1310 Ala-ud-din Khalji's army under Malik Kafur occupies Devagiri ending the Seuna Yadava Kingdom.
1316 Death of Ala-ud-din Khalji.
1323 Ulugh Khan defeats Prataparudra ending the Kakatiya dynasty
1325 Accession of Muhammad bin Tughluq.
1327 Transfer of capital from Delhi to Daultabad.
1328 The Mongols invade India.
1333-1334 Arrival of Ibn Batutah.
1336 Vijayanagara Empire established by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I
1337-1338 Expedition to Nagarkot.
1336 Shah Mir, King of Kashmir.
1342 Ibn Batutah leaves Delhi on his mission to China.
1343 Veera Ballala III was killed at the Battle of Madurai.
1347 Governor Hasan Gangu revolts against Muhammad bin Tughluq founding the Bahmani Sultanate
1351 Accession of Muhammad bin Tughluq. Samma Dynasty assumes rule over Sindh.
1353 Firuz's first expedition to Bengal.
1359 Firuz's second expedition to Bengal.
1360 Firuz's expedition to Orissa.
1361 Firuz's capture of Nagarkot or Kangra.
1363 Firuz's first expedition to Sindh.
1370 Bukka, the Vijayanagara ruler and his son Kumara Kamapna capture the entire Tamil speaking parts.
1374 Bukka sends an embassy to the emperor of China.
1388 Death of Firuz, son of Rajab. Accession of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq II.
1392 Dilawar Khan, Governor of Malwa.
1398 Invasion of Timur, plunders Lahore
1401 Dilawar Khan establishes the Malwa Sultanate in present-day northern India
1407 Zafar Khan: governor of Gujarat, declares himself as Sultan Muzaffar Shah founding the Gujarat Sultanate/Muzaffarid dynasty
1414 Khizr Khan, deputized by Timur to be the governor of Multan takes over Delhi founding the Sayyid dynasty
1424 Deva Raya II succeeded his father Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya as monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire
1430-1469 Rana Kumbha
1443 Abdur Razzaq visits India
1446 Mallikarjuna Raya succeeds his father Deva Raya II
1451 Bahlul Khan Lodhi ascends the throne of the Delhi sultanate starting the Lodhi dynasty
1458-1511 Mahmud Begarha.
1459 Foundation of Jodhpur.
1469 Birth of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism.
1472 Birth of Farid (Sher Khan).
1483 Birth of Babur in Andijan, Fergana Valley in Central Asia.
1485 Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya drives out Praudha Raya ending the Sangama Dynasty
1486 Advent of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, founder of Gaudiya Vaishnavism and leader of the world's first civil disobedience movement, in Navadwip, West Bengal
1489 Accession of Sikandar Lodi.
1490 Ahmadnagar declares independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year thus breaking up the Bahmani Sultanate.
1494 Accession of Babur in Farghana.
1498 Vasco de Gama's first voyage from Europe to India and back (to 1499)

1501 AD - 1800 AD

Year Event
1503 Kingdom of Kochi is taken over by the Portuguese creating the first European settlement in India.
1504 Babur occupies Kabul.
1508 The Christian-Islamic power struggle in Europe and the Middle East. Spills over into the Indian Ocean as Battle of Chaul during the Portuguese-Mamluk War
1509 Battle of Diu marks the beginning of the dominance of the Europeans in the Asian naval theater. Albuquerque, Portuguese Governor of India.
1509-1527 Rana Sanga
1510 Portuguese capture Goa, India (to 1961)
1511 Babur captures Samarkand again.
1513 Death of Albuquerque.
1517 Death of Sikandar Lodi.
1522 Portuguese land on the Coromandel Coast
1526 21 April. Sultan Ibrahim Lodi, of the Delhi Sultanate, angers local nobles, who respond by inviting Babur, the Mughal ruler of Kabul, to invade Delhi and Agra. The local population, plus the possession of artillery, assists Babur in killing the Sultan (whose soldiers desert him) at the First Battle of Panipat.
1527 17 March. Babur bribes Mewar general Silhadi promising Silhadi a kingdom, if Silhadi betrays Mewar King Rana Sanga in Battle of Khanwa, thus leading to the annexation of Mewar.
1529 Battle of Gogra
1530 Babur dies, and is succeeded by his son Humayun. Babur completes his Baburnama, reflecting on society, politics, economics, history, geography, nature, flora and fauna, which to this day is a standard textbook in 25 countries.
1533 Bahadur of Gujarat captures Chitor.
1534 Humayun marches to Malwa.
1535 Defeat of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat and his fight to Mandu.
1537 Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat.
1535 Sherkhan Defeats of Mahmud Shah of Bengal; Humayun enters Gaur; Death of Guru Nanak.
1539 Battle of Chausa fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri in which Humayun defeated. Guru Angad Dev becomes second guru of Sikhs.
1540 Battle of Kannauj fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri and Humayun was completely defeated. Humayun lost the Mughal empire to Afghans (Suri Dynasty), and passed 12 years in exile. Birth of Maharana Pratap Singh of Mewar ( son of Maharana Udai Singh II )
1542 Birth of Akbar.
1544 Humayun arrives in Persia.
1545 22 May. Death of Sher Shah Suri and succeeded by Islam Shah Suri.
1552 Guru Amar Das becomes third Guru of Sikhs.
1554 22 November. Death of Islam Shah Suri. Accession of Muhammad Adil Shah. Sikandar Sur in the Punjab.
1555 Humayun regained the throne of Delhi from the hands of weak successors of Sher Shah.
1556 Humayun converts from Sunni Islam to Shia Islam, to gain the alliance of the Shah of Persia. Humayun dies, and is succeeded by his son Akbar. Hindu king Hemu establishes 'Hindu Raj' in North India and bestowed with title of "Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya"; Second Battle of Panipat fought between Hemu and Akbar's forces in which Hemu is killed.
1558 Death of Ibrahim Sur. End of Sur dynasty.
1560 Fall of Bairam Khan.
1561 Mughul Invasion of Malwa.
1562 Akbar marries a princess of Amber.
1564 Abolition of Zizya. Death of Rani Durgavati and annexation of the Gond Kingdom.
1565 26 January. Battle of Talikota results in the rout of Vijayanagara empire.
1568 Kararani's conquest of Orissa. Fall of Chitor.
1569 Capture of Ranthambhor and Kalinjar. Birth of Salim.
1571 Foundation of Fatehpur Sikri by Akbar.
1572 Akbar annexes Gujarat, also shifts the Mughal capital to Fatehpur Sikri where a new township and citadel containing buildings of a unique all-India character—inspired by the architecture of Bengal, Gujarat, Malwa, Kashmir as well as the Timurid world—is born.
1573 Surat surrenders to Akbar.
1574 Death of Guru Amardas. Guru Ram Das becomes fourth Guru of Sikhs. Akbar annexes Bengal.
1575 Battle of Tukaroi.
1576 Subjugetion of Bengal. Death of Daud near Rajmahal. The Battle of Gugunda or Haldighati.
1577 Akbar's troops invade Khandesh.
1580 Accession of Ibrahim Adil Shah II in Bijapur. First Jesuit mission at Agra.
1581 Akbar's march against Muhammad Hakim and reconciliation with him. Death of Guru Ramdas. Guru Arjan Dev becomes fifth Guru of Sikhs.
1582 Divine faith promulgated.
1585 Fitch at Agra.
1586 Akbar annexes Kashmir.
1589 Death of Todar Mal and Bhagwan Das.
1591 Mughul conquest of Sindh.
1592 Annexation of Orissa.
1595 Siege of Ahmadnagar. Acquisition of Kandahar. Annexation of Baluchistan.
1597 Death of Rana Pratap.
1600 East India company is formed in England. Gets exclusive trading rights with India. Ahmadnagar stormed.
1601 Capture of Asirgarh.
1602 Death of Abul Fazl.
1605 Akbar dies, and is succeeded by his son Jehangir.
1606 Kandahar invested by the Persians. Execution of the fifth Sikh Guru Arjan. Guru Hargobind becomes sixth guru of Sikhs.
1607 Kandahar relieved by the Mughuls. Sher Afghan, first husband of Nur Jahan, killed.
1609 Hawkins arrives at Agra. The Dutch open a factory at Pulicat.
1611 Jahangir marries Nur Jahan. Hawkins leaves Agra. The English establish a factory at Masulipatan.
1612 British India (to 1947) East India Company (to 1757). First English factory at Surat. Khurram marries Mumtaz Mahal. Mughuls annex Kutch Hajo.
1613 Jahangir's firman to the English Company.
1615 Submission of Mewar to the Mughuls. Arrival of Thomas Roe in India.
1616 Thomas Roe received by Jahangir. The Dutch establish a factory at Surat.
1618 Thomas Roe, after obtaining firmans for English, leaves the Imperial Court.
1619 Thomas Roe leaves India.
1620 Capture of the Kangra fort.
1622 Death of Khusrav, Shah Abbas of Persia besiges and takes Kandahar. Malik Ambar takes Bidar.
1626 Death of Malik Ambar. Rebellion of Mahabat Khan.
1627 Death of Jahangir. Birth of Shivaji (or 1630 according to some).
1628 Shah Jahan proclaimed Emperor. Jehangir announces "Chain of Justice" outside his palace that anyone can ring the bell and get a personal hearing with the emperor. Jehangir dies, and is succeeded by his son Shah Jahan.
1629 Rebellion of Khan Jahan Lodi.
1630 Birth of Chatrapati Shivaji.
1631 Death of Mumtaz Mahal. Defeat and death of Khan Jahan Lodi.
1632 Mughul invasion of Bijapur. Sack of Hugli. Grant of the Golden firman to the English Company by The Sultan of Golkunda.
1633 End of Ahmadnagar Dynasty.
1634 Firman permitting English trade in Bengal.
1636 Treaties with Bijapur and Golkunda. Shahji enters the services of Bijapur. Aurangzeb appointed Viceroy of the Deccan.
1638 Peace between Mughuls and Ahoms. Kandahar recovered by the Mughuls.
1639 Foundation of Fort St. George at Madras.
1644 8 March. Guru Har Rai becomes seventh guru of Sikhs; Shivaji takes oath of Independence at Raireshwar.
1646 Shahji captures Torna.
1649 Persians recover Kandahar.
1651 English factory started at Hugli. Firman granted to the English Company by Suja.
1653 Aurangzeb reappointed Governor of Deccan. The Dutch start a factory at Chinsura.
1656 The Mughuls attack Hyderabad and Golkunda.Annexation of Javli by Shivaji.
1657 Shivaji raids Ahmednagar and Jamnagar]] but is pardoned.Invasion of Bijapur by Aurangzeb. He captures Bidar and Kalyani. Illness of Shah Jahan. The war of succession begins.
1658 Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, and Red Fort. Imperial treasuries drained by architectural and military over expenditures. Shah Jahan dies, and is succeeded by his son Aurangzeb.
1659 Battle of Khajwah and Deorali. Shivaji's ill-equipped and small Maratha army defeat mighty Adilshahi troops at the Battle of Pratapgarh in a major upset in Indian history. Shivaji personally kills Adilshahi commander Afzal Khan (general).
1660 Jumla appointed Governor of Bengal. Shuja chased from Bengal to Arakan. Mir
1661 7 October:Guru Har Krishan becomes eight guru of Sikhs. Cession of Bombay to English. Execution of Murad. Mughul capture of Cooch Bihar.
1662 Peace with Ahoms. Death of Sulaiman Shukho.
1663 Death of Mir Jumla.
1664 Shivaji sacks Surat. Colbert, the French Minister, founds an Indian Company. Shivaji assumes royal title.|-
1665 20 March. Guru Tegh Bahadur becomes ninth Guru of Sikhs.
1666 Death of Shah Jahan. Shivaji's visit to Agra and escape.
1667 The Yusufzais rebel.
1668 New religious ordinances. Cession of Bombay to East India Company. First French factory started at Surat.
1669 Jat rebellion under Gokla.
1670 Second sack of Surat.
1671 Rise of Chhatrasal Bundela.
1672 Satnami out break. Revolt of the Afridis.
1674 Forces led by Shivaji defeat Aurangzeb's troops, and establishes Maratha Empire. Shivaji assumes title of Chhatrapati.
1675 Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of Sikhs is executed in Delhi by the order of Aurangzeb for his support for the Kashmiri Hindus to practice their religion.Guru Gobind Singh becomes tenth Guru of Sikhs.
1677 Shivaji's conquests in the Carnatic.
1678 Marwar occupied by the Mughuls. Death of Jaswant Singh.
1679 Reimposition of the Zizya. Mughul attack on Marwar.
1680 Shivaji dies of fever at Raigad. Sambhaji becomes 2nd Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire. Rebellion of prince Akbar.
1681 Aurangzeb invades the Deccan. Loss of Kamarupa by the Mughuls.
1686 English war with the Mughuls. Fall of Bijapur.
1687 Fall of Golkunda.
1689 March :Chatrapati Sambhaji dies. Raja Ram succeeds but retires to Jinji.
1690 Peace between the Mughuls and English. Calcutta founded.
1691 Defeat of the Jats. Aurangzeb at the Zenith of his power.
1696 Danish India (to 1869)
1698 The English obtain zamindari of Sutanati, Calcutta, and Govindpura.
1699 Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Guru of Sikhs creates Khalsa, the saint-soldier at Anandpur Sahib, Punjab. First Maratha raid of Malwa.
1700 2 March:Rajaram Chhatrapati dies, regency of his widow Tara Bai.
1703 Maraths enter Berar.
1705 Mughal army arrested for the act.
1706 Marathas raid Gujarat and sack Baroda.
1707 Death of Aurangzeb the mughal emperor. Battle of Jajau. accession of Bahadur Shah.
1708 Shahu, King of the Marathas. Death of Guru Govind Singh. Guru Granth Sahib becomes Guru of Sikhs.
1712 Death of Bahadur Shah. Accession of Jahandar Shah.
1713 Jahandar Shah murdered. Farrukhsiyar becomes emperor.
1714 Balaji Vishwanath Peshwa. Husain Ali appointed Viceroy of Deccan. treaty of Marathas with Husain Ali.
1716 Execution of Banda, the Sikh leader. The Surman embassy.
1717 Farrukhsiyar's firman to the English Company. Re-imposition of Zizya.
1719 Husain Ali returns with Marathas. Farrukhsiyar put to death. Death of Rafi-ud-Darajat. Accession of Muhammad Shah.
1720 Accession of Baji Rao Peshwa. Fall of Sayyid brothers.
1721 March - October: Attingal Outbreak takes place; 13–14 November. Madras cyclone occurs
1724 Sa-adat's Khan appointed Governor of Oudh. Nizam virtually independent in Deccan. Qumar-ud-din becomes wzir.
1725-1739 Shuja-ud-din, Governor of Bengal.
1735 Baji Rao recognized by the Imperial Govt as ruler of Malwa.
1739 Nadir Shah takes Delhi.
1740 Alivardi Khan becomes Governor of Bengal. Accession of Baji Rao Peshwa. Marathas invade Arcot. Dost Ali killed.
1742 Maratha invasion of Bengal. Dupleix Governor of Pondichery.
1744-1748 First Anglo-French War.
1745 Rise of Rohillas.
1746 La Bourdonnais takes Madras.
1747 Invasion of Ahmad Shah Abdali.
1748 Death of Nizam-ul-mulk. Death of Muhammad Shah of Delhi and accession of Ahmad Shah.
1749 Death of Shahu. The Maratha Peshwa (prime minister) usurps the Maratha kingdom, starting a new dynastic rule based in Pune.
1750 Defeat of death of Nasir Jang.
1750-1754 War of the Deccan and Carnatic succession.
1751 Clive's defence of Arcot. Death of Muzaffar jang and accession of Salabat Jang. Treaty of Alivardi with the Marathas.
1754 Recall of Dupleix. Godeheu's treaty with the English. Accession of Alamgir II.
1756 Death of Alivardi Khan. Accession of Siraj-ud-daulah.
1756-1763 Seven Years' War.
1757 Battle of Plassey; Company rule in India (to 1858). Siraj-ud-daulah captures Calcutta. Sack of Delhi and Mathura by Ahmad Shah Abbali. The English capture Chandernagore. Mir Jafar made Nawab of Bengal.
1758 Lally in India. The Marathas in the Punjab. Capture of Masulipatam by Forde.
1759 French India (to 1954). Forde defeats the Dutch at Bedara. 'Ali Gauhar invades Bihar. Murder of 'Alamgir II by Ghazi-ud-din.
1760 Marathas comprehensively defeat the Nizam, Maratha Empire reaches its zenith. Battle of Wandiwash. Battle of Udgir. Mir Qasim, Nawab of Bengal. Vansittart, Company's Governor in Bengal.
1761 The Marathas are routed in the Third Battle of Panipat on 14 January 1761, by the Afghans led by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an ethnic Pashtun, also known as Ahmad Shah Abdali. The battle is considered one of the largest battles fought in the 18th century. Fall of Pondicherry. Shah Alam II becomes Emperor. Shuja-ud-daulah becomes wazir. Accession of Madhava Rao Peshwa, Rise of Hyder 'Ali.
1763 Expulsion of Mir Kasim.
1764 Battle of Buxar (British victory against allied Mughal, Bengal and Oudh forces)
1765 Princely states (to 1947). Death of Mir Jafar. Grant of the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the British. Treaty of Allahabad. Clive, Company's Governor in Bengal.
1766 Grant of the Northern Sarkars to the English.
1767 First Anglo-Mysore War begins, in which Haidar Ali of Mysore defeats the combined armies of the East India Company, the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad. Departure of Clive.
1767-1769 The First Mysore War.
1770 The Great Bengal Famine.
1771 Marathas re-captures Delhi and parts of North India.
1772 14 August:Ram Mohan Roy Born (to 1833). Warren Hastings' appointment as Governor. Death of Miidhava Rao Peshwa.
1773 Narayanrao Peshwa is murdered by his uncle Raghunathrao's wife in front of Raghunathrao. Regulating Act of 1773; Warren Hastings appointed as first Governor-General of India
1774 Chief Justice of the Maratha Empire, Ram Shastri passes death sentence against the ruling Peshwa Raghunathrao for murdering his nephew. The Rohilla (Ruhela) War. Warren Hastings becomes Governor-General. Establishment of Supreme Court, Calcutta.
1775 First Anglo-Maratha War.Trial and execution of Nanda Kumar.
1776 The Treaty of Purandhar.
1779 Maratha sardar Mahadji Shinde routs the East India Company army at the Battle of Wadgaon War ends with the restoration of status quo as per Treaty of Salbai.
1780 Second Anglo-Mysore War begins. Popham's capture of Gwalior.
1781 Deposition of Chait Singh. Act passed to amend the Regulating Act.
1782 Affair of the Begarns of Oudh. The Treaty of Salbai, Death of Hyder 'Ali.
1783 Death of Coote. Fox's India Bills.
1784 Second Anglo-Mysore War ends with the Treaty of Mangalore.Pitt's India Act.
1785 Resignation of Warren Hastings.
1786 District collectors in Bengal were made responsible for settling the revenue and collecting it. Lord Cornwallis becomes Governor-General.
1789 Third Anglo-Mysore War begins.
1790 The Marathas under Holkar and General de Boigne defeat the Rajputs of Jaipur and Mughals at the Battle of Patan, where 3000+ Rajput cavalry is killed and the entire Mughal unit vanquished. The defeat crushes Rajput hope of independence from external influence.
1792 Ranjit Singh succeeds his father as leader of a Sikh Misl. Third Anglo-Mysore War ends. Treaty of Seringapatam.
1793 The Permanent Settlement of Bengal. Renewal of the Company's Chatter.
1794 Death of Mahadaji Sindhia.
1795 13 August:Death of Ahilyabai Holkar. The Battle of Kharda.
1796 Ching-Thang Khomba moves Manipur's capital to Kangla
1797 Zaman Shah at Lahore. Death of Asaf-ud-daulah of Oudh.
1798 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War begins. Wazir Ali deposed and succeeded by Sa 'adat 'All. Lord Mornington (Wellesley) becomes Governor-General. Subsidiary Treaty with the Nizam.
1799 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War ends with the death of Tipu Sultan, the victory of the East India Company, and the restoration of their ally, the Wodeyar dynasty of Mysore. Polygar War. Partition of Mysore. Ranjit Singh's appointment to the Governorship of Lahore. Malcolm's mission to Persia. William Carey opens Baptist Mission at Serampore.
1800 Death of Nana Fadnavis.Establishment of the College of Fort William.

1801 AD - 2000 AD

Year Event
1801 Maharaja Ranjit Singh establishes Khalsa rule of Punjab from Lahore. Khalsa army liberates Kashmiri Pundits and invades Afghanistan through Khyber Pass. Annexation of the Carnatic.
1802 Treaty of Bassein.
1803 Second Anglo-Maratha War begins.
1805 Siege of Bharatpur fails. Recall of Wellesley. Second Anglo-Maratha War ends.
1806 Vellore Mutiny.
1808 Mission of Malcolm to Persia and of Elphinstone to Kabul.
1809 East India Company signs the first Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh
1811 28 October: Death of Yashwantrao Holkar.
1813 Renewal of the Company's Charter.
1814 "Atmiya Sabha" Established Later on known as "Prarthana Samaj" By Raja Ram Mohan Roy. The Anglo-Gurkha War begins.
1816 The Anglo-Gurkha War ends.
1817 Third Anglo-Maratha War begins; Establishment of Hindu College (Presidency College, now Presidency University, Kolkata).
1817-1818 The Pindari War.
1818 Third Anglo-Maratha War ends with the defeat of Bajirao II and the end of the Maratha Empire leaving the East India Company with control of almost the whole of India.
1819 Elphinstone, Governor of Bombay.
1820 September. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar is born (to 1891). Munro, Governor of Madras. The Samachar Darpan started.
1823 Anglo–Burmese Wars (to 1826)
1824 12 February. Dayananda Saraswati is born (to 1883).The First Burmese War.
1826 British rule in Burma (to 1947). Fall of Bharatpur.
1827 Death of Sir Thomas Munro. Malcolm, Governor of Bombay.
1828 Lord William Bentinck becomes Governor-General.
1829 Prohibition of Sati.
1829-1837 Suppression of Thuggee.
1830 Rammohan Roy visits England.
1831 Raja of Mysore deposed and its administration taken over by the Company.

Burmes' journey up the Indus. Meeting of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjab) and the Governor-General at Rupar.

1832 Annexation of Jaintia.
1833 Renewal of the Company's Charter. Abolition of the Company's trading rights.

Legislative power centralized.

1834 Annexation of Coorg. Macaulay Law Member. Formation of the Agra Province.
1835 Education Resolution. Metcalfe and abolition of Press restrictions.
1836 Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa is born (to 1886)
1838 Tripartite Treaty between Shah Shuja, Ranjit Singh and the English.
1839 Death of Ranjit Singh. New treaty forced on the Amirs of Sind. First Anglo-Afghan War.
1843 Conquest of Sind. Gwalior War. Suppression of slavery.
1845 First Anglo-Sikh Wars (to 1849); 4 November. Vasudev Balwant Phadke is born (to 1883)
1848 Lord Dalhousie becomes Governor-General.
1849 Opening of a Hindu girls' school in Calcutta by Drinkwater


1852 The Second Anglo-Burmese War.
1853 16 April:Railway opened from Bombay to Thana. Started Post Service. Telegraph line from Calcutta to Agra. Annexation of Nagpur. Cession of Berar. Renewal of the Company's charter:
1854 Sir Charles Wood's Education Despatch.
1855 30 June: Santhal rebellion
1856 25 July:Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856; 23 July: Bal Gangadhar Tilak is born (to 1920); 20 August: Narayana Guru is born (to 1928).Annexation of Oudh. University Act.
1857 10 May: Indian Rebellion of 1857; Established first three University of Mumbai, University of Madras and University of Calcutta in India.
1858 British Raj (to 1947). upeen Victoria's Proclamation. 7 November: Bipin Chandra Pal is born (to 1932).
1859 18 April: Death of Tatya Tope. Indigo disputes in Bengal.
1861 Indian Councils Act. The Indian High Courts Act. Introduction of the Penal Code.
1862 Amalgamation of the Supreme and Sadar courts into High Courts.
1863 12 January: Swami Vivekanand is born (to 1902). Death of Dost Muhammad. Ambala Campaign.
1864 Bhutan War.
1865 The Orissa Famine. Opening of telegraphic communication with Europe.28 January: Lala Lajpat Rai is born (to 1928).
1867 "Prarthana Samaj" Established Earlier known as "Atmiya Sabha".
1868 Punjab Tenancy Act. Railway opened from Ambala to Delhi. Sher 'Ali, Amir of Afghanistan, receives an annual grant of six lacs of rupees.
1869 Mahatma Gandhi is born (to 1948); Thakkar Bapa is Born (to 1951). Ambala Conference with Sher 'Ali. Yakub's rebellion in Afghanistan.
1870 Mayo's Provincial Settlement.
1872 Seistan Boundary Report.
1873 Russians reduce [[Khiva[[. The Simla Conference.
1874 The Bihar famine. Disraeli becomes Prime Minister in England.
1875 "Arya Samaj" Established; Aligarh Muslim University; Deccan Riots. Gaikwar of Baroda's case. Visit of the Prince of Wales.
1876 The Royal Titles Act.
1877 January. Delhi Durbar First time. The Queen of England proclaimed Empress of India.
1878 Outbreak of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Vernacular Press Act.
1880 'Abdur Rahman recognized as Amir of Afghanistan. Famine Commission.
1881 Factory Act. Rendition of Mysore.
1882 Hunter Commission.
1883 The Ilbert Bill.
1885 28 December: Indian National Congress Established. Bengal Tenancy Act.

Bengal Local Self-Government Act. Third Anglo-Burmese War.

1886 Annexation of Upper Burma. Delimitation of Afghan northern boundary.
1889 3 Decembe: Khudiram Bose is born (to 1908). Abdication of Maharaja of Kashmir. Second visit of Prince of Wales.
1891 14 April: B. R. Ambedkar is born (to 1956). Factory Act. Age of Consent Act.

Manipur Rebellion.

1892 Indian Councils Act.
1893 Durand's mission to Kabul.
1895 The Chitral Expedition.
1897 23 January: Subhas Chandra Bose is born (to 1945). Frontier risings.

Plague at Bombay. Famine Commission.

1899 Lord Curzon,becomes Governor-General.
1900 Famine Commission.
1902 Anushilan Samiti, organized revolutionary association formed.
1903 Delhi Durbar Second Time.
1904 British Expedition to Tibet; Universities Act. Co-operative Societies Act.
1905 Partition of Bengal.Lord Minto becomes Governor-General. Morley Secretary of State for India.
1906 Jugantar formed. 30 December: Muslim League formed in Dacca. Congress declaration regarding Swaraj.
1907 The Anglo-Russian Convention.
1908 The Newspapers Act.
1909 Morley-Minto Reforms. Appointment of S. P. Sinha to the Governor-General.


1910 Lord Crewe Secretary of State for India.
1911 Delhi Durbar Third Time. Partition of Bengal modified. Census of India.
1912 Delhi conspiracy case. Removal of the Imperial capital to Delhi.
1913 Gadar Party formed. Rabindranath Tagore won Nobel Prize in Literature. . Educational Resolution of the Government of India.
1914 Hindu–German Conspiracy.
1914-1918 The First World War.
1915 Ghadar conspiracy; Provisional Government of India formed in Kabul. Mahatma Gandhi returned to India. Defence of India Act.
1916 Lucknow Pact. Sadler Commission. The Lucknow Pact of the Indian National Congress and the All-India Muslim League. The Home Rule League founded.

Foundation of the Women's University at Poona.

1917 Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha. Mr. Montagu's declaration in the House of Commons. His visit to India.
1917-1918 Indians made eligible for the King's Commission. The Indian National Liberal Federation. Report of the Industrial Commission.
1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre; Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms; Rowlatt Act. Punjab Disturbances. Royal Proclamation.
1920 Non-cooperation movement Khilafat Movement. Lord Sinha, Governor of Bihar and Orissa. Mahatma Gandhi leads the Congress.
1921 Chamber of Princes. Moplah Rebellion. The Prince of Wales visits India.

Census of India.

1922 Resignation of Mr. Montagu.
1923 Swarajists in Indian Councils. Certification of Salt tax. Question of Indianizing the command of certain regiments -the eight-unit plan.
1924 Hindustan Socialist Republican Association formed.
1925 Kakori conspiracy. All-India Depressed Class Association. Reforms Enquiry Committee Report. Death of C. R. Das. Formation of Inter-University Board.
1926 Reprrt of the Skeen Committee. Lord Reading's letter to the Nizam, Royal Commission on Agriculture. Factories Act.
1927 November: Appointment of the Simon Commission. Indian Navy Act. Capetown Agreement.
1928 Bardoli Satyagraha.Deposition of Amanullah, King of Mghinistan. All-parties Conference. The Nehru Report. Report of the Royal Commission on Agriculture.
1928-1933 Nadir Shah, King of Afghiinistan.
1929 Central Assembly Bombed by Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt. Purna Swaraj resolution.Lord Irwin's Announcement of 31st October. Trade Union split. Establishment of the Imperial Council of Agricultural Research. Lahore Congress. AppointInent of the Royal Commission on Indian Labour.
1930 Salt Satyagraha; First civil disobedience movement. Report of the Statutory Commission. Rebellion in Burma. Round Table Conference (First Session).
1931 March: Gandhi–Irwin Pact; 23 March:Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev Martyred; September–December: Round Table Conferences (India) (Second Session). Census of India. Publication of the Royal Labour Commission's Report.
1932 24 September: Poona Pact; 4 August: Communal Award; November–December: Round Table Conferences (India) (Third Session). Suppression of the Congress. The Indian Military Academy, Dehra Dun.
1933 Publication of the White Paper.
1934 Civil Disobedience Movement called off. The Indian Factories Act, 1934.

The Bihar Earthquake. Joint Committee on Indian Constitutional Reform.

1935 August Government of India Act 1935.
1936 Death of King-Emperor George V (21st January). Accession and abdication of Edward VIII. Accession of George VI.
1937 1st April: Inauguration of Provincial Autonomy. Congress Ministries in the majority of Provinces.
1939 Second World War begins (3rd September). All India Forward Bloc Established by Subhas Chandra Bose.Resignation of Congress Ministries and the beginning of political deadlock in India.
1940 Lahore Resolution; 8 August August offer 1940.
1941 Japan enters the war (7th December). Pearl Harbour Incident.
1942 Quit India Movement; Late March:Cripps' mission. August: Indian National Army Established by Subhas Chandra Bose. Fall of Singapore (15th February). Evacuation of Rangoon (7th March). Cripps Mission (22nd March-12th April). Evacuation of Burma (29th April). August Revolution and arrest of Indian Leaders.
1943 Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind, the Provisional Government of Free India formed by Netaji.Lord Wavell Governor-General. Lord Mountbatten Supreme Commander of South-East


1944 Subhas Chandra Bose calls Mahatma Gandhi as the Father of the Nation.Gandhi-Jinnah talks opened in Bombay on Sri Rajagopiilachari's proposals for solution of constitutional deadlock (9th September). Talks break down on Pakistan issue (27th September).
1945 Lord Wavell's broadcast announcing British Government's determination to go ahead with the task of fitting India for self-government (19th September). First trial of Indian National Army men opened (5th November).
1946 Mutiny in Royal Indian Navy (18th February). March. Cabinet Mission ; 16 August Direct Action Day/Great Calcutta Killings.Announcement of special mission of Cabinet Ministers to India (19th February.) Cabinet Mission's plan announced (16th May). British Cabinet's plan for Interim Government announced (16th June). Muslim League decides to participate in the Interim Government; Congress announces acceptance of the long-term part of 16th May plan, but refuses invitation to participate in Interim Government (25th June). Muslim League withdraws its acceptance and decides on a policy of direct action (29th July). This leads to outbreak of mob violence in Calcutta (16th August). Interim Government formed (2nd September}. Muslim League members sworn in (26th October). Constituent Assembly's first meeting (9th December).
1947 Lord Mountbatten's appointment as Viceroy of India in succession to LOrd Wavell (20th February). Partition of India and Pakistan becomes an independent state on 14 August 1947. Freedom from British Raj. Hundreds of thousands die in widespread communal bloodshed after partition. (to 1948). British Government's historic announcement of transfer of power to "responsible Indian hands" not later than June, 1948. Announcement of Lord Mountbatten's plan for Partition of India (3rdJune). Indian Independence Act (15th August).
1948 30 January: Mahatma Gandhi assassinated by a right wing Hindu nationalist Nathuram Godse. War with Pakistan over disputed territory of Kashmir. Telangana and other princely states integrated in Indian union; 1950 26 January. India became Republic. Sri Chakravarti Rajagopalachari appointed Governor-General (21st June). Death of Qaid-i-Azam Jinnah (11 th September). Troops of Government of India enter Hyderabad State (September).
1949 New Constitution of India adopted and signed (26th November).
1950 New Constitution comes into force (26th January).
1951 Congress Party wins first general elections under leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. (to 1952). Inauguration of First Five-Year Plan.
1952 First General Election. Accession of Queen Elizabeth II. Chandernagore incorporated with India.
1953 New State of Andhra inaugurated. Chandigarh inaugurated as capital of the Punjab.
1954 Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahe, Yanon incorporated with India.
1955 Hindu Marriage Act (18th May).
1956 Nationalization of insurance companies (19th January). Pakistan proclaimed an Islamic Republic (23rd March). Hindu Succession Act (17th June). Reorganization of States (November). Inauguration of Second Five-Year Plan. Celebration of 2500th anniversary of death of Gautama Buddha.
1957 Second General Election. Introduction of the decimal system of coinage (1st April).
1958 Introduction of the metric system of weights (1st October).
1959 The Dalai Lama enters Indian territory for political asylum

(31st March). The President takes over the administration of Kerala (31st January). Sino-Indian border disputes. Indo-Portuguese dispute. Arrival of Dwight D. Eisenhower, President of the U.S.A., in New Delhi (9th December).

1960 Meeting of the Afro-Asian Conference at New Delhi (19th April). Visits of President Voroshilov and Premier Khrushchev of the U.S.S.R.; President Nasser of the

U.A.R., Crown Prince Akihito and Princess Michiko of Japan.

1961 Arrival of Queen Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh at New Delhi (21st January). Celebrations of the birth centenary of the poet Rabindranath Tagore (8th May.)
1962 war over disputed territory of Kashmir with China October). India won Diu, Daman and Goa from Portuguese India. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan and Dr. Zakir Hussain sworn in all President and Vice-President of India.
1963 Celebrations of the birth centenary of Swami Vivekanaada (17th January.)
1964 Death of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru (27th May). Massacre of the minorities in East Pakistan creates strong excitement in India (January-February).
1965 Second war with Pakistan over Kashmir.
1966 Death of Lal Bahadur Shastri (11th January). Tashkent Declaration (10th January). Nehru's daughter Indira Gandhi becomes prime minister.
1969 President Dr. Zakir Hussain passes away; V. V. Giri sworn

in as Acting President (3rd May). V. V. Giri elected President of India (20th August); V. V. Giri sworn in as President of India (21st August). G.S. Pathak elected as Vice-President of India (30th August), sworn in as Vice-President of India (31st August).

1970 Prime Minister Indira Gandhi inaugurates Meghalaya, a

new autonomous Hill State in Assam (2nd April). A Bill for setting up of 'North-Eastern Council', to co-ordinate the development and security of Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, and Tripura was passed (11th May). Prime Minister Indira Gandhi addressed the Silver Jubilee Session of the United Nations (23rd October). Centre recognized Statehood for Meghalaya (10th November. Statehood conferred on Himachal Pradesh (17th December).

1971 Twenty-year treaty of friendship signed with Soviet Union. Third World Sanskrit Conference in Allahabad (6th February). Arrest of Sheikh Mujibur Rehman (26th March). Indo-Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Co-operation (18th August).

Pakistan declares war against India (3rd December). Syed Qasim sworn in as the Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir following the death of Sadiq (12th December). End of Indo-Pakistan War (15th-16th December).

1972 Arrival of Sheikh Mujibur Rehman in New Delhi after being

released by the Pakistan Government (19th January). Mizoram inaugurated as a Union Territory (2lstJanuary). Arrival of Sheikh Mujibur Rehman in Calcutta (16th February), and his talks with India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi (8th February). Indira Gandhi visits Dhaka and a joint statement is issued by India and Bangladesh; India and Bangladesh sign a 25 years treaty of friendship, CO-operation and peace (17th-19th March). India and Pakistan sign an Agreement at Simla, 2nd-3rd July committing both "to abjure the use of force in resolving differences".

1973-1974 India and the U.S.S.R. sign two Protocols, one on the expansion of the Bhilai Steel Plant and the other on scientific and technological co-operation (17th February). World meet on Libraries in New Delhi (19th February). Visits of Prime Ministers of Hungary. East-Germany Czechoslovakia, and German Democratic Reepublic, and

of President of Sudan. India's Trade Agreements with these countries. Treaty between India and Portugal; recognition of Bangladesh by Pakistan (February). Release of a Joint Declaration by India and Bangladesh; the Delhi Agreement among India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. agreement between Delhi, Pindi and Dacca (9th April): India carried out' an underground nuclear experiment (18th May). Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad sworn in as the President of India (24th August). B.D.Jatti elected as Vice-President (27th August). Joint Communique by India and Bangladesh; Indo-Pakistan Trade Agreement (7th December).

1974 India explodes first nuclear device in underground test.
1975 Indira Gandhi declares state of emergency. Nearly 1,000 political opponents imprisoned and programme of compulsory birth control introduced. (to 1977). First World Hindi Convention inaugurated at Nagpur (10th January). Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, former President of India passed away in Madras (17th April). • 'Aryabhata', the first Indian satellite, launched from the Soviet Union (19th April). National Women's Day celebrated. The President declares a state of emergency in the country (25th June). An Ordinance amending the Maintenance of Internal Security Act issued (29th June). Announcement of a package of economic measures-the 20-Point Economic Programme (Ist July). The Constitution (Thirty-eighth) Amendment Act (1st July). The Constitution (Thirty-ninth) Amendment Act (1st August).
1976 The Constitution (Fortieth) Amendment Act (25th March).
1977 Indira Gandhi's Congress Party loses general elections. Janata Party comes to power.Communist party of India comes into power in West Bengal.
1979 Janata Party Splits.Chaudhary Charan Singh becomes Prime Minister.
1980 Indira Gandhi returns to power heading Congress party splinter group, Congress (Indira).
1983 N. T. Rama Rao NTR's 9 month old Telugu Desam Comes in to Power in AP marks a new Challenger post Loknayak Jayprakash Narayan against Indira
1984 Troops storm Golden Temple - Sikhs' most holy shrine - to flush out Sikh militants pressing for self-rule, called Operation Blue Star. "Anti-Sikh Riots 1984". Indira Gandhi assassinated by Sikh bodyguards, following which her son, Rajiv, takes over. Many Sikhs were killed due to the assassination of Indira Gandhi, and the government did not do anything. see 1984 anti-Sikh riots.
1987 India deploys troops for peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka's ethnic conflict.
1989 Falling public support leads to Congress defeat in general election.
1989 National Front (India) Headed by N. T. Rama Rao and led by Janata party formed and stormed into power with outside support from BJP and CPI.
1990 Muslim separatist groups begin campaign of violence in Kashmir.
1991 Rajiv Gandhi assassinated by suicide bomber sympathetic to Sri Lanka's Tamil Tigers. Economic reform programme begun by Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao.
1992 Hindu extremists demolish mosque in Ayodhya, triggering widespread Hindu-Muslim violence. Over 200 people die in Cuttack in Odisha, after drinking illegally brewed liquor in the 1992 Odisha liquor deaths incident.
1995 July. West Bengal Chief Minister Jyoti Basu made the first call from Kolkata to inaugurate the cellular services in India
1996 Congress suffers worst ever electoral defeat as Hindu nationalist BJP emerges as largest single party.
1996 August The Amarnath Yatra tragedy in which at least 194 pilgrims are reported to have frozen to death in northern Kashmir after being stranded by violent rain and snow storms.
1998 BJP forms coalition government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. India carries out nuclear tests, leading to widespread international condemnation.
1999 February. Vajpayee makes historic bus trip to Pakistan to meet Premier Nawaz Sharif and to sign bilateral Lahore peace declaration. May Tension in Kashmir leads to brief war with Pakistan-backed forces in the icy heights around Kargil in Indian-held Kashmir. October. Cyclone devastates eastern state of Odisha, leaving at least 10,000 dead.
2000 March. US President Bill Clinton makes a groundbreaking visit to improve ties. May India marks the birth of its billionth citizen.

See also


R.C. Majumdar, H,C. Raychaudhari & Kalikinkar Datta (1978): An Advanced History of India, macmillan India Ltd. ISBN 033390298 X. pp.1067-1093

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